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2010-09-29 04:33:40
bio test

Bio test 1
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  1. Gregor Mendel
    Developed laws of inheritance; peas
  2. Mendel's Model
    • 1. Trait variation is due to alternative versions (alleles) of heritable factors (genes)
    • 2. for each character an organism inherits 2 alleles
    • 3. dominant alleles mask recessive alleles
  3. law of segregation
    two alleles for a heritable character segregate during gamete formation and end up in different gametes
  4. law of independent assortment
    different alleles of different loci sort independently
  5. Eugenics Movement
    breeding "better" humans. forcibly sterilize people
  6. diploid cell
    2 sets of chromosomes
  7. Thomas Hunt Morgan
    fruit fly experiments provided frist strong evidence genes are chromosomal
  8. transform
    change phenotype and genotype
  9. Hershey & Chase
    used bacteriophage to show that viral DNA can program cells
  10. Franklin & Wilkins
    made x-ray diffraction images of DNA
  11. Watson & Crick
    used Franklin&Wilkins's x-ray images to deduce the double helix
  12. character
    heritable feature that varies among individuals
  13. trait
    each variant for a character (purple color)
  14. phenotype
    appearance or observable traits
  15. genotype
    genetic makeup
  16. monohybrid
    heterozygous for one character
  17. dihybrid
    heterozygous for two characters
  18. quantitative characters
    when either-or classification is impossible b/c the characters vary in the population; a continuum
  19. polygenic inheritance
    an additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character
  20. Linneaus
    developed classification system to reveal divine order of life; father of taxonomy
  21. Cuvier
    found diff fossils in diff strata and inferred extinction
  22. Hutton & Lyle
    found earth's features explained by processes currently operating; implied earth is >>>6000 yrs
  23. Erasmus Darwin
    evolution from a common ancestor, competition and sexual selection responsible for species change. vague ideas of transmutation
  24. Lamarck's theory
    developed comprehensive theory of evolution that included discredited theory of inheritance of acquired characters
  25. Alfred Russell Wallace
    independently described an evolutionary system almost identical to Darwin's
  26. Darwin's Theory
    • 1. members of a population often vary greatly in their traits
    • 2. individuals inherit traits from parents
    • 3. all species are capable of producing many more offspring than their environment can support
    • 4. owned to lack of food or other resources many of these offspring don't survive
  27. homologous characters
    similarities due to common ancestry. homologous structures with very diff functions
  28. vestigial traits
    historical remnants of traits important for ancestry (things that have reduced or have no function; due to ancestors who did have use for them, i.e. appendix in humans)
  29. molecular homology
    genetic code due to descent from common ancestors rather than individual creation
  30. point mutation
    single-base substitutions caused by error in DNA synthesis or repair
  31. insertions/deletion
    caus addition/loss of amino acids, frame shifts or truncated proteins
  32. gene duplications
    duplications of short stretch of DNA caused by unequal crossovers during meiosis or strand slippage during DNA replication
  33. chromosome inversion
    breaks in 2 places, flips and reanneals
  34. polyploidization
    organism have more than 2 sets of chromosomes
  35. random genetic drift
    changes in allele frequencies within populations which result from chance variation in individual survival and reproduction
  36. gene flow
    consists of genetic addiction/subtractions resulting from movement of fertile individuals or gametes
  37. stabilizing selection
    selection against both extremes
  38. directional selection
    selection against an extreme
  39. disruptive selection
    selection against intermediate phenotype
  40. sexual selection
    natural selection for mating success can result in sexual dimorphism, sexually selected traits may be bad for survival
  41. diploid
    containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent
  42. balancing selection
    occurs when natural selection maintains two or more forms in population, leads to a state called balanced polymorphism
  43. anagenesis
    transforms one species into another
  44. cladogenesis
    splitting of the gene pool, giving rise to one or more new species
  45. prezygotic barriers
    • impede mating or hinder fertilization if mating occurs
    • 1. habitat isolation
    • 2. temporal isolation
    • 3. behavioral isolation
    • 4. mechanical isolation
    • 5. gametic isolation
  46. postzygotic barriers
    • prevent the hybrid zygote from developing into a viable fertile adult
    • 1. reduced hybrid viability (genes of diff parent species may interact and impair hybrid development)
    • 2. reduced hybrid fertility
    • 3. hybrid breakdown
  47. autopolyploid
    extra chromosome sets derived from one species
  48. allopolyploid
    has chromosome sets derived from two diff species
  49. adaptive radiation
    the evolution of diversely adapted species from a common ancestor upon introduction to new environmental opportunities
  50. macroevolution
    evolutionary change at or above the species level
  51. microevolution
    evolution within a species
  52. allometry
    changes in the relative growth rates of diff body parts
  53. paedomorphosis
    sexually mature adults with juvenile morphology
  54. homeotic genes
    control body plans by controlling the developmental fate of groups of cells
  55. hox genes
    the products of one class of homeotic genes, which provide positional info
  56. exaptation
    many characters evolved for purposes other than those for which they are currently used
  57. phylogeny
    the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species
  58. systematics
    scientific system for classifying organisms
  59. taxonomy
    the science of naming and classifying living things
  60. phylogenic systematics
    classification of organisms by their order of branching on an evolutionary tree
  61. monophyletic
    ancestor and all its descendents
  62. paraphyetic
    ancestor and some of its descendents
  63. polyphyletic
    descendents w/o common ancestor
  64. homoplasies
    analogous structures/molecular sequences that evolved independently
  65. cladistics
    reconstruct phylogeny
  66. orthologous genes
    genes are a single copy gene in the genome and are homologous between species
  67. paralogous genes
    result from gene duplication, thus are found in more than one copy of the genome
  68. Neutral theory
    • Kimura
    • states much evolutionary change in genes and proteins has no effect on fitness and not influenced by darwinian selection
  69. proximate
    "how" questions about behavior
  70. ultimate
    "why" questions about behavior
  71. ethology
    the study of behavior
  72. fixed action patterns (FAPs)
    sequence of unlearned behaviors that are largely unchangeable
  73. sexual selection
    selection for mating success, may oppose natural selection, may lead to sexual dimorphism
  74. ecosystem services include
    pollination, nutrient cycling, purification of air and water, detoxification and decomposition of wastes, moderation of weather extremes
  75. inbreeding depression
    breeding w/close relatives increases the chance the parents will share the same deleterious recessive alleles
  76. factors reducing Effective population size (Ne)
    • 1. fluctuations in population size over time
    • 2. inbreeding
    • 3. overlapping generations
    • 4. unequal family sizes
    • 5. unequal sex ratios
  77. Malthus
    believed that resources can only support a limited population
  78. Empedocles
    natural theory of struggle among species
  79. Aristotle
    created Scala Natura, believed hierarchy of organisms was fixed
  80. maladaptive evolution
    harmful allele fixation
  81. convergent evolution
    organisms evolve structures that have similar (analogous) structures or functions in spite of their evolutionary ancestors being very dissimilar or unrelated.
  82. H-W assumptions
    • 1. random mating
    • 2. infinitely large population
    • 3. no natural selection
    • 4. no genetic drift
    • 5. no migration
  83. analogous structures
    features of different species that are similar in function but not necessarily in structure and which do not derive from a common ancestral feature and which evolved in response to a similar environmental challenge.
  84. allopatric speciation
    gene flow impeded by physical/geographic barrier, selection and drift lead to reproductive isolation
  85. sympatric speciation
    takes place in geographically overlapping populations, can occur through chromosome changes or through non-random mating