Six Sigma Definitions

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Six Sigma Definitions
2010-09-27 22:28:34
Six Sigma Definitions

Six Sigma Definitions
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  1. DMAIC
    • Define
    • Measure
    • Analyze
    • Improve
    • Control
  2. DMADV (Also known as "Design For Six Sigma")
    • Define design goals
    • Measure and identify CTQ's.
    • Analyze to develop and design alternatives
    • Design details (play for verification/simulations)
    • Verify the design (setup pilot runs and implement)
  3. Control Chart
    Monitors variance in a process over time and alerts the business to unexpected variance which may cause defects.
  4. Pareto Diagram
    Based on the proven Pareto principle: 20% of the sources cause 80% of any problems. Focuses on efforts or the problems that have the greatest potential for improvement. Created by Vilfredo Pareto an italian economist.
  5. Critical to Quality
    Attributes most important to the customer
  6. Defect
    Failing to deliver what the customer wants. May not always mean a failure.
  7. Precision
    How widely spread the variation of your measurement system is compared to the actual. This goes towards reproducability or repeatability.
  8. Accurate
    This shows how centered your MSA is with the actual variation of the process. A stable MSA that is accurate os one that stays centered and free of changes.
  9. Six Sigma or (Z) Score
    Defined as 3.4 defects per million opportunities
  10. Stratification
    Dividing data into groups (strata) based on key characteristics. Typically these are:

    • * People
    • * Process step
    • * Product/Service
    • * Machines/Equipment
    • * Location
    • * Suppliers
    • * Time/Day
    • * Suppliers
  11. Y = F(x)
    In Six Sigma it is usually used in the expression of Y=f(X), where the output (Y) is a function of the inputs (X).
  12. Mean
    Average of all of the values
  13. Poka-Yoke
    Japanese term that means "mistake-proof"
  14. DPPM
    Defective Parts Per Million
  15. DPMO
    Defects Per Million Opportunities
  16. Mode
    Value observed most frequently

    20-20-21-7-3-5-7-20 would be 20
  17. Range
    Difference between the largest and the smallest data values.

    • r = xmin - xmax
    • 2-4-6-7-10 would be 10-2 or 8
  18. Median
    This is the point where half of the data points are over the line and half are below it.

    1,2,3,8,9,12,16 is 8... if the number is odd then the two numbers are divided.
  19. What are the two voices of a process?
    • Voice of the process - is it stable?
    • Voice of the customer - is it capable?

    Capability is how well the voice of your process matches up with the VOC and how it meets their customer expectations.
  20. Benchmark
    A standard against which measurements or comparisons can be made.
  21. ANOVA
    Analysis of Variance: A statistical test for identifying significant differences between process or system treatments or conditions. It is done by comparing the variances around the means of the conditions being compared.
  22. Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ)
    The costs associated with any activity that is not doing the right thing right the first time. It is the financial qualification of any waste that is not integral to the product or service.
  23. Entitlement
    The best demonstrated performance for an existing configuration of a process or system. It is an empirical demonstration of what level of improvement can potentially be reached.
  24. FMEA
    Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) - A procedure used to identify, assess, and mitigate risks associated with potential product, system, or process failure modes.
  25. Metric
    A measure that is considered to be a key indicator of performance. It should be linked to goals or objectives and carefully monitored.
  26. Nominal Group Technique
    A decision making method for use among groups of many sizes, who want to make their decision quickly, as by a vote, but want everyone's opinions taken into account. Usually introduction and explanation occurs, then silent generation of ideas, then sharing ideas, group discussion, and voting and ranking of those ideas.
  27. QFD
    Quality Function Deployment (QFD) - A systematic process used to integrate customer requirements into every aspect of the design and delivery of products and services.
  28. RPN
    Risk Priority Number (RPN) - In Failure Mode Effects Analysis, the aggregate score of a failure mode including its severity, frequency of occurrence, and ability to be detected.
  29. RTY
    Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY) - The probability of a unit going through all process steps or system characteristics with zero defects.
  30. RUMBA
    An acronym used to describe a method to determine the validity of customer requirements. It stands for reasonable, understandable, measurable, believable, and achievable.
  31. VOB
    Voice of the Business (VOB) - Represents the needs of the business and the key stakeholders of the business. It is usually items such as profitability, revenue, growth, market share, etc.