transport gases, nutrients, and wastes; help to generate the electrical activity needed to power body functions; take part in the transformation of food into energy; and otherwise maintain the overall function of the body
charged ions capable of conducting electricity and are solutes found in all body compartments
examples of sources of electrolytes?
food and ingested particles, medications, Intravenous fluids, and TPN solutions**
**used for those that cant eat for more than 5 days
maintain fluid balance, regulate acid-base balance, are needed for enzymatic secretion and activation, and are needed for proper metabolism and effective processes of muscular contraction and nerve transmission
what are the two types of electrolytes?
cations and anions
positively charged ions are called?
cations (Na, K, and Ca)
negatively charged ions are called?
anions (Cl and phosphates)
movement directly influenced by chemical or electrical gradients and does not require energy
the gradient created by a difference in the number of particles on either side of the membrane
the gradient created by a difference in charged particles or ions
the movement of charged or uncharged particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
what is the end result of diffusion?
equal distribution of particles across the cell membrane
what affects the process of diffusion?
the size of the molecules (large molecules move slower than smaller molecules)
the concentration of solution ( wide difference in concentration has a faster rate of diffusion)
and temperature (increase in temp causes a faster rate of diffusion)
movement from higher concentration to lower concentration requiring a carrier, transport protein, but no energy is used.
the movement of water across a semipermeable membrane--one that is permeable to H2O but impermeable to most solutes-- from more water to less water
the pressure that is generated from the movement of water across a membrane
fluids in the cell body
fluids outside of the cell body
the movement of both solute (a substance, either dissolved or suspended, in a solution) and solvent (a liquid substance where particles can be dissolved) across a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure
movement from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration by using energy
active transport where the source is used directly in the transport of a substance
primary active transport
use the energy derived from the primary active transport of one substance, usually sodium ions, for the cotransport of a second substance
secondary active transport
secondary transport system in which Na ions and solute are transported in the same direction
(example: Glucose-Sodium cotransport)
secondary transport system in which Na ions and solute are transported in opposite directions
(example: Sodium-calcium countertransport)
moves sodium from inside the cell to the extracellular region, where its concentration is approx 14xs greater than the inside; this pump always returns potassium to the inside, where its concentration is approx 35xs greater than it is outside the cell. if not for this pump sodium would accumulate in the cell resulting in celllular swelling because of the influx of water that accompanies sodium
(functions to controll cell volume and transport)
the pump critical in muscle contraction and relaxation
calcium channel pump
the process by which the cell engulfs materials from its surroundings
cell eating; the engulfment and subsequent killing or degradation of microorganisms and other particulate matter
cell drinking; the ingestion of small solid or fluid particles
the mechanism for the secretion of intracellular substances into the extracellular spaces