5 - Skeletal

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Author:
Vashinator
ID:
37700
Filename:
5 - Skeletal
Updated:
2010-09-27 16:05:27
Tags:
BIO205
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Description:
Exam 1
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  1. Cartilage Functions
    Support, model for bone, attachment, protection
  2. Characteristics of Cartilage
    • Avascular! - no blood vessels
    • Rigid but not calcified
  3. Cartilage Components
    • Cells:
    • -Chondroblasts
    • -Chondrocytes - isogenous groups in lacunae
    • ECM: covering Perichondrium
    • -Collagen (Collagen II)
    • -Elastic (+/-)
    • -Proteoglycan Matrix: sulfated, binds H2O
  4. Cartilage Classification
    • Hyaline Cartilage
    • -support
    • -precursor to bone
    • -ends of bone: prevents friction
    • Elastic Cartilage
    • -Flexibility
    • -Elastic fibers
    • Fibrocartlilage
    • -pressure points
    • -increased collagen
  5. Cartilage Growth
    •Cartilage enlarges by 2 mechanisms:

    –Interstitial growth ~ from within

    –Appositional growth ~ from free surface
  6. Interstitial Growth
    • 1. MITOSIS
    • 2. ECM PRODUCTION
    • 3. CELLS ARE PUSHED APART
  7. Appositional Growth
    Perichondrium has reserve pre-chondroblasts
  8. Bone Functions
    • Mechanical
    • -support
    • -protection
    • -leverage
    • Metabolic
    • -hematopoesis
    • -mineral storage
  9. Bone Tissue components
    • Cells
    • -osteocytes
    • -osteoblasts
    • -osteoclasts: macrophages, derived from blood
  10. Extracellular Matrix
    • •COLLAGEN
    • •GROUND SUBSTANCE = OSTEOID
    • •MINERALS : Ca++, PO4 -
    • - (hydroxyapatite)
    • •NOTE: demineralized bone is still bone!
  11. Classification
    • •Shape:
    • long
    • flat
    • irregular
    • •Density:
    • compact
    • spongy
  12. Bony Tissues -> Bones
    • •CT COVERING = PERIOSTEUM
    • •SPONGY VS. COMPACT DISTRIBUTION
    • •REGIONS OF A LONG BONE:
    • –EPIPHYSIS
    • •ARTICULAR CARTILAGE
    • •EPIPHYSEAL LINE / PLATE
    • –DIAPHYSIS
    • •NUTRIENT FORAMEN
    • –MARROW CAVITY
  13. Long Bone
    • Compact bone - outer
    • -periosteum
    • Spongy Bone - inner
    • -marrow
  14. Bone
    • Compact Bone: Osteons
    • Blood Vessels & nerves
    • Concentric Lamellae
    • Canaliculi
  15. Compact Bone
    • Basic unit
    • Osteon= Haversian system
    • Bone is vascular !(blood vessels)
    • Haversian Canal - runs through bone
    • Volkmans Canal - connects haversian canals
  16. Spongy Bone
    • Bone matrix
    • Osteocytes
    • Osteoblasts
    • Osteoclast
    • Blood vessels
  17. Bone Growth
    • Mode of bone growth is appositional only!
    • Modes of bone formation (during development):

    • Intramembranous-
    • Mesenchyme->osteoblast->osteocyte->Osteoid->Calcification/Vascularization

    Endochondral -

    Starts with a cartilage model, all growth in length takes place within cartilage (intersitial growth)
  18. Bone
  19. Bone Growth
    • •ELONGATION
    • OCCURS VIA INTERSTITIAL GROWTH
    • IN EPIPHYSEAL PLATE

    •2O CENTER OF OSSIFICATION FORMS

    • •EPIPHYSEAL
    • PLATE -à LINE (BONE)

    • •Growth
    • STOPS!!!!
  20. How Bones Work
  21. Bone Width
    Occurs via appositional growth and continual remodeling
  22. Bone remodeling
    • occurs throughout life
    • - hormones, stress, growth, metabolic factors
  23. Bone Repairs
    • •REPAIR OF FRACTURES SIMULATES THE
    • EPIPHYSEAL PLATE BY USING A TEMPORARY CARTILAGENOUS SUPPORT

    Cartilage Callus may be used as tool for bone elongation or straightening

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