super quiz section 4

Card Set Information

Author:
dog
ID:
37814
Filename:
super quiz section 4
Updated:
2010-09-27 21:10:48
Tags:
super quiz section
Folders:

Description:
super quiz section 4
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user dog on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. 1613. Benioff zones
    zones of shallow‐ to deep‐focus earthquakes present in collision zones (USQRG:86,1,0)
  2. 1614. geological feature that first alerted scientists to the presence and geometry of subduction zones
    Benioff zones (USQRG:86,1,0)
  3. 1615. three areas of plate tectonics that are not yet fully explained
    causes of plate motion, nature of mantle’s interaction with the crust, and causes of subduction (USQRG:86,1,1)
  4. 1616. cause of thermal movement in the mantle
    the release of heat from inside the Earth (USQRG:86,1,1)
  5. 1617. core (of the Earth)
    the central part of the Earth (USQRG:86,2,1; USQRG:101,2,3)
  6. 1618. composition of the Earth’s core
    nickel‐iron mixture (USQRG:86,2,1; USQRG:101,2,3)
  7. 1619. temperature in the Earth’s core
    5000°C (USQRG:86,2,1)
  8. 1620. two causes of the heat inside the Earth’s core
    remnants from the Earth’s creation and radioactive decay (USQRG:86,2,1)
  9. 1621. event that would occur if the Earth did not release heat into outer space
    The entire interior of the Earth would melt. (USQRG:86,2,1)
  10. 1622. two processes through which the Earth’s core releases heat
    conduction and convection (USQRG:86,2,2; USQRG:87,1,0)
  11. 1623. conduction
    process that passes heat from one atom to the next (USQRG:86,2,2)
  12. 1624. relative speed of conduction
    slow (USQRG:86,2,2)
  13. 1625. convection
    process that moves a whole heat pocket to the surface (USQRG:87,1,0)
  14. 1626. convection cell
    circuitous motion of heated material from bottom to top and back (USQRG:87,1,0)
  15. 1627. relative speed of convection
    fast (USQRG:87,1,0)
  16. 1628. ocean trench located near Tonga
    Tonga Trench (USQRG:87,fig)
  17. 1629. location of the island of Tonga
    Pacific Ocean (USQRG:87,fig)
  18. 1630. event that triggers earthquakes near the island of Tonga
    downward movement of the Pacific Plate (USQRG:87,fig)
  19. 1631. process through which the Earth’s mantle releases heat
    convection (USQRG:87,2,1)
  20. 1632. two physical changes that occur in rock deep in the Earth’s mantle after heating
    expansion and development of buoyancy (USQRG:87,2,1)
  21. 1633. relative speed with which heated rock in Earth’s mantle moves toward the surface
    very slowly (USQRG:87,2,1)
  22. 1634. type of movement of rock from the Earth’s mantle after nearing the surface
    lateral (USQRG:88,1,0)
  23. 1635. primary zone in which heated rock from the Earth’s mantle loses most of its heat
    asthenosphere (USQRG:88,1,0)
  24. 1636. most probable primary cause of the movement of lithospheric plates
    lateral movement of hot rock in the asthenosphere (USQRG:88,1,0)
  25. 1637. density of cool rock compared to that of hot rock
    greater (USQRG:88,1,0)
  26. 1638. mantle plumes
    long, thin blobs in which form hot rocks rise from the mantle (USQRG:88,2,0)
  27. 1639. geological feature on which the Hawaiian islands were formed
    mantle plumes (USQRG:88,2,0)
  28. 1640. three global geosystems
    climate system, plate tectonic system, and geodynamo (USQRG:89,1,1)
  29. 1641. size of the human population 10,000 years ago
    100 million (USQRG:89,1,2)
  30. 1642. year in which size of the human population reached 200 million
    roughly 3000 BC (USQRG:89,1,2)
  31. 1643. age in which the first doubling of the human population took place
    Bronze Age (USQRG:89,1,2)
  32. 1644. Bronze Age
    time period in which humans first learned to mine ores and refine them into metals (USQRG:89,1,2)
  33. 1645. two metals that humans learned to refine during the Bronze Age
    copper and tin (USQRG:89,1,2)
  34. 1646. time period in which the second doubling of the human population took place
    the late Middle Ages (USQRG:89,1,2)
  35. 1647. year in which the human population reached one billion
    1804 (USQRG:89,1,2)
  36. 1648. year in which the human population reached two billion
    1927 (USQRG:89,1,2)
  37. 1649. year in which the human population reached four billion
    1974 (USQRG:89,1,2)
  38. 1650. doubling time for the human population in the mid‐20th century
    47 years (USQRG:89,1,2)
  39. 1651. human population in 2007
    6.8 billion (USQRG:89,1,2)
  40. 1652. year in which the human population is expected to reach eight billion
    2028 (USQRG:89,1,2)
  41. 1653. Why should not the progress of civilization be taken for granted, according to Jordan and Grotzinger?
    limited natural resources on Earth (USQRG;89,1,3)
  42. 1654. How does the depletion of petroleum for energy relate to the potential for anthropogenic climate change?
    Both involve the flow of carbon from one component of the Earth system to another. (USQRG:89,2,2)
  43. 1655. Why is petroleum being depleted, in scientific terms?
    movement of carbon‐based fossil fuels from the lithosphere into the human energy system (USQRG:89,2,2)
  44. 1656. cause of possible future climate change
    the release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (USQRG:89,2,2)
  45. 1657. hydrocarbons
    compounds rich in hydrogen and carbon (USQRG:89,2,3)
  46. 1658. short form for quadrillion Btu
    quad (USQRG:89,2,4)
  47. 1659. total energy consumption of the United States in 2001
    97 quads (USQRG:89,2,4)
  48. 1660. percentage of the United States’ energy supplied by nonrenewable fossil fuels in 2001
    86% (USQRG:89,2,4)
  49. 1661. percentage of the United States’ energy supplied by renewable biomass in 2001
    3% (USQRG:89,2,4)
  50. 1662. three nonrenewable fossil fuels
    crude oil, natural gas, and coal (USQRG:89,2,4)
  51. 1663. carbon economy
    society that relies on carbon‐based energy sources (USQRG:89,2,4)
  52. 1664. percentage of the United States’ energy that was wasted in 2001
    60% (USQRG:89,2,4)
  53. 1665. gigaton
    1 billion tons (USQRG:90,1,1)
  54. 1666. gigatons of carbon released by the United States in 2001
    1.7 (USQRG:90,1,1)
  55. 1667. primary carbon compound released by the United States
    carbon dioxide (USQRG:90,1,1)
  56. 1668. gigatons of carbon released worldwide due to human energy production in 2001
    6.8 (USQRG:90,1,1)
  57. 1669. percentage of the world’s carbon released by the United States in 2001
    25% (USQRG:90,1,1)
  58. 1670. annual increase in carbon releases since 2001
    8 gigatons (USQRG:90,1,1)
  59. 1671. carbon cycle
    carbon compounds continually moving between the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, and lithosphere (USQRG:90,1,2)
  60. 1672. regulator of the carbon cycle in the pre‐human world
    slow rates at which geologic processes buried and unearthed organic matter (USQRG:90,1,2)
  61. 1673. preindustrial levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
    280 parts per million (USQRG:90,1,3)
  62. 1674. current levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
    380 parts per million (USQRG:90,1,3)
  63. 1675. When will atmospheric carbon dioxide levels double if fossil fuel consumption continues at the current rate?
    mid‐21st century (USQRG:90,1,3)
  64. 1676. era preceding the Bronze Age
    New Stone Age (USQRG:90,fig)
  65. 1677. era immediately after the Bronze Age
    the Iron Age (USQRG:90,fig)
  66. 1678. year in which the human population reached three billion
    1960 (USQRG:90,fig)
  67. 1679. year in which the human population reached five billion
    1987 (USQRG:90,fig)
  68. 1680. year in which the human population reached six billion
    2000 (USQRG:90,fig)
  69. 1681. reserves (of resources)
    confirmed supplies of materials that are currently exploitable (USQRG:90,2,2)
  70. 1682. resources
    total amount of materials present on the Earth (USQRG:90,2,2)
  71. 1683. total remaining nonrenewable energy resources on Earth as of 2007, in quads
    360,000 quads (USQRG:91,1,0)
  72. 1684. type of energy produced by uranium
    nuclear (USQRG:91,1,0)
  73. 1685. worldwide energy consumption in 2007
    460 quads (USQRG:91,1,1)
  74. 1686. total remaining uranium oxide resources on Earth as of 2007, in quads
    240,000 quads (USQRG:91,fig)
  75. 1687. total remaining coal and lignite resources on Earth as of 2007, in quads
    67,500 quads (USQRG:91,fig)
  76. 1688. total remaining heavy oil, tar sands, and oil shale resources on Earth as of 2007, in quads
    18,000 quads (USQRG:91,fig)
  77. 1689. total remaining crude oil resources on Earth as of 2007, in quads
    17,500 quads (USQRG:91,fig)
  78. 1690. total remaining crude oil resources on Earth as of 2007, in barrels
    3 trillion barrels (USQRG:91,fig)
  79. 1691. total remaining natural gas resources on Earth as of 2007, in quads
    14,800 quads (USQRG:91,fig)
  80. 1692. percentage of nonrenewable energy resources worldwide consisting of uranium oxide, as of 2007
    approximately 67% (USQRG:91,fig)
  81. 1693. two most important energy resources, according to Jordan and Grotzinger
    crude oil and natural gas (USQRG:91,2,1)
  82. 1694. rank of crude oil and natural gas in terms of remaining supplies of nonrenewable energy resources
    4 and 5 (USQRG:91,fig; 91,2,1)
  83. 1695. two microorganisms that eventually form nonrenewable energy resources
    bacteria and algae (USQRG:91,2,1)
  84. 1696. type of basins in which oil and gas begin to form
    sedimentary (USQRG:91,2,2)
  85. 1697. relative level of organic matter in basins in which oil and gas form
    high (USQRG:91,2,2)
  86. 1698. relative oxygen levels in basins in which oil and gas form
    inadequate to decompose all organic matter (USQRG:91,2,2)
  87. 1699. relative rate of sedimentation in basins in which oil and gas form
    high (USQRG:91,2,2)
  88. 1700. source beds
    sedimentary basins in which oil and gas begin to form (USQRG:91,2,3)
  89. 1701. simplest hydrocarbon
    methane (USQRG:92,1,0)
  90. 1702. chemical formula of methane
    CH4 (USQRG:92,1,0)
  91. 1703. another name for natural gas
    methane (USQRG:92,1,0)
  92. 1704. another name for crude oil
    raw petroleum (USQRG:92,1,0)
  93. 1705. oil window
    range of pressures and temperatures at which crude oil forms (USQRG:92,1,1)
  94. 1706. typical depth of the oil window
    between two and five kilometers (USQRG:92,1,1)
  95. 1707. maximum temperature of the oil window
    approximately 150°C (USQRG:92,1,1)
  96. 1708. event that does not occur at temperatures below that of the oil window
    transformation of organic material into hydrocarbons (USQRG:92,1,1)
  97. 1709. event that occurs at temperatures above that of the oil window
    breaking down of all hydrocarbons into methane (USQRG:92,1,1)
  98. 1710. hydrocarbon reservoirs
    underground rocks that house crude oil and natural gas (USQRG:92,2,0)
  99. 1711. process that forces crude oil and natural gas into hydrocarbon reservoirs
    compaction (USQRG:92,1,2)
  100. 1712. relative density of oil and gas in hydrocarbon reservoirs
    low (USQRG:92,2,0)
  101. 1713. compound that almost always occupies the pores of permeable rock formations
    water (USQRG:92,2,0)
  102. 1714. How do crude oil and natural gas act in water?
    float (USQRG:92,2,0)
  103. 1715. oil trap
    impermeable combination of geological structures and rock types that prevents upward migration (USQRG:92,2,1)
  104. 1716. structural traps
    oil traps created by structural deformation (USQRG:92,2,1)
  105. 1717. anticline
    arch‐shaped fold in rock in which the oldest rocks are in the core (USQRG:92,2,1; USQRG:101,1,4)
  106. 1718. anticlinal trap
    oil trap formed by an impermeable layer of shale overlaying a permeable sandstone formation (USQRG:92,2,1)
  107. 1719. location of oil and gas accumulation in an anticlinal trap
    the crest of the anticline (USQRG:93,1,0)
  108. 1720. portion of an anticlinal trap saturated by groundwater
    sandstone (USQRG:93,1,0)
  109. 1721. most common permeable rock in oil traps near faults
    limestone (USQRG:93,1,0)
  110. 1722. location of natural gas relative to oil in an anticlinal trap
    directly above (USQRG:93,1,0)
  111. 1723. stratigraphic traps
    oil traps created by original patterns of sedimentation (USQRG:93,1,1)
  112. 1724. salt dome trap
    oil trap formed by an impermeable mass of salt (USQRG:93,1,1)
  113. 1725. What type of oil trap is an anticlinal trap?
    structural trap (USQRG:92,2,1)
  114. 1726. What type of oil trap is a fault trap?
    structural trap (USQRG:93,1,0)
  115. 1727. country with the largest proven oil reserves, as of 2006
    Saudi Arabia (USQRG:93,fig)
  116. 1728. How many of the five countries with the largest proven oil reserves, as of 2006, are in the Middle East?
    4 (USQRG:93,fig)
  117. 1729. South American country with the largest proven oil reserves, as of 2006
    Venezuela (USQRG:93,fig)
  118. 1730. North American country with the largest proven oil reserves, as of 2006
    Canada (USQRG:93,fig)
  119. 1731. African country with the largest proven oil reserves, as of 2006
    Libya (USQRG:93,fig)
  120. 1732. only European country with one of the 20 largest proven oil reserves, as of 2006
    Norway (USQRG:93,fig)
  121. 1733. non‐Middle Eastern Asian country with the largest proven oil reserves, as of 2006
    Russia (USQRG:93,fig)
  122. 1734. five Western Hemisphere countries with one of the 20 largest proven oil reserves globally, as of 2006
    Canada, United States, Mexico, Venezuela, and Brazil (USQRG:93,fig)
  123. 1735. three African countries with one of the 20 largest proven oil reserves globally, as of 2006
    Algeria, Libya, and Nigeria (USQRG:93,fig)
  124. 1736. seven Middle Eastern countries with one of the 20 largest proven oil reserves globally, as of 2006
    Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates (USQRG:93,fig)
  125. 1737. number of barrels of proven oil reserves in the 20 countries with the largest reserves, as of 2006
    1224.5 billion (USQRG:93,fig)
  126. 1738. number of barrels of proven oil reserves of all countries not in the top 20, as of 2006
    68.1 billion (USQRG:93,fig)
  127. 1739. four conditions necessary for an oil trap to contain crude oil or natural gas
    source beds, certain necessary chemical reactions, migration of oil, and safety from heating and deformation (USQRG:93,1,2)
  128. 1740. number of gallons per barrel
    42 (USQRG:93,2,1)
  129. 1741. fraction of the world’s oil reserves found in the Middle East
    two‐thirds (USQRG:93,2,1)
  130. 1742. region of Azerbaijan rich in oil reserves
    Baku (USQRG:93,2,1)
  131. 1743. ancient ocean that once existed near the Middle East
    Tethys (USQRG:93,2,1)
  132. 1744. rank of the Ghawar field amongst the world’s largest oil fields
    1 (USQRG:93,2,1)
  133. 1745. country in which the Ghawar oil field is located
    Saudi Arabia (USQRG:93,2,1)
  134. 1746. year in which the Ghawar oil field began production
    1948 (USQRG:93,2,1)
  135. 1747. expected lifetime production of the Ghawar oil field
    88 billion barrels of oil (USQRG:93,2,1)
  136. 1748. only five countries with oil reserves larger than that of the Ghawar oil field
    Canada, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates (USQRG:93,2,1; USQRG:93,fig)
  137. 1749. location of most oil reserves in the Western Hemisphere
    Gulf Coast‐Caribbean area (USQRG:93,2,2)
  138. 1750. percentage of the world’s oil reserves found in Saudi Arabia
    22% (USQRG:93,2,2)
  139. 1751. percentage of the world’s oil reserves found in the United States
    2.5% (USQRG:94,1,0)
  140. 1752. rank of the United States amongst countries with the largest oil reserves
    10 (USQRG:94,1,0)
  141. 1753. four countries with significant oil reserves in the Gulf Coast‐Caribbean area
    United States, Mexico, Colombia, and Venezuela (USQRG:93,2,2)
  142. 1754. worldwide oil production, as of 2004
    30 billion barrels (USQRG:94,1,1)
  143. 1755. percentage increase of worldwide oil production in 2004, compared to 2003
    3.4% (USQRG:94,1,1)
  144. 1756. annual United States oil production as of 2004
    2 billion barrels (USQRG:94,1,1)
  145. 1757. two countries with higher oil production than the United States in 2004
    Saudi Arabia and Russia (USQRG:94,1,1)
  146. 1758. annual United States oil consumption, as of 2004
    7.5 billion barrels (USQRG:94,1,1)
  147. 1759. fraction of annual worldwide oil production consumed by the United States, as of 2004
    one‐quarter (USQRG:94,1,1)
  148. 1760. annual percentage growth of the gap between United States oil production and consumption
    5% (USQRG:94,1,1)
  149. 1761. United States trade imbalance due to the importing of oil, as of 2004
    $174 billion (USQRG:94,1,1)
  150. 1762. rank of the oil trade imbalance among factors contributing to the United States foreign trade deficit, as of 2004
    1 (USQRG:94,1,1)
  151. 1763. number of American states with commercial oil reserves
    34 (USQRG:94,1,2)
  152. 1764. mature oil producer
    country in which most petroleum resources have been exploited (USQRG:94,1,2)
  153. 1765. year in which American production of oil reached its peak
    1970 (USQRG:94,2,0)
  154. 1766. shape of the curve of American oil production through time
    bell‐shaped (USQRG:94,2,0)
  155. 1767. term for the high point of the curve of United States oil production over time
    Hubbert’s peak (USQRG:94,2,0)
  156. 1768. person that Hubbert’s peak is named after
    M. King Hubbert (USQRG:94,2,0)
  157. 1769. two measures used by M. King Hubbert to predict the decline of United States oil production
    the production rate and the rate of discovery of new reserves (USQRG:94,2,0)
  158. 1770. year in which M. King Hubbert predicted the decline of United States oil production
    1956 (USQRG:94,2,0)
  159. 1771. time period that M. King Hubbert predicted would mark the decline of United States oil production
    the early 1970s (USQRG:94,20)
  160. 1772. How did the United States receive M. King Hubbert’s predictions about the decline of its oil production?
    dismissed the ideas as overly pessimistic (USQRG:94,2,0)
  161. 1773. decade which marked the first major increase in oil importation for the United States
    the 1970s (USQRG:94,fig)
  162. 1774. decade in which American oil imports surpassed production
    the 1990s (USQRG:94,fig)
  163. 1775. decade in which American oil imports surpassed ten million barrels per day
    the 2000s (USQRG:94,fig)
  164. 1776. federal department that houses the Energy Information Administration
    the Department of Energy (USQRG:94,fig)
  165. 1777. rate of American oil production at its peak
    approximately 9.5 million barrels per day (USQRG:94,fig)
  166. 1778. decade in which American oil imports reached one million barrels per day
    the 1950s (USQRG:94,fig)
  167. 1779. approximate rate of American oil production in 2005
    five million barrels per day (USQRG:94,fig)
  168. 1780. How long will the world’s known oil reserves last, based on the current production rate?
    40 years (USQRG:94,2,1)
  169. 1781. Why do Jordan and Grotzinger state that the world’s oil supply will outlast proven oil reserves?
    Some oil resources have not been discovered. (USQRG:94,2,1)
  170. 1782. Jordan and Grotzinger’s theorized main use for oil as supplies dwindle and prices increase
    feedstock for the petrochemical industry (USQRG:95,1,0)
  171. 1783. two key products of the petrochemical industry
    plastics and fertilizers (USQRG:95,1,0)
  172. 1784. percentage of global oil production consumed by the petrochemical industry, as of 2008
    7% (USQRG:95,1,0)
  173. 1785. profession of Ken Deffeyes
    oil geologist (USQRG:95,1,0)
  174. 1786. subject of the quote, “All those lovely organic molecules, and they just burned it?”
    oil (USQRG:95,1,0)
  175. 1787. key question about oil production, according to Jordan and Grotzinger
    when oil production will begin to decline (USQRG:95,1,1)
  176. 1788. point of oil production at which demand will begin to rapidly outstrip supply
    Hubbert’s peak (USQRG:95,1,1)
  177. 1789. How long will undiscovered oil satisfy world demand, according to oil optimists?
    several decades (USQRG:95,1,2)
  178. 1790. federal agency responsible for estimating energy resources
    United States Geological Survey (USQRG:95,1,2)
  179. 1791. amount of total oil resources compared to that of proven reserves, according to a 2000 United States Geological Survey report
    double (USQRG:95,2,0)
  180. 1792. percentage increase in estimated total oil resources reported by the United States Geological Survey in 2000 over 1994
    20% (USQRG:95,2,0)
  181. 1793. Colin Campbell’s occupation
    petroleum geologist (USQRG:95,2,1)
  182. 1794. beginning of the decline in oil production, according to Colin Campbell
    shortly after 2010 (USQRG:95,2,1)
  183. 1795. factor by which the United States Geological Survey overestimated the world’s total oil resources, according to Colin Campbell
    2 (USQRG:95,2,1)
  184. 1796. Morris Adelman’s occupation
    economist (USQRG:95,2,2)
  185. 1797. Morris Adelman’s university
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (USQRG:95,2,2)
  186. 1798. two factors that Morris Adelman believes will increase oil supplies
    improved oil exploration and production technology (USQRG:95,2,2)
  187. 1799. region of Alaska containing large oil and gas resources
    the northern coastal plain (USQRG:96,1,1)
  188. 1800. submerged North American features containing large oil and gas resources
    continental shelves (USQRG:96,1,1)
  189. 1801. state in which Santa Barbara is located
    California (USQRG:96,1,1)
  190. 1802. year in which Santa Barbara was affected by an oil spill
    1969 (USQRG:96,1,1)
  191. 1803. cause of the 1969 oil spill that affected Santa Barbara
    accidental release of oil from an offshore drilling platform (USQRG:96,1,1)
  192. 1804. coast most affected by the 1979 oil spill resulting from a well blow out
    Yucatan (USQRG:96,1,1)
  193. 1805. rate of oil spillage during the 1979 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico
    100,000 barrels per day (USQRG:96,1,1)
  194. 1806. length of time it took to cap the 1979 oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico
    several weeks (USQRG:96,1,1)
  195. 1807. year of the Exxon Valdez oil spill
    1989 (USQRG:96,1,1)
  196. 1808. state most affected by the Exxon Valdez oil spill
    Alaska (USQRG:96,1,1)
  197. 1809. total amount of oil spilled by the Exxon Valdez
    240,000 barrels (USQRG:96,1,1)
  198. 1810. oil spill which was extensively covered by the media, increasing public awareness about the effects of oil spills
    Exxon Valdez oil spill (USQRG:96,1,1)
  199. 1811. United States refuge often abbreviated as ANWR
    Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (USQRG:96,1,2)
  200. 1812. state in which the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is located
    Alaska (USQRG:96,1,2)
  201. 1813. estimated amount of oil present in the ANWR
    20 billion to 30 billion barrels (USQRG:96,1,2)
  202. 1814. estimated amount of oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge that could be economically produced
    4 billion to 12 billion barrels (USQRG:96,1,2)
  203. 1815. three animals that use the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge as a central breeding ground
    caribou, musk‐oxen, and snow geese (USQRG:96,1,2)
  204. 1816. permeability of tight sandstones compared to that of other sandstones
    less permeable (USQRG:96,2,0)
  205. 1817. five geological settings in which natural gas traps have recently been discovered
    very deep formations, overthrust belts, coal beds, tight sandstones, and shales (USQRG:96,2,0)
  206. 1818. two compounds produced by the combustion of methane
    carbon dioxide and water (USQRG:96,2,1)
  207. 1819. primary cause of acid rain
    sulfur dioxide (USQRG:96,2,1)
  208. 1820. four compounds produced by the combustion of coal or oil
    carbon dioxide, water, ash, and sulfur dioxide (USQRG:96,2,1)
  209. 1821. carbon dioxide produced per unit of energy of natural gas as a percentage of that of oil
    70% (USQRG:96,2,1)
  210. 1822. carbon dioxide produced per unit of energy of natural gas as a percentage of that of coal
    60% (USQRG:96,2,1)
  211. 1823. fossil fuel often abbreviated as LNG
    liquefied natural gas (USQRG:96,2,1)
  212. 1824. main risk associated with LNG facilities
    large explosions (USQRG:96,2,1)
  213. 1825. percentage of fossil‐fuel consumption in the United States supplied by natural gas
    24% (USQRG:96,2,2)
  214. 1826. three areas in which natural gas is consumed
    industry and commerce, residential use, and the generation of electric power (USQRG:96,2,2)
  215. 1827. two countries from which the United States obtains most of its imported natural gas
    Canada and Mexico (USQRG:96,2,2)
  216. 1828. percentage of natural gas in the United States consumed by industry and commerce
    55% (USQRG:96,2,2)
  217. 1829. percentage of natural gas in the United States consumed for residential use
    24% (USQRG:96,2,2)
  218. 1830. percentage of natural gas in the United States consumed to generate electrical power
    21% (USQRG:96,2,2)
  219. 1831. length of time for which gas reserves will last in the United States, based on current consumption rates
    10 years (USQRG:96,2,2)
  220. 1832. evidence that coal forms from large accumulations of plant material in wetlands
    abundant plant fossils in coal beds (USQRG:96,2,3)
  221. 1833. two ways in which dead plant material was protected from complete decay before fossilizing in coal beds
    rapid burial by falling leaves and immersion in water (USQRG:96,2,3)
  222. 1834. peat
    mass of organic matter in which twigs, roots, and other plant parts are still recognizable (USQRG:96,2,3)
  223. 1835. color of peat
    brown (USQRG:96,2,3)
  224. 1836. two locations in which the accumulation of peat in oxygen‐poor environments is readily seen
    modern swamps and peat bogs (USQRG:96,2,3)
  225. 1837. percentage of peat consisting of carbon
    50% (USQRG:96,2,3)
  226. 1838. lignite
    coal‐like material formed from compressed and heated peat (USQRG:96,2,4)
  227. 1839. relative hardness of lignite
    very soft (USQRG:96,2,4)
  228. 1840. color of lignite
    brownish black (USQRG:96,2,4)
  229. 1841. percentage of lignite consisting of carbon
    70% (USQRG:96,2,4)
  230. 1842. sub‐bituminous and bituminous coal
    soft coal metamorphosed from lignite (USQRG:97,1,0)
  231. 1843. anthracite
    hard coal metamorphosed from sub‐bituminous and bituminous coal (USQRG:97,1,0)
  232. 1844. correlation between the grade of metamorphism and the hardness of coal
    the higher the grade of metamorphism, the harder the coal (USQRG:97,1,0)
  233. 1845. correlation between carbon content and energy content of coal
    the higher the carbon content, the higher the energy content (USQRG:97,1,0)
  234. 1846. percentage of anthracite consisting of carbon
    90% (USQRG:97,1,0)
  235. 1847. type of coal with the highest energy content
    anthracite (USQRG:96,2,3; USQRG:96,2,4; USQRG:97,1,0)
  236. 1848. percentage of the world’s mineable coal that has been used to produce energy
    2.5% (USQRG:97,1,1)
  237. 1849. estimated metric tons of coal remaining on Earth
    3.1 trillion (USQRG:97,1,1)
  238. 1850. three areas that hold 85% of the world’s coal resources
    China, the United States, and the former Soviet Union (USQRG:97,2,0)
  239. 1851. annual consumption of coal in the United States
    one billion tons (USQRG:97,2,0)
  240. 1852. How long will the United States’ coal resources last, based on current consumption rates?
    a few hundred years (USQRG:97,2,0)
  241. 1853. year that coal as a proportion of total United States energy consumption began to increase
    1975 (USQRG:97,2,0)
  242. 1854. event that increased coal use as a proportion of total United States energy consumption
    rise in the price of oil (USQRG:97,2,0)
  243. 1855. percentage of the United States’ energy supplied by coal
    22% (USQRG:97,2,0)
  244. 1856. carbon dioxide produced per unit of energy of coal as a percentage of that of oil
    125% (USQRG:97,2,1)
  245. 1857. four regions for which acid rain has become a severe problem
    Canada, Scandinavia, the northeastern United States, and Eastern Europe (USQRG:98,1,0)
  246. 1858. coal ash
    inorganic residue remaining after coal is burned (USQRG:98,1,1)
  247. 1859. amount of ash left over from the burning of 100 tons of coal
    several tons (USQRG:98,1,1)
  248. 1860. toxic materials in coal ash
    metal impurities (USQRG:98,1,1)
  249. 1861. annual number of coal miner deaths in China
    4,000 (USQRG:98,1,2)
  250. 1862. black lung
    inflammation of the lungs caused by the inhalation of coal particles (USQRG:98,1,2)
  251. 1863. strip mining
    removal of soil and surface sediments to expose coal beds (USQRG:98,1,2)
  252. 1864. effect of strip mining on land
    ravages the land if it is not restored (USQRG:98,1,2)
  253. 1865. two chemical emissions reduced by clean coal combustion
    sulfur and mercury (USQRG:98,1,3)
  254. 1866. oil shale
    mud rock that yields oil through distillation (USQRG:98,1,4; USQRG:102, 2,10)
  255. 1867. type of source bed rich in organic material that never reached the oil window
    oil shale (USQRG:98,1,4)
  256. 1868. two substances created in formations that once contained oil
    heavy oil and natural bitumen (USQRG:98,1,4)
  257. 1869. consistency of natural bitumen
    tarlike (USQRG:98,1,4)
  258. 1870. tar sands
    oil reservoir from which the volatiles have escaped, leaving the sediment impregnated with residue (USQRG:98,1,4; USQRG:103,2,2)
  259. 1871. type of hydrocarbon deposit found in the tar sands of Alberta, Canada
    natural bitumen (USQRG:98,1,4)
  260. 1872. estimated size of the hydrocarbon reserve in Alberta tar sands
    180 billion barrels of oil (USQRG:98,1,4)
  261. 1873. estimated size of the hydrocarbon resource in Alberta tar sands
    1.8 trillion barrels of oil (USQRG:98,1,4)
  262. 1874. annual oil extraction from Alberta tar sands
    400 million barrels of oil (USQRG:98,1,4)
  263. 1875. factor by which Canadian oil production will increase by 2030 over current production levels
    5 (USQRG:98,1,4)
  264. 1876. percentage of world demand for oil that will be met by Canadian production by 2030
    5% (USQRG:98,1,4)
  265. 1877. amount of mined tar sands used to produce one barrel of oil
    2 tons (USQRG:98,1,5)
  266. 1878. fraction of energy obtained from in oil production from tar sands that is consumed by the process
    two‐thirds (USQRG:98,1,5)
  267. 1879. carbon dioxide emissions from oil production in tar sands relative to conventional oil production
    6 times more (USQRG:98,1,5)
  268. 1880. texture of grain in oil shale
    fine‐grained (USQRG:98,2,1)
  269. 1881. material rich in oil shale
    clay (USQRG:98,2,1)
  270. 1882. two bordering American states with extensive oil shales
    Colorado and Utah (USQRG:98,2,1)
  271. 1883. decade in which oil companies tried to commercialize extensive oil shales in the United States
    the 1970s (USQRG:98,2,1)
  272. 1884. decade in which oil companies abandoned plans to commercialize extensive oil shales in the United States
    the 1980s (USQRG:98,2,1)
  273. 1885. three reasons oil companies abandoned plans to commercialize extensive oil shales in the United States
    fall of oil prices, concerns over environmental damage, and technological problems (USQRG:98,2,1)
  274. 1886. relative efficiency of producing energy from oil shale
    very low (USQRG:98,2,1)
  275. 1887. resource required in large quantities to extract oil from oil shales
    water (USQRG:98,2,1)
  276. 1888. geomorphology
    study of the landforms of the Earth and the processes which have formed them (USQRG:98,2,2)
  277. 1889. the four most important processes redistributing Earth materials
    plate tectonics, volcanic activity, river flow, and glacial movement (USQRG:98,2,2)
  278. 1890. number of tons of rock and sediment moved by natural forces each year
    more than 100 billion tons (USQRG:98,2,2)
  279. 1891. number of tons of rock and sediment moved by humans each year
    approximately 40 billion tons (USQRG:98,2,2)
  280. 1892. species that has most shaped the surface of the Earth, according to Monastersky
    humans (USQRG:98,2,2)
  281. 1893. space program that included Buzz Aldrin’s mission to the moon
    Apollo (USQRG:99,1,1)
  282. 1894. distance from Earth to the Moon
    400,000 kilometers (USQRG:99,1,1)
  283. 1895. job of an astronaut on the Moon, according to Buzz Aldrin
    “not tripping over the television cable” (USQRG:99,1,2)
  284. 1896. From where in space can astronauts see man‐made objects on the Earth?
    the space shuttle (USQRG:99,1,3)
  285. 1897. Jeffrey Hoffman’s occupation
    astronaut (USQRG:99,1,4)
  286. 1898. Roger L. Hooke’s university
    University of Minnesota (USQRG:99,1,5)
  287. 1899. Roger L. Hooke’s occupation
    geomorphologist (USQRG:99,1,5; USQRG:99,1,8)
  288. 1900. average amount of earth moved annually per person
    7 tons (USQRG:99,1,6)

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview