Card Set Information
Physiology Chapter 1
How the body works (study of biological function)
Define Comparative Physiology
Comparing different animal groups
Belief in mysterious reasons (e.g. spiritual healing) to deal with the unknown. Replaced by physiology & chemistry.
Doctrine of final purpose (we were designed with a final product in mind). Eg. Intelligent design. Replaced by evolution.
Educated guess made based on observations.
Conclusions made based on the experimentation of hypothesis and constant confirmation.
What does physiology emphasize?
Correct function of the body.
Scientific method always begins with ?, ends with ?
Who was Eracistratus?
Greek anatomist; credited with description of the valves of the heart.
Who was Galen?
Roman physician, surgeon, philosopher. Contributed to pathology.
Who was William Harvey?
English physician; first to correctly describe blood flow of the heart
Who was Claude Bernard?
French physiologist; One of first to use "blind" experiments. Defined what would become "homeostasis".
Who was Walter Cannon?
Coined the term, "homeostasis"
Define Milieu interieur
Fundamental concept that the living organism exists in an aqueous internal environment which bathes all tissues and provides a medium for the elementary exchange of nutrients and waste.
Constancy of internal bodily fluids
What do we mean when we say physiologists are "mechanists?"
They study the mechanisms of human body
What are the two theories of biology?
Cell Theory & Evolution
Describe Negative feedback loop. Why is it important?
1. Set point is changed (homeostasis is broken)
2. Sensors send news to integrator
3. Integrators identify problem and comes up with solution
4. Effectors are unleashed by integrators to bring back homeostasis
Important because it promotes homeostasis
Define Dynamic Constancy?
homeostasis (changing, but maintained)
What is a positive feed-back loop?
Actions of effectors amplifies the changes. eg. Blood clotting
Regulation of organs by nervous and endocrine system.
Effectors are regulated by what two control mechanisms?
Nervous System & Endocrine System
4 primary tissues?
Muscle, connective, nervous, epithelial
Name Flat Cells
Name tall cells
Name 2 exocrine glands
Salivary glands, sweat glands
Chemical regulators carried in the blood
substance that is able to bind to and form acomplex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose
Define receptor protein
embedded in either the plasma membrane or the cytoplasm of a cell, to which one or more specific kinds of signaling molecules may attach
Define target tissue
Tissues targeted by hormones