super quiz section 1

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super quiz section 1
2010-09-27 20:36:06
super quiz section

super quiz section 1
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  1. 1. three other branches of science incorporated in geology
    biology, chemistry, and physics (USQRG:3,1,1)
  2. 2. three long‐term historical events geology can reconstruct
    Earth’s physical history, evolution of life, and changes in climates over time (USQRG:3,1,1)
  3. 3. geologist
    scientist who studies Earth’s physical history, climate changes over time, and environment, or the structure of other planets (USQRG:3,1,1)
  4. 4. geos
    Greek word meaning “Earth” (USQRG:3,1,2)
  5. 5. logos
    Greek word meaning “discourse” (USQRG:3,1,2)
  6. 6. time when the term “geology” was first used
    late 18th century (USQRG:3,1,2)
  7. 7. two main components of geology
    physical and historical (USQRG:3,1,2)
  8. 8. physical geology
    study of physical and chemical processes on and below the Earth’s surface (USQRG:3,1,2)
  9. 9. historical geology
    study of the origins of Earth and the chronology of geological events (USQRG:3,1,2)
  10. 10. two examples of rapid geological change
    volcanic eruptions or earthquakes (USQRG:3,1,2)
  11. 11. two reasons a study of the Earth initially took place
    an interest in processes that cause major events which affect humans and a need to find minerals (USQRG:3,1,2; USQRG:3,2,0)
  12. 12. mineral
    substance with a characteristic crystalline structure that composes rocks (USQRG:3,2,0; USQRG:102,2,8)
  13. 13. catastrophism
    theory that natural disasters formed the landscape of the Earth’s surface (USQRG:3,2,0; USQRG:101,1,14)
  14. 14. time period that catastrophism developed
    17th and 18th centuries (USQRG:3,2,0)
  15. 15. believed age of the Earth during the period in which catastrophism developed
    a few thousand years (USQRG:3,2,0)
  16. 16. approximate time period the modern study of geology developed
    late 18th century (USQRG:3,2,1)
  17. 17. James Hutton work which began the modern study of geology
    Theory of the Earth (USQRG:3,2,1)
  18. 18. James Hutton’s home country
    Scotland (USQRG:3,2,1)
  19. 19. James Hutton’s two professions
    physician and farmer (USQRG:3,2,1)
  20. 20. uniformitarianism
    theory that geological processes operating today are the same as those that operated in the past (USQRG:3,2,1; USQRG:103,2,7)
  21. 21. Who stated “we find no vestige of a beginning, no prospect of an end”?
    James Hutton (USQRG:3,2,1)
  22. 22. Charles Lyell work published in the late 19th century championing uniformitarianism
    Principles of Geology (USQRG:3,2,2)
  23. 23. method of relatively dating rocks discovered in the late 19th century by William Smith
    use of the succession of fossils (USQRG:3,2,2)
  24. 24. William Smith’s home country
    England (USQRG:3,2,2)
  25. 25. geological time scale
    system of organizing geological events into different time periods (USQRG:3,2,2)
  26. 26. time period when radiometric dating first developed
    early 20th century (USQRG:3,2,2)
  27. 27. early 20th century scientist who proposed the continents had drifted apart over time
    Alfred Wegener (USQRG:4,1,1)
  28. 28. three phenomena plate tectonics explains
    continental drift, seafloor spreading, and the evolution of the Earth’s surface (USQRG:4,1,1; USQRG:102,2,18)
  29. 29. location from which most of Earth’s minerals come
    crust (USQRG:4,1,2)
  30. 30. three examples of renewable resources
    food, the sun, and wind (USQRG:4,2,0)
  31. 31. two current global environmental problems caused by humans
    global warming and ozone depletion (USQRG:4,2,0)
  32. 32. Dust Bowl
    Great Plains area where drought and poor farming practices resulted in massive soil erosion in the 1930s (USQRG:4,2,1; USQRG:101,1,12)
  33. 33. How does geology affect our daily lives?
    helps us use Earth’s resources wisely (USQRG:4,2,1)
  34. 34. human attributes that philosophers in the Golden Age of Athens did not trust to understand nature
    the senses (USQRG:5,1,3)
  35. 35. human attributes philosophers in the Golden Age of Athens relied on to understand nature
    insights of the mind and use of reason (USQRG:5,1,3)
  36. 36. author of The Republic
    Plato (USQRG:5,1,3)
  37. 37. main metaphor of The Republic
    people trapped in a cave only seeing shadows on a wall but unable to see the objects casting the shadows (USQRG:5,1,3)
  38. 38. metaphorical body part Plato uses to arrive at the truth
    “eye of the mind” (USQRG:5,1,3)
  39. 39. means used during the Middle Ages to arrive at the truth
    received wisdom (USQRG:5,2,0)
  40. 40. suggestion an Oxford monk made that led to him being “smote...hip and thigh, and cast…from the company of educated men”
    counting the number of teeth in an actual horse, instead of relying on Aristotle and St. Augustine (USQRG:5,2,0)
  41. 41. Aristotle’s home country
    Greece (USQRG:5,2,0)
  42. 42. observation
    monitoring nature without manipulation (USQRG:5,2,1)
  43. 43. experiment
    manipulation of some aspect of nature to observe the outcome (USQRG:5,2,1)
  44. 44. distance an object will have fallen three seconds after being dropped
    45 meters (USQRG:6,1,fig)
  45. 45. shape of graph comparing time and distance of the fall of an object
    parabola (USQRG:6,2,fig)
  46. 46. first step in deducing the relationship between time and distance of the fall of an object
    collect data in table form (USQRG:6,1,1)
  47. 47. How many times further will an object falling for thrice as long as another object fall?
    9 times (USQRG:6,1,2)
  48. 48. formula for the relationship between distance and time of the fall of an object
    d=k • t2 (USQRG:6,1,2)
  49. 49. What internal question should be asked when encountering scientific equations, according to Trefil and Hazen?
    “What English sentence does this equation represent?” (USQRG:6,1,3)
  50. 50. event learning to “read” equations prevents
    mathematics obscuring the concepts underlying the equations (USQRG:6,1,3)
  51. 51. first plants to encroach on an abandoned field
    weeds (USQRG:6,1,4)
  52. 52. plants that grow immediately after pines when a forest encroaches on an abandoned field
    hardwoods (USQRG:6,2,0)
  53. 53. hypothesis
    tentative educated guess (USQRG:6,2,1)
  54. 54. theory
    set of facts or principles that explain scientific phenomena and has stood up to many experimental tests (USQRG:6,2,2; USQRG: 103,2,4)
  55. 55. exception to the hypothesis that everything on Earth falls when dropped
    helium balloon (USQRG:7,1,2)
  56. 56. How do experimental tests affect theories?
    They change the range of conditions under which they are valid. (USQRG:7,1,3)
  57. 57. law of nature
    overarching statement of how the universe works; theory or group of theories that seems to apply universally (USQRG:7,1,4)
  58. 58. two laws of nature that replaced the basic theory that “objects fall when dropped”
    general laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation (USQRG:7,1,4)
  59. 59. scientist who developed the general laws of motion
    Isaac Newton (USQRG:7,1,4)
  60. 60. How are laws of nature discovered?
    repeated observations and experiments (USQRG:7,2,0)
  61. 61. Why is every theory and law of nature subject to change?
    new observations (USQRG:7,2,2)
  62. 62. four steps of the scientific method
    observation, hypothesis formation, prediction, and testing (USQRG:7,2,3)
  63. 63. With what step does the scientific method begin?
    any, as the cycle can begin at any point (USQRG:7,2,3)
  64. 64. Under what circumstances do scientists sometimes stop testing?
    when the limits of existing scientific equipment are reached (USQRG:8,1,1)
  65. 65. What two events happen if a hypothesis fails?
    New observations modify it, and the new hypothesis is tested. (USQRG:8,1,1)
  66. 66. scientists do NOT need this mental characteristic when conducting experiments
    open mind (USQRG:8,1,3,)
  67. 67. most important point about the scientific method, according to Trefil and Hazen
    Scientists have to believe the results of their observations and experiments. (USQRG:8,1,3)
  68. 68. only thing science demands of experimenters, according to Trefil and Hazen
    They change preconceived ideas when evidence forces them. (USQRG:8,1,3)
  69. 69. reproducibility
    ability for anyone with the proper equipment to verify scientific results (USQRG:8,1,5)
  70. 70. Why does science involve sudden leaps and occasional breakings of the rules?
    Science is completed by humans and is subject to human characteristics and creativity. (USQRG:8,1,7)
  71. 71. solar system
    structure containing the sun and its revolving planets, asteroids, and satellites (USQRG:8,2,1; USQRG:103,1,11)
  72. 72. Approximately how long ago did Pierre‐Simon de Laplace make his observations of the solar system?
    2 centuries ago (USQRG:8,2,1)
  73. 73. astronomical motions Pierre‐Simon de Laplace first observed for clues about the formation of the solar system
    that of planets and their satellites (USQRG:8,2,1)
  74. 74. Pierre‐Simon de Laplace’s description of the shape of planetary orbits
    nearly circular (USQRG:8,2,2)
  75. 75. Pierre‐Simon de Laplace’s hypothesis relating planetary orbits and rotation
    Planets spin in the same direction as their orbit. (USQRG:8,2,2)
  76. 76. location to which Pierre‐Simon de Laplace believed the sun’s atmosphere once extended
    beyond the planets’ orbits (USQRG:8,2,3)
  77. 77. type of disk produced by the sun’s rotation during solar system formation, according to Pierre‐Simon de Laplace
    flat and gaseous (USQRG:8,2,3)
  78. 78. effect of cooling and contraction on the sun’s disk during solar system formation, according to Pierre‐Simon de Laplace
    increased spinning speed (USQRG:8,2,3)
  79. 79. How did gas rings change after spinning off from the sun’s disk during solar system formation, according to Pierre‐Simon de Laplace?
    condensed into fluid, hot ball (USQRG:8,2,3)
  80. 80. event that caused planets to solidify, according to Pierre‐Simon de Laplace
    retreat of sun’s atmosphere (USQRG:8,2,3)
  81. 81. process by which the planets formed, according to Pierre‐Simon de Laplace
    “condensation of zones of vapor” (USQRG:8,2,4)
  82. 82. space objects that condensed to form planets, according to Pierre‐Simon de Laplace in 1796
    zones of vapor (USQRG:8,2,4)
  83. 83. two planets discovered since the era of Pierre‐Simon de Laplace, as of 1993
    Neptune and Pluto (USQRG:8,2,5)
  84. 84. location in the solar system of a cloud of comet nuclei discovered after the era of Pierre‐Simon de Laplace
    the solar system’s outskirts (USQRG:8,2,5)
  85. 85. two planets that bound the Asteroid Belt
    Mars and Jupiter (USQRG:8,2,5)
  86. 86. three planets that spin in the opposite direction from their orbital motion, as of 1993
    Venus, Uranus, and Pluto (USQRG:8,2,6)
  87. 87. planet with a moon that rotates in the opposite direction from the main planet’s orbit
    Neptune (USQRG:8,2,6)
  88. 88. relative size and composition of planets closer to the sun
    small and rocky (USQRG:8,2,7)
  89. 89. relative size and composition of planets farther from the sun
    giant and gaseous (USQRG:8,2,7)
  90. 90. two planets with a moon large enough to qualify them as double planets, as of 1993
    Earth and Pluto (USQRG:8,2,7; USQRG:9,1,0)
  91. 91. planet tipped almost on its side
    Uranus (USQRG:9,1,0)
  92. 92. planet with a surprisingly large core, according to Peterson
    Mercury (USQRG:9,1,0)
  93. 93. planetesimal
    small planetary body accreted from solar nebula (USQRG:9,1,1; USQRG:102,2,17)
  94. 94. Pierre‐Simon de Laplace’s home country
    France (USQRG:9,1,fig)
  95. 95. Douglas N.C. Lin’s university
    University of California, Santa Cruz (USQRG:9,1,2)
  96. 96. hyphenated phrase Peterson uses to describe the solar system’s birth
    hurly‐burly (USQRG:8,2,0)
  97. 97. How does Douglas N.C. Lin describe the formation of the solar system?
    brief and turbulent (USQRG:9,1,2)
  98. 98. theory of solar system formation currently favored by astronomers
    solid particles accumulating into planetesimals and growing into planets (USQRG:9,1,1)
  99. 99. approximate length of time taken for the solar system to form, according to Peterson
    100 million years (USQRG:9,1,3)
  100. 100. What four kinds of events characterized the solar system’s formation, according to Douglas N.C. Lin?
    runaway growth of solid material, collisions and near misses of solid material, changes in orbit, and masses careening around the sun (USQRG:9,1,3)
  101. 101. meeting at which Douglas Lin revealed his evidence on solar system formation in the early 1990s
    American Association for the Advancement of Science’s annual meeting (USQRG:9,2,0)
  102. 102. two professions of Pierre‐Simon de Laplace
    astronomer and mathematician (USQRG:9,1,fig)
  103. 103. How do present‐day astronomers envision the beginning stage of the creation of stars?
    gaseous disk surrounding a newborn star (USQRG:9,2,1)
  104. 104. type of radiation uncharacteristically emitted by newborn stars given their temperature and composition
    infrared (USQRG:9,2,2)
  105. 105. Why do newborn stars have unusually high radiation emission levels?
    orbiting dust and gas (USQRG:9,2,2)
  106. 106. evolutionary time scale of gas disks around newborn stars, according to Douglas Lin
    “a few million years” (USQRG:9,2,3)
  107. 107. astronomical bodies used to find out when solid material first appeared in the gaseous disk during solar system formation
    meteorites (USQRG:9,2,5)
  108. 108. solar nebula
    original cloud of rotating gas and dust from which the solar system formed (USQRG:9,2,5; USQRG:103,1,10)
  109. 109. meteorite
    small astronomical body that enters Earth’s atmosphere and lands on its surface (USQRG:9,2,5; USQRG:102,2,6)
  110. 110. carbonaceous chondrites
    dark, carbon‐bearing meteorites (USQRG:9,2,5)
  111. 111. type of grain found in clumps in carbonaceous chondrites
    crystalline (USQRG:9,2,5)
  112. 112. temperature at which the grains in carbonaceous chondrites solidified
    1500°C (USQRG:9,2,5)
  113. 113. method by which researchers determine the age of mineral grains in meteorites
    measuring the proportion of radioactive isotopes (USQRG:9,2,6)
  114. 114. estimated time of the solar system’s formation
    4.56 billion to 4.57 billion years ago (USQRG:9,2,6)
  115. 115. facts about the chronology of the solar system’s formation that remain unknown
    exact time scales of the various stages in solar system formation (USQRG:9,2,7)
  116. 116. isotope
    varieties of an element that have the same number of protons and electrons but a different number of neutrons (USQRG:9,2,8; USQRG:102,1,12)
  117. 117. general time span within which grains found in carbonaceous chondrites formed
    a few million years (USQRG: 9,2,8)
  118. 118. crystal
    homogenous ordered solid with naturally formed faces and a limited chemical composition (USQRG:9,2,9; USQRG:101,2,6)
  119. 119. Why are scientists able to derive temperatures in the solar nebula from the chemical composition of carbonaceous chondrites?
    different grains have different freezing points (USQRG:9,2,9)
  120. 120. Why does Douglas Lin believe that the original solar nebula was turbulent?
    mixture of crystals found in carbonaceous chondrites (USQRG:9,2,10)
  121. 121. For what two reasons were grains in carbonaceous chondrites able to clump together during the solar system’s formation?
    stickiness and collisions (USQRG:9,2,11)
  122. 122. compounds of heavier elements that formed rocky bodies during the solar system’s formation
    oxides (USQRG:10,1,0)
  123. 123. shape of solar nebula particles formed from the sun’s gravity during the solar system’s formation
    pancake (USQRG:10,1,0)
  124. 124. planet known for its thin, rotating rings
    Saturn (USQRG:10,1,0)
  125. 125. length of the longest boulders formed from grains during the solar system’s formation
    over a kilometer (USQRG:10,1,1)
  126. 126. force that played an increased role as planetesimals collided and grew during the solar system’s formation
    gravity (USQRG:10,1,2)
  127. 127. effect of near‐collisions of two astronomical bodies during the solar system’s formation
    change of speed and orbit (USQRG:10,1,2)
  128. 128. area of research regarding the properties of planetesimals pursued by Douglas Lin and his colleagues
    how planetesimals regulated their growth in the solar nebula (USQRG:10,1,3)
  129. 129. relative size of the protoplanetary cores in Douglas Lin’s simulation compared to the size of Earth
    ”a significant fraction” (USQRG:10,2,0)
  130. 130. condition necessary in Douglas Lin’s simulation for the formation of protoplanetary cores
    sufficient supply of low‐mass planetesimals (USQRG:10,1,4)
  131. 131. How long does Douglas Lin estimate it took for Earth to form from planetesimals?
    1 million years (USQRG:10,2,1)
  132. 132. closest examples of celestial disk systems, according to Carolyn Porco
    planetary rings (USQRG:10,2,1)
  133. 133. level at which processes in planetary rings diverge from those taking place during the solar system’s formation
    in detail (USQRG:10,2,1)
  134. 134. word that best describes the environment of the solar nebula
    turbulent (USQRG:10,2,2)
  135. 135. two results of collisions between large bodies during solar system formation
    extensive mineral mixing and modification of orbits (USQRG:10,2,2)
  136. 136. nine planets of the solar system, as of 1993
    Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto (USQRG:10,fig)
  137. 137. approximate number of planetesimals whose behavior George Wetherill has modeled
    500 (USQRG:10,2,3)
  138. 138. size of the planetesimals whose behavior George Wetherill modeled
    approximately the same as that of the Moon (USQRG:10,2,3)
  139. 139. location in which George Wetherill’s situated his simulation of planetesimal behavior
    space now occupied by the solar system’s planets (USQRG:10,2,3)
  140. 140. result of George Wetherill’s simulation of planetesimals’ behavior
    planets generally resembling the inner solar system (USQRG:10,2,3)
  141. 141. type of collision that was important in creating the inner solar system, according to Peterson
    large‐body (USQRG:11,1,1)
  142. 142. event that likely created Earth’s moon, according to Peterson
    collision of Earth and a Mars‐sized body (USQRG:11,1,1)
  143. 143. Mercury’s lost outer layers can be described as
    rocky (USQRG:11,1,1)
  144. 144. event that likely caused Mercury to lose its outer layers, according to Peterson
    collision of Mercury and a Mars‐sized body (USQRG:11,1,1)
  145. 145. most basic component of the solar system ’s planets
    microscopic grains (USQRG:11,1,2)
  146. 146. main material of the planets of the inner solar system
    rock (USQRG:11,1,2)
  147. 147. Under what conditions did the inner solar system’s planets form?
    in regions of the solar nebula hot enough to melt ice (USQRG:11,1,2)
  148. 148. main material of the cores of the outer solar system’s planets
    ice (USQRG:11,1,2)
  149. 149. size of the icy protoplanets that once existed in the outer solar system, relative to Earth
    10 times larger (USQRG:11,1,3)
  150. 150. two gases that icy protoplanets in the outer solar system picked up from the solar nebula during their formation
    hydrogen and helium (USQRG:11,1,3)
  151. 151. planet that had its rings opened by a protoplanet’s gravitational pull
    Saturn (USQRG:11,1,4)
  152. 152. Douglas Lin’s metaphor for the natural limit on the amount of gas icy protoplanets could take in from the solar nebula
    a “self‐regulating diet” (USQRG:11,1,4)
  153. 153. part of the icy protoplanet from which most hydrogen and helium escapes during formation
    the disks (USQRG:11,1,5)
  154. 154. possible explanation for the loss of hydrogen and helium in icy protoplanets during formation
    intense stellar winds (USQRG:11,1,5)
  155. 155. time taken for most protoplanets of the sun’s mass to lose most of their hydrogen and helium after formation
    10 million years (USQRG:11,1,5)
  156. 156. two planets with particularly large ice cores
    Uranus and Neptune (USQRG:11,1,5)
  157. 157. the most viable model of planetary formation, according to Peterson
    the runaway accumulation of material (USQRG:11,1,6)
  158. 158. least‐understood area of the current model of planetary formation
    construction of gas giants (USQRG:11,1,8)
  159. 159. basalt
    fine‐grained, extrusive, black igneous rock made up of volcanic glass, pyroxene, and feldspar (USQRG:11,2,1; USQRG:11,2,3; USQRG:101,1,9)
  160. 160. pyroxene
    black or dark green silicate minerals that occur in metamorphic and igneous rocks (USQRG:11,2,1; USQRG:102,2,22)
  161. 161. mica
    sheet‐silicate minerals with a platy appearance (USQRG:11,2,1; USQRG:102,2,7)
  162. 162. quartz
    most widely distributed and common material in rocks; made up of silicon dioxide (USQRG:11,2,1; USQRG:102,2,23)
  163. 163. mineralogy
    relative proportions of a rock’s constituent materials (USQRG:11,2,2)
  164. 164. texture (in geology)
    sizes, shapes, and arrangement of a rock’s mineral grains and crystals (USQRG:11,2,2)
  165. 165. diameter of most grains and crystals in rocks
    a few millimeters (USQRG:11,2,2)
  166. 166. two types of rock textures
    coarse and fine (USQRG:11,2,2)
  167. 167. criteria for crystals and grains to be considered “fine”
    not large enough to be seen by the naked eye (USQRG:11,2,2)
  168. 168. four shapes of crystals and grains in rocks
    needle‐shaped, flat, platy, and equant (USQRG:11,2,2)
  169. 169. equant
    the same dimension in all directions, as in a sphere or cube (USQRG:11,2,2)
  170. 170. factor that determines the mineralogy and texture of a rock
    the rock’s geological origin (USQRG:11,2,3)
  171. 171. How is basalt formed?
    volcanic eruption (USQRG:11,2,3)
  172. 172. two factors that affect the mineralogy and texture of basalt
    chemical composition of melted rocks in Earth’s interior and the nature of the volcanic eruption (USQRG:11,2,3)
  173. 173. lava
    molten rock usually resulting from a volcanic eruption (USQRG:11,2,3; USQRG:102,1,16)
  174. 174. igneous rock
    rock formed by solidification of magma (USQRG:11,2,3; USQRG:102,1,8)
  175. 175. How is sandstone formed?
    Sand particles accumulate and are eventually covered over, buried, and cemented together. (USQRG:11,2,4)
  176. 176. sediments
    accumulations of loose particles that eventually form sedimentary rocks (USQRG:11,2,4; USQRG:103,1,8)
  177. 177. three common types of sediments
    sand, mud, and calcium carbonate shells (USQRG:11,2,4; USQRG:12,1,0)
  178. 178. sedimentary rocks
    rocks formed by the erosion of other rocks and the accumulation and burial of the eroded minerals (USQRG:12,1,0; USQRG:103,1,7)
  179. 179. schist
    regional metamorphic rock with coarse texture and planar fabric (USQRG:12,1,0; USQRG:103,1,5)
  180. 180. three types of schist crystals
    mica, quartz, and feldspar (USQRG:12,1,1)
  181. 181. color of schist
    brown (USQRG:12,1,1)
  182. 182. In which part of the Earth is schist formed?
    deep in the Earth’s crust (USQRG:12,1,1)
  183. 183. metamorphic rocks
    rocks formed by transforming other solid rocks under high pressures and temperatures (USQRG:12,1,1)
  184. 184. two primary aims of a geologist, according to Grotzinger, Jordan, Press, and Siever
    understanding rock properties and deducing a rock’s geological origins (USQRG:12,1,2)
  185. 185. type of rock that forms oil
    sedimentary rock rich in organic remains (USQRG:12,1,3)
  186. 186. landslide
    event in which material moves rapidly downward and outward along a surface (USQRG:12,2,1; USQRG:102,1,14)
  187. 187. geological event that often triggers landslides
    earthquake (USQRG:12,2,1)
  188. 188. What process evaluates a site to be used to store radioactive waste underground?
    analysis of rock to be used as a repository (USQRG:12,2,1)
  189. 189. artifact used by historians to understand Egyptian hieroglyphics
    Rosetta stone (USQRG:12,2,2)
  190. 190. first step in understanding the Earth through its rocks, according to Grotzinger, Jordan, Press, and Siever
    recognizing various kinds of rocks (USQRG:12,2,2)
  191. 191. second step in understanding the Earth through its rocks, according to Grotzinger, Jordan, Press, and Siever
    understanding what rocks’ characteristics indicate about the conditions under they formed (USQRG:12,2,2)
  192. 192. three families of rocks
    igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic (USQRG:12,2,3)
  193. 193. outcrop
    portion of a rock formation exposed and above the ground (USQRG:12,2,3; USQRG:102,2,13)
  194. 194. rock cycle
    set of processes that convert rocks from one rock type to another (USQRG:12,2,3)
  195. 195. geological process that drives the rock cycle
    plate tectonics (USQRG:12,2,3)
  196. 196. root word of “igneous”
    ignis (USQRG:12,2,4)
  197. 197. meaning of ignis
    fire (USQRG:12,2,4)
  198. 198. process by which igneous rocks form
    crystallization from magma (USQRG:12,2,4)
  199. 199. magma
    mass of melted rock from deep in the crust or the upper mantle (USQRG:12,2,4)
  200. 200. minimum temperature needed to melt most rocks
    700°C (USQRG:12,2,4)
  201. 201. mantle
    part of the Earth between the core and the crust that is approximately 2300km thick (USQRG:12,2,4; USQRG:102,2,2)
  202. 202. type of igneous rock formed when magma cools slowly
    coarse‐grained (USQRG:12,2,4)
  203. 203. approximate size of crystals in coarse‐grained igneous rocks
    several millimeters (USQRG:12,2,4)
  204. 204. How are fine‐grained igneous rocks formed?
    magma cools and solidifies rapidly, forming many tiny crystals (USQRG:12,2,4)
  205. 205. two major types of igneous rock
    extrusive and intrusive (USQRG:12,2,4)
  206. 206. intrusive igneous rock
    rock formed from slowly crystallizing magma deep within the crust (USQRG:12,2,5; USQRG:102,1,9)
  207. 207. identifying characteristic of intrusive igneous rocks
    interlocking large crystals (USQRG:12,2,5)
  208. 208. Why does magma cool slowly in the Earth’s interior?
    invades rock masses that conduct heat slowly and which may be only a bit cooler than the magma (USQRG:13,1,0)
  209. 209. granite
    intrusive igneous rock composed of quartz, feldspar, and mica (USQRG:13,1,0; USQRG:102,1,4)
  210. 210. extrusive igneous rock
    rock formed when magma cools rapidly on the Earth’s surface (USQRG:13,1,1; USQRG:101,2,14)
  211. 211. process by which igneous rocks are formed
    volcanism (USQRG:13,1,1)
  212. 212. basalt
    fine‐grained extrusive igneous rock mostly composed of feldspar and pyroxene (USQRG:13,1,1; USQRG:101,1,9)
  213. 213. appearance of extrusive igneous rocks
    glassy (USQRG:12,1,fig; USQRG:13,1,1)
  214. 214. volcanism
    processes that create volcanoes and extrusive igneous rocks (USQRG:13,1,1)
  215. 215. two types of particles extrusive igneous rocks contain
    ash and lava (USQRG:13,1,2)
  216. 216. mineral type most often found in igneous rocks
    silicate (USQRG:13,2,1)
  217. 217. Why are few igneous rocks oxides?
    Few oxide minerals melt at the temperatures and pressures of the lower crust and mantle. (USQRG:13,2,1)
  218. 218. amphibole
    silicate mineral found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks (USQRG:13,2,1; USQRG:101,1,2)
  219. 219. olivine
    iron‐magnesium‐silicate mineral found in many igneous rocks (USQRG:13,2,1; USQRG:102,2,11)
  220. 220. six minerals commonly found in igneous rocks
    quartz, feldspar, mica, pyroxene, amphibole, and olivine (USQRG:13,1,fig)
  221. 221. three silicate minerals commonly found in sedimentary rocks
    quartz, clay minerals, and feldspar (USQRG:13,1,fig)
  222. 222. four non‐silicate minerals commonly found in sedimentary rocks
    calcite, dolomite, gypsum, and halite (USQRG:13,1,fig)
  223. 223. seven minerals commonly found in metamorphic rocks
    quartz, feldspar, mica, garnet, pyroxene, staurolite, and kyanite (USQRG:13,1,fig)
  224. 224. two minerals commonly found in igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks
    quartz and feldspar (USQRG:13,1,fig)
  225. 225. four minerals commonly found in both igneous and metamorphic rocks
    quartz, feldspar, mica, and pyroxene (USQRG:13,1,fig)
  226. 226. six minerals that typify the venous crystal structure
    quarts, feldspar, mica, pyroxene, amphibole, and olivine (USQRG:13,2,1)
  227. 227. Where do sand grains and pebbles form?
    the Earth’s surface (USQRG:13,2,2)
  228. 228. weathering
    chemical and mechanical breakdown of rocks on Earth’s surface (USQRG:13,2,2; USQRG:103,2,12)
  229. 229. erosion
    removal and transport of particles from weathered rock (USQRG:14,1,0’ USQRG:101,2,13)
  230. 230. end result of weathering and erosion
    rock particles layered as sediment (USQRG:14,1,0)
  231. 231. two main categories of sediments
    clastic and chemical/biochemical (USQRG:14,1,1; USQRG:14,1,2)
  232. 232. clastic sediments
    physically deposited sedimentary particles (USQRG:14,1,1)
  233. 233. example of clastic sediments
    feldspar and quartz particles derived from weathered granite (USQRG:14,1,1)
  234. 234. Greek root word of “clastic”
    klastos (USQRG:14,1,1)
  235. 235. meaning of klastos
    broken (USQRG:14,1,1)
  236. 236. three natural means of depositing clastic sediments
    running water, wind, and ice (USQRG:14,1,1)
  237. 237. chemical and biochemical sediments
    chemical substances formed by precipitation when particles from weathered rock are carried to the sea (USQRG:14,1,2)
  238. 238. chemical name of halite
    sodium chloride (USQRG:14,2,0)
  239. 239. chemical name of calcite
    calcium carbonate (USQRG:14,2,0)
  240. 240. most popular form of calcite
    shells (USQRG:14,2,0)
  241. 241. percentage of the Earth’s land surface made up of sedimentary rock
    75% (USQRG:14,fig)
  242. 242. two types of rocks that account for most of the Earth’s crust
    igneous and metamorphic (USQRG:14,fig)
  243. 243. type of rock that is most easily divided by its parent rock
    metamorphic (USQRG:14,fig)
  244. 244. lithification
    process that converts sediments into solid rock (USQRG:14,2,1)
  245. 245. two ways lithification occurs
    compaction and cementation (USQRG:14,2,2; USQRG:14,2,3)
  246. 246. compaction
    grains squeezed together by the weight of overlying sediment, producing a denser mass (USQRG:14,2,2)
  247. 247. cementation
    minerals precipitating around deposited particles, binding them together (USQRG:14,2,3)
  248. 248. type of particles composing sandstone
    sand particles (USQRG:14,2,4)
  249. 249. type of particles composing limestone
    shells and other calcium carbonate particles (USQRG:15,1,0)
  250. 250. bedding
    layering in rocks caused by particles settling during deposition (USQRG:15,1,1)
  251. 251. example of a variation in mineralogy caused by bedding
    sandstone interbedded with limestone (USQRG:15,1,1)
  252. 252. example of a difference in texture caused by bedding
    coarse‐grained sandstone interbedded with fine‐grained sandstone (USQRG:15,1,1)
  253. 253. Why are most sedimentary rocks found near the Earth’s surface?
    They are formed by surface processes. (USQRG:15,1,2)
  254. 254. most common type of mineral in clastic sediments
    silicates (USQRG:15,2,1)
  255. 255. Why are most minerals in clastic sediments not oxides?
    The rocks that weather to form clastic sediments are mostly composed of silicate minerals. (USQRG:15,2,1)
  256. 256. three most abundant minerals in clastic sedimentary rocks
    quartz, feldspar, and clay minerals (USQRG:15,2,1)
  257. 257. most common type of mineral in chemical and biochemical sediments
    carbonates (USQRG:15,2,2)
  258. 258. main component of limestone
    calcite (USQRG:15,2,2)
  259. 259. dolomite
    calcium‐magnesium carbonate mineral found in limestone (USQRG:15,2,2)
  260. 260. How are gypsum and halite formed?
    chemical precipitation as seawater evaporates (USQRG:16,1,0)
  261. 261. two Greek words from which “metamorphic” is derived
    meta and morphe (USQRG:16,1,1)
  262. 262. meta
    Greek for “change” (USQRG:16,1,1)
  263. 263. morphe
    Greek for “form” (USQRG:16,1,1)
  264. 264. approximate temperature at which metamorphic rocks form
    above 250°C but below 700°C (USQRG:16,1,1)
  265. 265. How are metamorphic rocks formed?
    High temperatures and pressures deep in the Earth transform a rock while still in solid form. (USQRG:16,1,1)
  266. 266. three characteristics altered in the formation of a metamorphic rock
    mineralogy, texture, and chemical composition (USQRG:16,1,1)
  267. 267. two types of metamorphism
    regional and contact (USQRG:16,fig)
  268. 268. regional metamorphism
    rock alteration taking place over a large area (USQRG:16,1,2; USQRG:103,1,2)
  269. 269. geological event that results in regional metamorphism
    convergence of lithospheric plates (USQRG:16,1,2; USQRG:103,1,2)
  270. 270. contact metamorphism
    rock alteration in a contained area, usually due to the heat produced by an intrusion (USQRG:16,2,0; USQRG:101,1,15)
  271. 271. type of metamorphism usually involved in mountain formation
    regional metamorphism (USQRG:16,2,0)
  272. 272. example of a regionally metamorphosed rock
    schist (USQRG:16,2,1)
  273. 273. foliation
    wavy or flat planes produced when rock is structurally deformed into folds (USQRG:16,2,1; USQRG:101,2,17)
  274. 274. texture typical of contact metamorphic rocks
    granular (USQRG:16,2,1)
  275. 275. shape of crystals in contact metamorphic rocks
    equant (USQRG:16,2,1)
  276. 276. texture typical of regional metamorphic rocks formed under very high temperatures and pressures
    granular (USQRG:16,2,1)
  277. 277. most abundant type of mineral in metamorphic rocks
    silicates (USQRG:16,2,2)
  278. 278. Why are metamorphic rocks not typically composed of oxides?
    Most rocks that transform into metamorphic rocks are silicate‐rich. (USQRG:16,2,2)
  279. 279. three minerals unique to metamorphic rocks
    kyanite, staurolite, and garnet (USQRG:16,2,2)
  280. 280. two conditions under which minerals unique to metamorphic rocks form into rocks
    high pressures and temperatures in a crustal setting (USQRG:17,1,0)
  281. 281. main mineral of marbles
    calcite (USQRG:17,1,0)
  282. 282. Why do geologists chemically analyze rocks?
    to determine the relative proportions of rocks’ chemical elements (USQRG:17,1,1)
  283. 283. scientific reports generally complemented by chemical analyses of rocks
    mineralogical studies (USQRG:17,1,1)
  284. 284. type of rock for which chemical analysis is particularly useful
    very fine‐grained or glassy rocks, such as volcanic lava (USQRG:17,1,1)
  285. 285. most abundant element in Earth
    oxygen (USQRG:17,1,1)
  286. 286. chemical formula of oxide silica
    SiO2 (USQRG:17,1,1)
  287. 287. alumina
    oxide of aluminum (USQRG:17,1,2)
  288. 288. chemical formula of alumina
    Al2O3 (USQRG:17,fig)
  289. 289. proportion of basalt’s weight derived from silica and alumina
    2/3 (USQRG:17,1,2)
  290. 290. seven major elements that make up most of the Earth’s rocks
    silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium (USQRG:17,1,2)
  291. 291. chemical formulas of the two most common iron oxides
    Fe2O3 and FeO (USQRG:17,fig)
  292. 292. four most common elements in basalt
    silicon, aluminum, iron, and calcium (USQRG:17,fig)
  293. 293. chemical formula of calcium oxide
    CaO (USQRG:17,fig)
  294. 294. chemical formula of sodium oxide
    Na2O (USQRG:17,fig)
  295. 295. chemical formula of magnesium oxide
    MgO (USQRG:17,fig)
  296. 296. chemical formula of potassium oxide
    K2O (USQRG:17,fig)
  297. 297. Why are elements represented in their oxide form when analyzing the chemical composition of rocks?
    scientific convention (USQRG:17,1,1)
  298. 298. major element in rocks that is least represented in basalt
    potassium (USQRG:17,fig)
  299. 299. type of plate movement that creates mid‐ocean ridges
    divergence (USQRG:17,2,1)
  300. 300. subduction
    process in which dense oceanic crust sinks under lighter continental crust into the mantle (USQRG:17,2,1; USQRG:103,2,1)
  301. 301. type of plate movement occurring at subduction zones
    convergence (USQRG:17,2,1)
  302. 302. oxide of hydrogen
    water (H2O) (USQRG:17,2,2)
  303. 303. percentage of water that igneous rocks contain
    1% (USQRG:17,2,2)
  304. 304. percentage of water that sedimentary rocks contain
    up to 5% (USQRG:17,2,2)
  305. 305. Why do sedimentary rocks contain more water than igneous rocks?
    abundance of clay minerals in sedimentary rocks (USQRG:17,2,2)
  306. 306. How do geologists deduce the geologic past of a region?
    mapping rock patterns at the surface and into the interior (USQRG:17,2,3)
  307. 307. type of rock typically found in the first few kilometers of the crust
    sedimentary (USQRG:17,2,4)
  308. 308. number of kilometers into the crust at which the rock composition changes
    6 to 10 (USQRG:17,2,4)
  309. 309. three reasons for extensive shallow drilling
    oil, water, and mineral resources (USQRG:18,1,1)
  310. 310. three countries whose governments have carried out drilling to research the deep continental crust
    United States, Germany, and Russia (USQRG:18,1,1)
  311. 311. depth of the deepest hole drilled into the ground
    12 kilometers (USQRG:18,1,1)
  312. 312. country in which the deepest hole drilled into the ground is located
    Russia (USQRG:18,1,1)
  313. 313. approximate number of holes drilled by the Deep‐Sea Drilling Program in the ocean floor
    hundreds (USQRG:18,1,2)
  314. 314. purpose of the Deep‐Sea Drilling Program
    to drill the world’s seafloor for geological information (USQRG:18,1,2)
  315. 315. country whose government started the Deep‐Sea Drilling Program
    United States (USQRG:18,1,2)
  316. 316. When did the Deep‐Sea Drilling Project begin?
    the late 1960s (USQRG:18,1,2)
  317. 317. international name of the Deep‐Sea Drilling Project
    Ocean Drilling Program (USQRG:18,1,2)
  318. 318. geological theory that gained popularity at the same time that the Deep‐Sea Drilling Project began
    plate tectonics (USQRG:18,1,2)
  319. 319. bedrock
    underlying rock beneath loose surface materials (USQRG:18,1,3)
  320. 320. Why do outcrops vary by region?
    reflect the region’s geological structure (USQRG:18,1,3)
  321. 321. type of outcrop common along the west coast of North America
    sea cliffs (USQRG:18,2,0)
  322. 322. southernmost reach of the Rocky Mountain front
    New Mexico (USQRG:18,2,0)
  323. 323. northernmost stretch of the Rocky Mountain front
    Alberta, Canada (USQRG:18,2,0)
  324. 324. two dominant types of landscape from the Rocky Mountains to the Appalachian Mountains
    plains and prairies (USQRG:18,2,1)
  325. 325. Why are outcrops scarce in the Midwestern United States?
    River deposits cover most of the sedimentary bedrock. (USQRG:18,2,1)
  326. 326. two types of places in the Midwestern United States in which geologists look for evidence of geologic history
    dry creeks and interstate highway cuts (USQRG:18,2,1)
  327. 327. frequency of outcrops in the Appalachian Mountains compared to the Midwestern United States
    more abundant (USQRG:18,2,2)
  328. 328. four southern American states comprised mainly of low coastal plains
    Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama (USQRG:18,2,3)
  329. 329. four eastern American states comprised mainly of low coastal plains
    New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia (USQRG:18,2,3)
  330. 330. type of outcrops found in low coastal plains in the southern and eastern United States
    barely lithified, soft sedimentary rocks (USQRG:18,2,3)
  331. 331. region of the United States with outcrops similar to those found in its southern and eastern low coastal plains
    the Great Plains (USQRG:18,2,3)
  332. 332. region of New Jersey covered by low coastal plains
    southeastern (USQRG:18,2,3)
  333. 333. Canadian provinces with similar outcrops to New England
    Maritime (USQRG:18,2,3)
  334. 334. type of location that contains the best outcrops in New England
    rocky coastlines (USQRG:18,2,3)
  335. 335. four things on which the presence and type of outcrops depend
    nature of the landscape and the geologic structure, history, and present climate of the region (USQRG:18,2,4)
  336. 336. scientist that first described the rock cycle
    James Hutton (USQRG:18,2,5)
  337. 337. year in which the rock cycle was first described
    1785 (USQRG:18,2,5)
  338. 338. James Hutton’s home country
    Scotland (USQRG:18,2,5)
  339. 339. scientific society at which the rock cycle was first introduced
    Royal Society of Edinburgh (USQRG:18,2,5)
  340. 340. 1795 work by James Hutton which formalized the concept of the rock cycle
    Theory of the Earth with Proof and Illustrations (USQRG:18,2,5)
  341. 341. nature of James Hutton’s role in the development of the rock cycle, according to Grotzinger, Jordan, Press, and Siever
    synthesizer (USQRG:18,2,5)
  342. 342. Pluto (in mythology)
    Roman god of the underworld (USQRG:19,2,0)
  343. 343. plutonic episode
    the melting of all preexisting rock into magma due to high temperatures and pressures (USQRG:19,1,1)
  344. 344. location of a plutonic episode
    deep in Earth’s crust (USQRG:19,1,1)
  345. 345. plutonic rock
    igneous rocks that have crystallized deep in the Earth’s crust (USQRG:19,2,0; USQRG:102,2,20)
  346. 346. another term for igneous intrusives
    plutonic rocks (USQRG:19,2,0)
  347. 347. another term for igneous extrusives
    volcanic rocks (USQRG:19,2,0)
  348. 348. volcanic rock
    igneous rocks that have crystallized at the surface (USQRG:19,2,0; USQRG:103,2,9)
  349. 349. Why are all rocks homogenous after a plutonic episode?
    Component minerals melt away and are destroyed. (USQRG:19,2,0)
  350. 350. type of rock formed after a plutonic episode
    igneous (USQRG:19,2,0)
  351. 351. two processes through which sediments transform into sedimentary rocks
    burial and lithification (USQRG:19,fig)
  352. 352. process through which metamorphic rock becomes magma
    melting (USQRG:19,fig)
  353. 353. two places in which rock forms after plutonic episodes
    mantle plumes and the boundaries of diverging or colliding tectonic plates (USQRG:20,1,0)
  354. 354. mantle plumes
    hot material rising through the mantle at “hot spots” (USQRG:20,1,0; USQRG:102,2,3)
  355. 355. orogeny
    compression of a belt of the Earth’s crust to form a mountain chain (USQRG:20,2,0; USQRG:102,2,12)
  356. 356. event that begins the process of orogeny
    plate collision (USQRG:20,2,0)
  357. 357. result after two plates in Earth’s crust collide
    becomes crumpled and deformed, forming a mountain chain (USQRG:20,2,0)
  358. 358. process through which iron minerals form iron oxides
    rusting (USQRG:21,1,1)
  359. 359. feldspars
    group of alumino‐silicate minerals essential to the formation of igneous rocks (USQRG:21,1,1; USQRG:101,2,16)
  360. 360. chemical change undergone by feldspars during weathering of igneous rocks
    transformation into clay minerals (USQRG:21,1,1)
  361. 361. substance in igneous rocks that may dissolve completely in rain
    pyroxene (USQRG:21,1,1)
  362. 362. subsidence
    sinking of the Earth’s crust (USQRG:21,1,2)
  363. 363. temperature of sedimentary rock buried ten kilometers under the Earth’s surface
    over 300°C (USQRG:21,1,3)
  364. 364. metamorphism
    process by which igneous and sedimentary rocks change into metamorphic rocks (USQRG:21,1,3)
  365. 365. types of rock that can be uplifted during an orogeny
    igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic (USQRG:21,1,4)
  366. 366. Which part of the rock cycle is directly observable?
    the surface portions (USQRG:21,1,5)
  367. 367. phenomena that may cause volcanism in continental interiors
    mantle plumes (USQRG:20,fig)
  368. 368. How do divergent oceanic plate boundaries change seafloors?
    spreading (USQRG:20,fig)
  369. 369. two processes convergent oceanic plates undergo
    subduction and melting (USQRG:20,fig)
  370. 370. three processes that occur in stable plates in continental interiors
    weathering, deposition, and transportation (USQRG:20,fig)
  371. 371. result of the subsidence of an oceanic plate near a shoreline
    deposition of sediment, burial, and lithification (USQRG:20,fig)
  372. 372. nine geologic processes at work in the rock cycle
    plutonism, volcanism, tectonic uplift, metamorphism, weathering, sedimentation, transportation, deposition, and burial (USQRG:21,2,1)
  373. 373. two rock cycle processes that result from the interior heat of the Earth
    plutonism and volcanism (USQRG:21,2,2)
  374. 374. three plate‐tectonic settings at which geologic processes take place
    convergent and divergent oceanic boundaries, and mantle plumes (USQRG:21,2,3; USQRG:21,2,4; USQRG:21,2,5)
  375. 375. convergent boundaries
    where oceanic and continental plates descend into the mantle and melt (USQRG:21,2,3)
  376. 376. type of rock that eventually forms at convergent boundaries
    igneous (USQRG:21,2,3)
  377. 377. divergent boundaries
    where seafloor spreading allows magmas to rise and form oceanic crust (USQRG:21,2,4)
  378. 378. type of magma that rises to the surface at divergent boundaries
    basaltic (USQRG:21,2,4)
  379. 379. geologic feature from which plates move away
    mid‐ocean ridges (USQRG:21,2,6)
  380. 380. energy source for the circulation of the oceans and atmosphere
    the Sun’s heat (USQRG:21,2,7)
  381. 381. two rock cycle processes caused by the sun
    weathering and transportation (USQRG:21,2,7)
  382. 382. two identifying characteristics of a rock
    mineralogy and texture (USQRG:21,2,10)
  383. 383. three factors determining a rock’s texture
    size, shape, and spatial arrangement of crystals (USQRG:21,2,10)
  384. 384. two factors comprising a rock’s mineralogy
    kinds and proportions of component minerals (USQRG:21,2,10)
  385. 385. region at which rocks form with low temperatures and pressures
    the Earth’s surface (USQRG:21,2,10)
  386. 386. relative size of crystals in intrusive igneous rocks
    large (USQRG:21,2,12)
  387. 387. process by which sedimentary rocks form
    lithification of sediments after burial (USQRG:22,1,0)
  388. 388. two processes by which sediments form
    weathering and erosion of rocks (USQRG:22,1,0)
  389. 389. process by which metamorphic rocks form
    alteration of rocks in the solid state (USQRG:22,1,0)
  390. 390. two conditions necessary for the formation of metamorphic rocks
    high temperature and high pressure (USQRG:22,1,0)
  391. 391. Where is the starting point of the rock cycle?
    no beginning to the cycle (USQRG:22,1,2)
  392. 392. mechanism by which the rock cycle operates, according to Grotzinger, Jordan, Press, and Siever
    plate tectonics (USQRG:22,1,2)
  393. 393. Who declared, “I am more interested in the Rock of Ages than in the ages of rocks!”?
    Matthew Harrison Brady (USQRG:22,1,3)
  394. 394. chronostratigraphy
    study of the age of rocks (USQRG:22,1,3)
  395. 395. Who wrote, “I know how many zeros to place after the 10 when I mean billions. Getting it into the gut is quite another matter”?
    Stephen Jay Gould (USQRG:22,1,3)
  396. 396. popular writer that coined the term “deep time”
    John McPhee (USQRG:22,1,3)
  397. 397. two ways in which geologists signify time, according to Fastovsky, Weishampel, and Sibbick
    number of years before present and by reference to blocks of time with special names (USQRG:22,2,1)
  398. 398. absolute age
    age of a rock or fossil in years before present (USQRG:22,2,2)
  399. 399. method of signifying age most preferred by geologists, according to Fastovsky, Weishampel, and Sibbick
    absolute age (USQRG:22,2,2)
  400. 400. characteristic of some rocks that allows their exact age to be determined by geologists
    presence of radioactive elements (USQRG:22,2,2)
  401. 401. relationship between the length of an isotope’s decay process and the time span for which its rock’s age can be found
    the slower the decay process, the longer the amount of time for which it is applicable (USQRG:22,2,3)
  402. 402. basic decay equation
    unstable parent isotope → stable daughter isotope + nuclear products + heat (USQRG:22,2,3)
  403. 403. 14C
    unstable isotope of carbon (USQRG:22,2,4)
  404. 404. equation for the decay of 14C
    C→N + heat (USQRG:22,2,4)
  405. 405. How does 14C decay into N?
    a neutron splits into a proton and electron (USQRG:22,2,4)
  406. 406. atomic number of nitrogen
    7 (USQRG:22,2,5)
  407. 407. three facts necessary to determine the absolute age of a rock
    original amount of parent isotope present, amount of parent isotope remaining, and rate of decay of parent isotope (USQRG:22,2,6)
  408. 408. radiometric dating methods
    unstable isotope age estimations calculated based on radioactive decay (USQRG:23,1,0)
  409. 409. half‐life
    time it takes for 50% of a quantity of an unstable isotope to decay (USQRG:23,1,1)
  410. 410. On what basis is a given isotope selected for radiometric dating?
    the probable age of the object in question (USQRG:23,2,1)
  411. 411. 87Rb
    unstable isotope of rubidium (USQRG:23,2,1)
  412. 412. stable isotope of strontium, resulting from the decay of 87Rb
    87Sr (USQRG:23,2,1)
  413. 413. half‐life of 87Rb
    approximately 48.8 billion years (USQRG:23,2,1)
  414. 414. half‐life of 14C
    5,730 years (USQRG:24,1,0)
  415. 415. type of rock in which radioactive isotopes commonly occur
    igneous (USQRG:24,1,1)
  416. 416. lithostratigraphy
    study of the relationships of one body of rock to another (USQRG:24,1,1)
  417. 417. approximate number of years ago the earliest organic structures appeared
    3 billion (USQRG:23,fig)
  418. 418. three most recent geological eras in chronological order
    Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic (USQRG:23,fig)
  419. 419. current geological period which began two million years ago
    Quaternary (USQRG:23,fig)
  420. 420. current geological epoch which began 11,500 years ago
    Holocene (USQRG:23,fig)
  421. 421. Nicholas Steno’s country of origin
    Denmark (USQRG:24,1,3)
  422. 422. century in which Nicholas Steno lived
    17th (USQRG:24,1,3)
  423. 423. law of superposition
    sedimentary rocks in a vertical, stacked sequence are layered chronologically, with the oldest on the bottom (USQRG:24,1,4)
  424. 424. original orientation of all sedimentary rock sequences
    horizontal (USQRG:24,1,5)
  425. 425. scientist that discovered the law of superposition
    Nicholas Steno (USQRG:24,1,4)
  426. 426. relative dating
    determining the ages of two rock strata compared to each other (USQRG:24,1,6)
  427. 427. daughter isotope
    element to which a parent isotope decays (USQRG:24,fig)
  428. 428. number of mass extinctions that have taken place since the middle Paleozoic era
    3 (USQRG:25,fig)
  429. 429. first geologic period in Earth’s history
    Precambrian (USQRG:25,fig)
  430. 430. How many days would represent 100,000 years if the Earth’s history were compacted into one year?
    less than 1 (USQRG:25.fig)
  431. 431. dates during which dinosaurs lived on Earth, if the Earth’s history was compacted into one year
    December 11 to December 25 (USQRG:25,fig)
  432. 432. biostratigraphy
    method of relative dating that uses fossil organisms (USQRG:26,1,1)
  433. 433. number of years ago that dinosaurs first appeared
    228 million (USQRG:26,1,1)
  434. 434. biostratigraphic correlation
    linking separate rocks based on the fossils they contain (USQRG:26,1,2)
  435. 435. amount of time for which most species existed historically
    1 to 2 million years (USQRG:26,1,2)
  436. 436. number of years ago the Tyrannosaurus rex lived
    67 million to 65 million (USQRG:26,1,2)
  437. 437. oldest method of dating sediments
    biostratigraphy (USQRG:26,1,3)
  438. 438. time period in which Georges Cuvier studied fossil shells in rock strata
    early 1800s (USQRG:26,1,3)
  439. 439. Georges Cuvier’s profession
    anatomist (USQRG:26,1,3)
  440. 440. What observation did George Cuvier make about rock strata containing fossil shells with living counterparts?
    Higher strata had higher proportions of fossil shells with living counterparts. (USQRG:26,1,3)
  441. 441. meaning of phaneros
    light or visible (USQRG:26,1,4)
  442. 442. meaning of zoo
    life (USQRG:26,1,4)
  443. 443. type of organisms common in the Phanerozoic eon
    those with skeletons or hard shells (USQRG:26,1,4)
  444. 444. three eras within the Phanerozoic eon
    Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic (USQRG:26,1,4)
  445. 445. oldest era within the Phanerozoic eon
    Paleozoic (USQRG:26,1,4)
  446. 446. meaning of paleo
    ancient (USQRG:26,1,4)
  447. 447. meaning of meso
    middle (USQRG:26,1,4)
  448. 448. meaning of cenos
    new (USQRG:26,1,4)
  449. 449. period
    subdivision of an era (USQRG:26,2,0)
  450. 450. epoch
    subdivision of a period (USQRG:26,2,0)
  451. 451. typical length of a period
    tens of millions of years (USQRG:26,1,4)
  452. 452. typical length of an epoch
    several million years (USQRG:26,2,0)
  453. 453. period to which the Maastrichtian interval belongs
    Cretaceous (USQRG:26,2,1)
  454. 454. terms among “upper, middle, and lower” and “early, middle, and late” that correspond to each other in describing time intervals
    early and lower, middle and middle, late and upper (USQRG:26,2,2)
  455. 455. geology’s greatest contribution to human knowledge, according to Fastovsky, Weisthampel, and Sibbick
    development of the geological time scale (USQRG:26,2,3)
  456. 456. author of Growth of a Prehistoric Time Scale
    B. N. Berry (USQRG:26,2,3)