Endocrine System

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Author:
wolftribe
ID:
3783
Filename:
Endocrine System
Updated:
2010-01-06 21:41:37
Tags:
endocrine system glands
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Description:
Glands and what they secrete
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  1. Anterior Pituitary Gland Hormones
    • Growth Hormone (GH)
    • Prolactin (PRL)
    • Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH)
    • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
    • Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    • Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
  2. Growth Hormone (GH)
    • Stimulates cells to increase in size and divide.
    • It also enhances the movement of amino acids across cell membranes and speeds the rate at which cells utilize carbs and fats.
  3. Prolactin (PRL)
    Stimulates and sustains a woman's milk production following the birth if an infant
  4. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
    Controls thyroid gland secretions
  5. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
    Controls the manufacture and secretion of certain hormones from the outer layer (cortex) of the adrenal gland
  6. Posterior Pituitary Hormones
    • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    • Oxytocin (OT)

    *Travel down axons
  7. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    Decreases urine formation
  8. Oxytocin (OT)
    Produces contractions in labor
  9. Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    Gonadotrophins
  10. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
    Gonadotrophins
  11. Thyroid Gland Hormones
    • Thyroxine
    • Triiodothyronine
    • Calcitonin
  12. Thyroxine (T4)
    • (4 atoms of iodine)
    • increases rate of energy release from carbohydrates
    • increases rate of protein synthesis
    • accelerates growth
    • stimulates activity in nervous system
  13. Triiodothyronine (T3)
    • (3 atoms of iodine)
    • 5 times more potent then thyroxine (T4)
    • increases rate of energy release from carbohydrates
    • increases rate of protein synthesis
    • accelerates growth
    • stimulates activity in nervous system
  14. Calcitonin
    lowers blood calcium and phosphate ion concentrations by inhibiting release of calcium and phosphate ions from bones and by increasing excretion of these ions by kidneys
  15. Parathyroid glands
    Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
  16. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
    • increases blood calcium concentration and decreases blood phosphate ion concentration
    • affects the bones, kidneys, and intestine
  17. Adrenal Glands - two parts?
    • adrenal cortex (outer)
    • adrenal medulla (center)
  18. adrenal cortex
    • steroids:
    • aldosterone
    • cortisol
    • adrenal androgens
  19. aldosterone
    helps regulate concentration of extracellular electrolytes by conserving sodium ions and excreting potassium ions
  20. cortisol
    • decreases protein synthesis
    • increases fatty acid release
    • stimulates glucose synthesis from noncarbohydrates
  21. adrenal androgens
    supplement sex hormones from the gonads; may be converted to estrogens in females
  22. adrenal medulla
    • epinephrine
    • norepinephrine
  23. epinephrine
    • increase heart rate, the force of cardiac muscle contraction, breathing rate, and blood glucose level
    • elevate blood pressure and decrease digestive activity
  24. norepinephrine
    • increase heart rate,the force of cardiac muscle contraction, breathing rate, and blood glucose level
    • elevate blood pressure and decrease digestice activity
  25. Pancreas Structure and Hormones
    • pancreatic islets (Islets of Langerhans)
    • Alpha cells - glucagon (hormone)
    • Beta cells - insulin (hormone)

    (Also functions as a exocrine gland and secretes digestive juice)
  26. glucagon
    stimulates the liver to break down glycogen and convert certain noncarbs, such as amino acids, into glucose, raising blood sugar concentration
  27. insulin
    • stimulates the liver to form glycogen fron glucose and inhibits conversion on noncarbs into glucose
    • has the special effect of promoting facilitated diffusion of glucose across cell membranes that have insulin receptors
  28. pineal gland
    melatonin hormone
  29. melatonin hormone
    • responds to lighting conditions outside the body
    • in the dark melatonin secretion increases
    • acts on certain brain regions that function as a "biological clock" and may thereby help to regulate sleep patterns
  30. Thymus gland
    thymosines hormone
  31. thymosines hormone
    • affect the production and differentiation of certain white blood cells
    • plays an important role in immunity

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