4 - Skin

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Author:
FuryX27
ID:
37691
Filename:
4 - Skin
Updated:
2010-09-27 16:05:38
Tags:
BIO205
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Description:
exam 1 review
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  1. integumentary system = skin
    • -largest organ
    • -7600 cm2
    • -7% body weight
    • -0.5-0.6 cm thick
  2. skin functions in protection
    • -prevents dehydration (impermeable barrier)
    • -regulates temp (sweat, blood vessels)
    • -protects against microorganisms/pathogens (impermeable barrier, secretions)
  3. skin has 3 layers
    • 1. epidermis
    • 2. dermis
    • 3. hypodermis
  4. epidermis
    keranitnized stratified squamous epithelum
  5. kerantioncytes
    • -are the great majority of epidermal cells
    • -synthesizing keratin
  6. melanocytes
    • -synthesize melanin
    • -uv protection
  7. langerhans cells (dendritic cells)
    • -macrophages
    • -act in immune response against toxins, microbes, ect, that penetrate skin
  8. merkel cells (tactile)
    -receptors for touch
  9. keratinization
    • stratum basalis -> stratum spinosum -> stratum granulosum -> stratum corneum
    • (this process takes 30-40 days)

    then exfoliation occurs
  10. dermis
    • papillary layer
    • -looser CT
    • -more elastic

    • reticular layer
    • -dense irregular CT
    • -less elastic
  11. lines of cleavage (langers lines)
    orientation of collagen bundles

    (surgical cuts are made along these "langer lines" to reduce scarring and shit)
  12. friction ridges
    elastic patterns in dermis (eg: finger prints)
  13. dermis also contains "accessory structures"
    blood vessels, nerves, bases of glands, hair follicles, and arrector pili muscle (goose bumps!)
  14. hypodermis
    • -adipose tissue
    • -fatty connective tissue (high cell/ecm ratio)
    • -blood vessels
  15. thermo-regulation
    sweat glands + blood vessels

    • -sweat: evaporative cooling
    • -lose heat by vasodilation
    • -conserve heat by vasoconstriction
  16. sweat glands
    merocrine (eccrine), some apocrine glands
  17. sebaceous glands
    simple alveolar glands

    secretion into hair follicle or pours
  18. sebum
    oil + cell debris
  19. skin cancer
    a disease of the epidermis
  20. basal cell cancer
    • -malignant skin tumor involving cancerous changes of basal skin cells
    • -caused from exposure to sunlight or uv radiation
    • -95% cure rate when caught early
  21. squamous cell carcinoma
    • -cancerous changes to middle portion of epidermis
    • -malignant, more aggressive than basal cancer, but still relatively slow growing
    • -more likely than basal cell cancer to metastasize
    • -requires surgical removal
  22. melanoma
    • -malignant skin cancer that involves the skin cells that produce pigment (melanocytes)
    • -increases with age
    • -number 1 cause of cancer death in women age 25-30
  23. 1o burn
    affected area: epidermis

    -red, painful, dry (sunburn)
  24. 2o burn
    affected area: dermis + epidermis
  25. -red, blisters, swollen, painful
  26. 3o burn
    • no pain!
    • affected area: "full thickness"
    • -epidermis + dermis
    • -includes epidermal derivatives

    -dry, leathery, black, white, brown, yellow, swelling

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