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2010-09-27 22:46:54

Chapter 5
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  1. What are two kinds of tissue death?
    necrosis (pathological), and apoptosis (normal, programmed death of cells that have completed their function).
  2. What is atrophy?
    Organ shrinkage due to aging or disuse.
  3. What are two kinds of tissue repair?
    Regenerative (restore preexisting tissue type and function), and fibrosis (which replaces the previous tissue with fibrous scar tissue).
  4. What are stem cells?
    undifferentiated cells that have the developmental plasticity to develope into multiple mature cell types.
  5. What is metaplasia?
    The normal conversion of one mature tissue type to another.
  6. What is differentiation?
    The deveelopment of a mature specialized tissue from an unspecialized one.
  7. How do organs grow?
    Hyperplasia (cell multiplication), hypertrophy (cell enlargement), or neoplasia (abnormal groth of tumors.
  8. Some joints are lined with what?
    Synovial membranes.
  9. The thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities are lined with what?
  10. Blood vessels are lined with what?
    A membrane called the endothelium.
  11. What are the membranes of the body?
    Cutaneous membrane (dry), serous membranes (moist) that are covered with serous fluid, and mucous membranes that secrete mucus.
  12. How do apocrine glands release their secretions?
    Exocytosis, but with a different histological appearance than merocrine glands.
  13. How do holocrine gland cells release their secretions?
    They break down to become the secretion.
  14. How do merocrine gland cells release their secretion?
  15. What do cytogenic glands produce?
    cells (eggs and sperm)
  16. What does mixed glands secrete?
    Both thin and runny (serous), and viscous mucus (mucous).
  17. What does a mucius gland secrete?
    Viscous mucus.
  18. What is a serous gland secrete?
    Thin, runny fluid.
  19. What is an acinar gland?
    Glands that have dilated sacs of secretory cells and the end of a duct.
  20. What is a Tublar gland?
    A gland that have buctile and secretory portions of uniform diameter.
  21. What is a compound gland?
    A gland that has branched ducts.
  22. What is a simple gland?
    Glands that have single unbranched ducts.
  23. What is the secretory part of a gland?
    The parenchyma, and is composed of epithelial secretory cells and ducts.
  24. What is the connective tissue framework of a gland?
    Stroma, and includes a capsule and internal septa.
  25. What are endocrine glands?
    Glands that lack ducts and release their secretions (hormones) into the blood stream.
  26. What are Exocrine glands?
    Glands that usually release their secretions through a duct onto the surface of an organ.
  27. What are glands?
    Organs that release secretions for use in the body or waste elimination.
  28. What are gap junctions?
    Junctions that have pores that allow substances to pass directly from cell to cell.
  29. What are desmosomes?
    Connect cells at patches rather than continuous zones of attachment.
  30. What are tight junctions?
    Zipperlike junctions that seal off space between cells.
  31. What are Intercellular junctions?
    Junctions that attach cells to eachother.
  32. What are the three kinds of muscle?
    Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth.
  33. How is muscular tissue specialized?
    To contract and move other tissues or materials.
  34. What do neurons cell body have?
    Usually one axon and multiple dendrites.
  35. What is nervous tissue composed of?
    Neurons and supporting glial cells.
  36. What do nervious and muscular tissues have in common?
    They are excitable tissues that show quick electrical responses to stimuli.
  37. What is blood?
    A fluid connective tissue composed of erythrocyres, leukocytes, and platelets in a liquid matrix called plasma.
  38. What is the matrix of compact bone made of?
    Cylindrical layers around a central canal occupied by blood vessels and nerves.
  39. What are the principal cells of bone?
    Osteocytes, housed in lacunae.
  40. What are two types of bone?
    Spongy and compact.
  41. What kind of matrix does bone have?
  42. What are three types of cartilage?
    Hyaline, elastic, and fibrocartilage.
  43. What is cartilage tissue?
    Tissue with a rubbery matrix made of chondrocytes housed in cavities called lacunae.
  44. What is Adipose tissue?
    A connective tissue dominated by adipocytes.
  45. Fibrous connective tissue include:
    Areolar, reticular, dense irregular, and dense regular.
  46. Ground substance of fibrous connective tissue has what consistency and why?
    Gelatinous due to glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and adhesive glycoproteins.
  47. What kind of fibers are found in Fibrous connective tissue?
    Collagenous, reticular, and elastic fibers.
  48. What is included with fibrous connective tissue?
    Fibroblasts, macrophages, leukocytes, plasma cells, mast cells, and adipocytes.
  49. What does connective tissue do?
    Binds, supports, and protects organs. Plays diverse roles in immunity, movement, transport, and energy storage.
  50. What is connective tissue?
    Consists mostly of fibers and ground substance with widely separated cells.
  51. What are nonkeratinized cells.
    Layer of surface cells that are living and contain no keratin for freeflow of water.
  52. What are keratinized cells?
    Layer of surface cells that are dead and packed with keratin to water proof tissue.
  53. What are stratified cells?
    Cells that have layer upon layer.
  54. What are the four kinds of simple epithelium and discribe them?
    Simple squamous (flat cells), simple cuboidal (cubical to round cells), simple columnar (tall narrow cells), pseudostratified columnar (the basal cells do not reach the free surface, creating an appearance of stratification)
  55. All cells contact the basement membrane in what kind of tissue?
    Simple epithelium.
  56. How is Epitheala connected to the underlying connective tissue?
    Basement membrane.
  57. Epithelia is composed of what?
    One or more layers of closely adhering cells that lack blood vessels.
  58. What is Epithelia?
    Sheets of cells that cover organ surfaces and from glands.
  59. Histological speciments are prepared how?
    Stains, smears, or spreads.
  60. Histological sections can be cut how?
    Longitudinal, cross, or oblique.
  61. Histological sections are colored with what and why?
    Stains, to show detail.
  62. Most tissues are studyed as thin slices called what?
    Histological sections.
  63. Mature tissues develop from what three primary germ layers?
    Ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm
  64. Tissues are composed of what?
    Cells and Matrix (extracellular material).
  65. What are the four primary tissues?
    Epithelial, connective, nervous, and muscular tissue.
  66. What is Histology?
    The study of tissues.