- one of a few relationships we can have with our government
- Most common way to have citizenship is by birth in that country.
- You can apply to be naturalized as an individual (most often) or part of a group.
-Individual citizenship is granted when people have passed test or requirements (statutory law).
- Full participant of the state, this is a two way street. We owe taxes they owe us constitutional rights.
What is a subject?
- defined as someone who can have only partial relationship
- with the state where they don’t give them any real rights. (slavery)
What is a denizen?
- someone who happens to reside inside the jurisdiction that owes the sovereign nothing but they owe them everything.
- Chauvinistic term that says that certain groups of people are not able to fully participate.
-They areprotected by the sovereign.
- Indians in US are no longer denizens, but citizens as of 1924.
What is an alien?
- someone from outside of the country that is in some country other than thier own.
What is comity?
-international law is governing how you are to act, meaning do unto others.
- This means you actually have a country but while you are there you must do as they do and recieve the same punishments if not.
What is a stateless person?
- has no country
- almost never happens
-something has to happen to your country for this to happen to you.
How do you become a citizen?
- Jus Soli (by the soil, or being born there
- Jus Sanguini (by the blood, born to parents from that country)
How can you become expatriated?
-declare citizenship somewhere else
- imply that you will renounce your citizenship
- fight against the US in a war
- plot to overthrow the government
-go to places we are not allowed like Iran or North Korea
- vote in another country's elections
- the government has to actively pursue this course of action so it doesn't happen often.
What are human rights?
* inate, inalienable and just because we are human*
-life - safety
- conscience -food
- water - shelter
-air -sex (procreation)
- association - expression
- education - health
-- Government has no responsibility to protect these rights by promoting them and providing them.
-- This is because the government can’t give you humanity so it can’t take it away.
-- If they do advocate any of these they become civil right.
What are "old rights"?
- Bill of Rights are "negative rights" because they say the government can't do things
- Everything else is fair game.
What are "new rights"?
- Positive rights
- equal protection under the law
- actually give the government power over the people by lessening ours
- make government bigger.
- more rights = more government
- not in the constitution
- open for judicial interpretation
- overlaps human rights
Describe the "Systems Maintenance" model by David Easton
- is an input/ouput model that keeps everything from falling apart
- input is demands
-output is policies
- for this to work there must be a feedback look from output back to input.
- if the model is working then people are encouraged to support government
- if not, people keep demanding until they eventually demand a new government
- demands come from outside the boundaries of government (us)
- government is not moral
- government only responds to the squeaky wheel
- government does what the people demand
- we are not garaunteed a moral or rational government
- only garaunteed a participatory government- we have to work for it to work
What are requirements to vote?
- must be a citizen
- must be a resident of the district
- must be registered
Who can't vote?
- Can't have been given a dishonerable discharge from the armed forces
- can't be legally declared insane
- can't be legally unfit (drunk)
- be a felon
Who does/does not vote?
-older more likely than younger
-higher income more likely than less
- more educated vote more often than uneducated
- whites more often than blacks
What constitutes a valid election?
- voters have to have a choice
- there need to be multiple representatives of different groups
- one man one vote (every vote carries the same weight)
- same rules for candidates creating an equal footing
- secret and safe voting situation
-accurate counting of the votes
What's the Austrailian Ballot?
-voting method in which a voter's choices in an election or a referendum are confidential.
- The key aim is to ensure the voter records a sincere choice by forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation or bribery.
-modern world provides for pre-printed ballot papers with the name of the candidates or questions and respective checkboxes.
- Provisions are made at the polling place for the voter to record their preferences in secret
What is the Indiana Form?
-a ballot on which the candidates are listed in separate columns by party
How are districts formed? Why?
- to maintain equal districts
- to prohibit gerrymandering
- must be cotinuous and contiguous and compact
What is gerrymandering?
- eldrige gerry kept redistricting to include his friends creating an odd shaped district.
- this enhanced his chances of getting voted in and getting measures he proposed passed
What does "equal chance for all candidates" mean?
- level playing field in terms of money they can use, PAC's, and campaign laws applied across the board
How are votes counted to maintain fairness?
- bipartisan count
- done in the districts so recounts are necessary to narrow down fraud
- Florida was not unique... it was just a close vote so drew attention
Why do political parties exist?
- to help people with the same beliefs or drives in government win elections
Why do we have a 2-party system?
-not in the constitution
-it works in our system by helping determine a clear winner
- helps keep single member districts from determining the whole state's vote
- winner take all system helps keep a majority
Why do we promote non-ideological parties?
-bi partisan doesn't encourage extremism because neither party will take one side or the other
- gives us a stable moderate government
- the fight or debate happens over the middle
- independant candidates don't get the vote and 3rd parties dont usually win but do influence the 2 party system
What is a decentralized party?
- organized geographically and controlled the same way
- 3 centralized groups
- process of dispersing decision-making governance closer to the people and/or citizen.
- dealt with in small districts
- only come together for the national convention
What is majority rule in regards to the electoral college?
- or block rule
- symbol of democracy
- means that the majority of the votes in a state determine who will get ALL of the electoral votes
- maximizes each states' impact on the election
- in our current system it means the winner must get 270 electoral votes
- president can get majority of electoral votes and not have the majority popular vote.
What are some problems with the Block Rule?
- might not work if we ended up with a real 3 party race to keep this from happening we have a back up plan. The house will elect the president if there is not a clear majority. Senate will elect the VP.
- you can't know the total number of votes before the election so you really can't determine a full majority
- populous states get more attention
- electors in some states are truly able to vote their concience (almost never happens because they are installed politically and dont' divert)
What is direct popular vote?
- an alternative proposition for determining the winner of a presidential election
- has it's own issues
Who is EE Schutznieter and what was his theory?
- said that most people don't vote
- said we ask the wrong questions- people don't vote because it doesn't matter to them
- said that the non-voter has power because they actually decide the winner
What term did Nixon coin about voting?
- silent majority
- if you don't speak up you actually agree
Who started the idea of political interest groups?
- james madison in the Federalist Papers.
- said you can never get rid of self interest but you can pit one against the other to find balance
What purpose do special interest groups serve?
- provide information to government officials
- make the demands that make the system work on behalf of others
How is the power of a political interest group determined?
- political climate of the day
- social status
- cohesion (voting power)
- they have many points of access to government via courts, executive offices, state, local, etc.
What are advantages of single issue special interest groups?
- they focus and specialize just like the government
-provides for a constantly shifting set of allies depending on the issue
- can influence the courts with amicus curiae briefs, anyone can submit these arguments offering "friendly advice"
- direct info link to the courts about how their group would handle the issue effectively "lobbying the courts"
- use lobbyists to get their agenda out
What is a lobbyist and how do they work?
- work for special interest groups to get their message out
- not shady people, usually well known and still have friends and collegues in congress
-they stay away from people that don't like them that they can't sway and work from their position of support
-we don't see the corruption because it is too subtle... buying a friend's daughter a gift, etc.