APES Chapter 2 Vocabulary

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APES Chapter 2 Vocabulary
2010-09-27 19:56:45

APES Chapter 2 Vocabulary
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  1. Science
    An attempt to discover order in the natural world and to use that knowledge to make predictions about what is likely to happen in nature
  2. Experiments
    Tests performed to study phenomenon under known conditions
  3. Scientific hypothesis
    Possible answer to a question posed by scientists
  4. Scientific theory
    Well tested and widely accepted scientific hypothesis. The best and most useful answer to a science question based on available knowledge, research, and evaluation by scientists in the involved fields
  5. Scientific (natural) law
    Description of what we find happening in nature over and over in the same way
  6. Inductive reasoning
    Using specific observations and measurements to arrive at a general conclusion or hypothesis
  7. Deductive reasoning
    Using logic to arrive at a specific conclusion based on a generalization or premise
  8. Paradigm shifts
    New information or ideas disprove and overthrow a well-accepted scientific theory
  9. Frontier science
    Preliminary results not widely tested and accepted by peer review
  10. Sound science (consensus science)
    Data, theories, and laws widely accepted by scientists considered experts in the field
  11. Junk science
    Scientific results or hypotheses presented as sound science without undergoing (or discredited by) peer review
  12. System
    Set of components that function and interact in some regular and theoretically understandable manner
  13. Input
    Matter, energy, or information entering a system
  14. Output
    Matter, energy, or information leaving a system
  15. Flows (throughputs)
    Rate of flow of matter, energy, or information through a system
  16. Feedback loop
    Occurs when an output of matter, energy, or information is fed back into the system as an input and leads to changes in that system
  17. Positive feedback loop
    Causes a system to change further in the same direction
  18. Negative (corrective) feedback loop
    Causes a system to change int he opposite direction
  19. Tine delays
    Amount of time in a feedback loop between the input of a stimulus and the response to it
  20. Synergistic interaction (synergy)
    Two or more processes interact so that the combined effect is greater than the sum of their separate effects
  21. Matter
    Anything that has mass and takes up space
  22. Elements
    Distinctive building blocks of matter that make up every material substance
  23. Compounds
    Two or more different elements held together in fixed apportions by chemical bonds
  24. Atom
    The smallest unit of matter that exhibits the characteristics of an element
  25. Protons
    Positively charged atoms
  26. Neutrons
    Uncharged atoms
  27. Electrons
    Negatively charged atoms
  28. Nucleus
    Extremely small center of atom containing one or more protons (and usually neutrons)
  29. Atomic number
    The number of protons in the nucleus of each of atom of an element
  30. Mass number
    Total number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element
  31. Isotopes
    Same atomic number, different mass numbers
  32. Ion
    Atom or groups of atoms with one or more net positive (+) or negative (-) electrical charges
  33. pH
    Measure of the acidity of a solution based on its concentration of hydrogen ions
  34. Neutral solution
    pH = 7
  35. Acidic solution
    pH less than 7 (more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions)
  36. Basic solution
    pH greater than 7 (more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions)
  37. Molecule
    Combination of two or more atoms of the same or different elements held together by chemical bonds
  38. Chemical formula
    Shows the number of atoms or ions of each type in a compound
  39. Organic Compounds
    Contain at least two carbon atoms combined with each other and with atoms of one or more other elements
  40. Inorganic compounds
    All compounds that are not organic compounds
  41. Cells
    Minute compartments containing chemicals necessary for life and within which most of the processes of life take place
  42. Eukaryotic
    Cell structure in which cell is surrounded by a membrane and has a distinct nucleus and several other organelles
  43. Prokaryotic
    Cell structure in which membrane surrounds the cell, but the cell contains no distinct nucleus or organelles enclosed by membranes
  44. Macromolecules
    Larger and more complex organic compounds that make up the basic molecular units found in living organisms
  45. Genes
    Specific sequences of nucleotides found within a DNA molecule that contain information to make specific proteins
  46. Chromosomes
    Combinations of genes that make up a single DNA molecule, together with a number of proteins
  47. Matter Quality
    Measure of how useful a form of matter is to humans as a resource, based on its availability and concentration
  48. High-quality matter
    Concentrated, typically found near the earth's surface, has great potential for use as a matter resource
  49. Low-quality matter
    Dilute, often located deep underground or dispersed in the ocean or the atmosphere, usually has little potential for use as a material resource
  50. Material efficiency (resource productivity)
    Is the total amount or material needed to produce each unit of goods or services
  51. Physical change
    Chemical composition does not change
  52. Chemical change (chemical reaction)
    There is a change in the chemical compositions of the elements or compounds involved
  53. Law of conservation of matter
    When a physical or chemical change occurs, no atoms are created or destroyed
  54. Persistence
    Measure of how long the pollutant stays in the air, water, soil, or body
  55. Degradable pollutants
    Broken down completely or reduced to acceptable levels by natural physical, chemical, and biological processes
  56. Biodegradable pollutants
    Complex chemical pollutants that living organism (usually specialized bacteria) break down into simpler chemicals
  57. Slowly degradable pollutants
    Take decades or longer to degrade
  58. Nondegradable pollutants
    Chemicals that natural processes cannot break down
  59. Nuclear changes
    Nuclei of certain isotopes spontaneously change or are made to change into nuclei of different isotopes
  60. Natural radioactive decay
    Nuclear change in which unstable isotopes spontaneously emit fast-moving chunks of matter (alpha or beta particles), high-energy radiation (gamma rays), or both at a fixed rate
  61. Radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes)
    Unstable isotopes
  62. Half-life
    The time needed for one-half of the nuclei in a given quantity of a radioisotope to decay and emit their radiation to form a different isotope
  63. Nuclear fission
    • Nuclear change in which the nuclei of certain isotopes with large mass numbers are split apart into lighter nuclei when struck by neutrons
    • Releases two or three more neutrons plus energy
  64. Critical mass
    Amount of fissionable nuclei needed to sustain a nuclear fission chain reaction
  65. Chain reaction
    • Produced by multiple fissions within a critical mass
    • Releases an enormous amount of energy
  66. Nuclear fusion
    Nuclear change in which two isotopes of light elements are forced together at extremely high temperatures until they fuse to form a heavier nucleus
  67. Energy
    The ability to do work and transfer heat
  68. Kinetic energy
    Moving energy
  69. Heat
    The total kinetic energy of all moving atoms, ions, or molecules within a given substance, excluding the overall motion of the whole object
  70. Electromagnetic radiation
    Kinetic energy that travels in the form of a wave as a result of the changes in electric and magnetic fields
  71. Potential energy
    Energy is stored and potentially available for use
  72. Energy quality
    Measure of an energy source's ability to do useful work
  73. High-quality energy
    • Concentrated
    • Can perform much useful work
  74. Low-quality energy
    • Dispersed
    • Has little ability to do useful work
  75. Law of Conservation of energy (first law of thermodynamics)
    Ina ll physical and chemical changes, energy is neither created nor destroyed, although it may be converted from one form to another
  76. Second law of thermodynamics
    When energy changes from one form to another, some of the useful energy is always degraded to lower-quality, more dispersed, less useful energy
  77. Energy efficiency (energy productivity)
    Measure of how much useful work is accomplished by a particular input of energy into a system
  78. High-throughput (high-waste) economies
    Attempt to boost economic growth by increasing the one-way flow of matter and energy resources through their economic systems
  79. Matter-recycling-and-reuse economy
    Mimics nature by recycling and reusing most of our matter outputs instead of dumping them into the environment
  80. Low-throughput (low waste) economy
    Economy based on working with nature by recycling and reusing discarded matter