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2010-09-27 23:04:45

Physiology Chapter 1
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  1. Define physiology
    How the body works (study of biological function)
  2. Define Comparative Physiology
    Comparing different animal groups
  3. Define Vitalism
    Belief in mysterious reasons (e.g. spiritual healing) to deal with the unknown. Replaced by physiology & chemistry.
  4. Define Teleology
    Doctrine of final purpose (we were designed with a final product in mind). Eg. Intelligent design. Replaced by evolution.
  5. Define hypothesis
    Educated guess made based on observations.
  6. Define Theory
    Conclusions made based on the experimentation of hypothesis and constant confirmation.
  7. What does physiology emphasize?
    Correct function of the body.
  8. Scientific method always begins with ?, ends with ?
    Observation, Publication
  9. Who was Eracistratus?
    Greek anatomist; credited with description of the valves of the heart.
  10. Who was Galen?
    Roman physician, surgeon, philosopher. Contributed to pathology.
  11. Who was William Harvey?
    English physician; first to correctly describe blood flow of the heart
  12. Who was Claude Bernard?
    French physiologist; One of first to use "blind" experiments. Defined what would become "homeostasis".
  13. Who was Walter Cannon?
    Coined the term, "homeostasis"
  14. Define Milieu interieur
    Fundamental concept that the living organism exists in an aqueous internal environment which bathes all tissues and provides a medium for the elementary exchange of nutrients and waste.
  15. Define homeostasis
    Constancy of internal bodily fluids
  16. What do we mean when we say physiologists are "mechanists?"
    They study the mechanisms of human body
  17. What are the two theories of biology?
    Cell Theory & Evolution
  18. Describe Negative feedback loop. Why is it important?
    • 1. Set point is changed (homeostasis is broken)
    • 2. Sensors send news to integrator
    • 3. Integrators identify problem and comes up with solution
    • 4. Effectors are unleashed by integrators to bring back homeostasis

    Important because it promotes homeostasis
  19. Define Dynamic Constancy?
    homeostasis (changing, but maintained)
  20. What is a positive feed-back loop?
    Actions of effectors amplifies the changes. eg. Blood clotting
  21. Define intrinsic
    Built in
  22. Define extrinsic
    Regulation of organs by nervous and endocrine system.
  23. Effectors are regulated by what two control mechanisms?
    Nervous System & Endocrine System
  24. 4 primary tissues?
    Muscle, connective, nervous, epithelial
  25. Name Flat Cells
  26. Name tall cells
  27. Name 2 exocrine glands
    Salivary glands, sweat glands
  28. Define hormone
    Chemical regulators carried in the blood
  29. Define ligand
    substance that is able to bind to and form acomplex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose
  30. Define receptor protein
    embedded in either the plasma membrane or the cytoplasm of a cell, to which one or more specific kinds of signaling molecules may attach
  31. Define target tissue
    Tissues targeted by hormones