test 2 micro

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scooby398
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37810
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test 2 micro
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2010-09-27 21:13:47
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test 2 micro
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  1. -Classifications of organisms based on oxygen requirements
    • psychrophiles/psychrotrophs-cold loving microbes
    • mesophiles-moderate tempature-loving
    • thermophiles/heperthermophiles-heat loving
  2. -Special growth conditions for those organisms that cannot tolerate oxygen and those that need added carbon dioxide
    • obligate aerobes- only aerobic growth, o2 required
    • facultative anaerobes- both aerobic and anaerobic growth, greater growth in o2
    • obligate anaerobes-only anaerobic growth
    • aerotolerant anaerobes-only anaerobic growth but continues in o2, in low concentration.
  3. -what is instrument is necessary to grow organisms that cannot tolerate oxygen or need added carbon dioxide.
    Candle jar
  4. -Classifications of organisms based on their temperature requirements; esp. those that are most concerning in healthcare.
    mesophiles
  5. What pH is conducive to growth of most bacteria
    almost nuetral between 6.5-7.5
  6. -What can be added to a solution to cause a change in the osmotic pressure
    salt or sugar
  7. -What rate do organisms die
    constant rate
  8. selective media
    - suppresses unwanted microbes
  9. differential media
    - makes it easy to distinguish colonies
  10. complex media
    - extracts and digest of yeasts, meat or plants
  11. chemically defined media
    - exact chemical composition is known.
  12. Reducing media-
    deplete o2 in culture medium
  13. -A codon is made up of what
    AUG, GGC, AAA
  14. -A codon is carried by what
    mRNA
  15. -An anticodon is carried by what
    tRNA
  16. point (base) mutation
    - change in one base
  17. missense mutation
    -change in amino acid
  18. nonsense mutation
    -results in nonsense codon
  19. frameshift mutation
    -insertion or deletion of one or more nucleotide pairs
  20. silent mutation
    -neutral, no change
  21. -DNA that moves from one area of the chromosome to another
    transposons
  22. -How is DNA in eukaryotes is different than prokaryotes
    • eukaryotes DNA is found in multiple chromosomes in a membrane-enclosed nucleus
    • prokaryotes DNA is arranged in a single, circularly cromosome and is not surrounded by a membrane
  23. constitutive genes
    - expressed at a fixed rate
  24. repressor genes
    -switches inducible and repressible operons on or off
  25. inducible operon genes
    - prevents transcription
  26. catabilite repression gene
    -cap is not bound
  27. genetics
    -science of heredity
  28. genome
    -genetic info. In a cell
  29. chromosomes
    -structures containing dna
  30. genes
    -segments of dna
  31. -Effectiveness of alcohol
    used to degerm, kill bacteria and fungi
  32. spontaneous mutation
    -occur in the absence of a mutagen
  33. nonsense mutation
    -results in nonsense codon
  34. frameshift mutation
    -insertion or deletion of one or more nucleotide pairs
  35. -two directions of gene transfer
    • vertical gene transfer-occurs during reproduction between generations of cells
    • horizontal gene transfer-transfer of genes between cells of the same generation
  36. -lac operon (what happens when lactose and/or glucose is present)
    • lactose present, no glucose- RNA polymerase can bind and transcribe
    • lactose + glucose- RNA polymerase can’t bind
  37. Messenger RNA
    -carries the coded info for making specific proteins from DNA to ribosomes
  38. Ribosomal RNA
    -binds tRNAs to codons and make a chain of amino acids making a protein
  39. Transfer RNA
    -molecules both recognize the specific codons and transport the required amino acids
  40. enzymes and steps in DNA Replication
    5’ ---> 3’ direction
  41. steps in Transcription
    • transcribed to make rna
    • proceeds in 5 ---> 3’ direction
    • stops when it reaches the terminator sequence
  42. steps in Translation
    • Mrna is translated in codons
    • Starts at codon AUG
    • Ends at UAA, UAG, UGA
    • 64 sense codons on mRNA encode the 20 amino acids
    • genetic code is degenerate
    • tRNA carries the complementary anticodon
  43. -Know what the term semiconservative means in reference to DNA replication
    • double helix of parental dna separates
    • forms new base pairs
    • makes a daughter strand
  44. sterilization
    - removal of all forms of microbial life
  45. commercial sterilization
    -sufficient heat to kill endospores in canned food
  46. disinfection
    -destruction of vegetative pathogens
  47. antisepsis
    - destruction of vegetative pathogens on living tissue
  48. degerming
    - removal of microbes form a limited area
  49. sanitization
    - treatment to lower microbial counts
  50. -Know Growth Phases (see growth chart)
    • lag phase- little or no growth
    • log phase-growth
    • stationary phase-growth slows
    • death phase-population dies out
  51. -Know what we mean when we say nucleic acid
    dna or rna
  52. -Practice base pairing
    adenine always pairs with thymine and cytosine always pairs with guanine
  53. -Know steps of the Gram stain procedure
    • 1. crystal violet
    • 2. grams iodine
    • 3. acetone/alchohol mix
  54. -Term applied to molecular characteristic vs expressed characteristics
    Genomics
  55. base sustitution-
    change in one base
  56. missense mutation
    change in amino acid

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