7 - Nerves

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Author:
FuryX27
ID:
37703
Filename:
7 - Nerves
Updated:
2010-09-27 16:06:27
Tags:
BIO205
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Description:
exam 1 review
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  1. nerve tissue
    -from ectoderm

    • neurons = cells
    • nerves = multiple processes of cells
  2. components of neuron
    soma, dendrite, axon,
  3. SOMA
    • -cell body
    • -large nucleus
    • -nissl substance (RER)
  4. dendrite
    surface area for incoming signals
  5. axon
    • -conducts signals away
    • -axolemma
    • -axoplasm
    • -microtubules
    • -microfilaments
  6. Schwann cells form myelin (in PNS)
    •Multiple cells, separated by nodes
    •(nodes of Ranvier)
    •Myelin provides insulation
    •Nodes speed conduction of impulse
  7. Support cells of CNS: astrocytes
    • -blood-brain barrier
    • -homeostasis of neuronal environment
  8. Support cells of CNS: Oligodendrocytes
    • -myelin
    • •many axons per oligo.
  9. support cells of CNS: Microglia
    macrophage

    •CT, not neural origin
  10. Glial cells in CNS
    • satellite cells: protect SOMA of ganglion (cell body)
    • schwann cells: protect axons
  11. Neuronal Variation
  12. synapses
    • function: polarization of impulses passing from one neuron to the next
    • strategy: chemical --> electrical --> chemical
  13. components of a synapse
    • presynaptic neuron:
    • -neurotransmitters (acetylcoline, norepinephrine, dopamine, seratonin, ect)
    • postsynaptic neuron:
    • -specific receptors coded for neurotransmitters
    • synaptic cleft:
    • -inactivation enymes
  14. convergence vs divergence
    convergence: many inputs converge into one output

    divergence: one input diverges into many outputs

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