History

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Anonymous
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37860
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History
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2010-09-27 23:29:14
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History Test
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Chapter- 2, 3, 4, 7, & 8
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  1. In Chinese history, the divine approval thought to be the basis of royal authority
    Mandate of Heaven
  2. Most important virtue in Chinese culture?
    Respect for one's parents
  3. What information has been uncovered about the Shang Dynasty?
    • - Lasted from 1700 B.C. to 1027 B.C.
    • - First family of Chinese rulers to leave written records
    • - Shang kings built elaborate palaces and tombs uncovered by archaeologists
  4. 1. A fertile deposit of windblown soil
    2. Soil from Yellow River
    • Loess
  5. What natural barriers isolated China from the rest of the world?
    Pacific Ocean
  6. The historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties
    Dynastic Cycle
  7. What improvements were made under the Zhou Dynasty?
    • - Gave control to different regions
    • - Established Feudalism
    • - Local lords lived in walled towns and grew strength
  8. A person's understanding between Atman and Brahman, achieves perfect understanding and release from life in this world
    Moksha
  9. In Hinduism and Buddhism, the process by which a soul is reborn continuously until it achieves perfect understanding
    Reincarnation
  10. In Hinduism and Buddhism, the totality of the good and bad deeds performed by a person, which is believed to determine his or her fate after rebirth
    Karma
  11. In Buddhism, a state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic truths about the universe
    Enlightenment
  12. What are the Four Noble Truths?
    • 1. Life is full of suffering and sorrow
    • 2. Cause of all people's selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of this world
    • 3. Way to end all suffering is to end desires
    • 4. To overcome desires, attain enlightenment to follow the Eightfold called Middle-Way between desires and self denial
  13. How does one reach Nirvana?
    One must follow the Eightfold path: Tight views, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration
  14. Why is Buddhism so popular?
    Buddhism is so popular because he believed that all human beings, animals, and creatures could study the way of Buddhism
  15. What geographic term describes India?
    Subcontinent
  16. Seasonal winds
    Monsoons
  17. How did monsoons effect India?
    Caused a lot of damage to India - floods and wiping out villages
  18. Describe Harappan culture
    Indus Valley civilization, had own language that no one can define. Had a uniformity religion and culture, Had a successful city.
  19. Why do they believe the Indus Valley culture ended?
    tectonic movement
  20. In China, what two rivers helped form early civilizations?
    Yellow Sea (Huang He) and Chang Jiang (Yangtze)
  21. What features of Chinese geography helped isolate China from outside influences?
    Huang He floods devoured whole cities (China's Sorrow)
  22. What were most Shang home built from?
    • Higher classes - timber-framed houses with walls of clay and straw
    • Peasants- lived in huts outside of the city
  23. Describe family life in Chinese culture
    respect for one's parents, elder men controlled family, women treated as inferiors, women 13-16 had arranged marriages and move in with their husbands
  24. How did the Zhou control their regions of the land?
    Nobles or lords took charge of the regions of the lands, lords grew strong as towns turned into cities
  25. What are some improvements made by the Zhou in technology and trade?
    Roads and canal were built for better transportation, blast furnaces to build, Iron was made and used to build weapons
  26. What ideas did Confucius have about family?
    • - Respect for family and ancestors (filial piety)
    • - Filial Piety- devote oneself to one's parents during lifetime
    • - Honor memories after death by performance of certain rituals
  27. What ideas did Confucius have about the government?
    • - Good education= humbly born person into gentleman
    • - Bureaucracy- trained civil service, one who runs government
  28. What are the 4 virtues of Confucius?
    • 1. private conduct - courteous
    • 2. serving his master - punctilious (precise)
    • 3. needs for people
    • 4. exacting service from people
  29. How would a Daoist live?
    • - Natural order is more important that social order
    • - Universal force guides all things
    • - Human beings should live simply and in harmony with nature
  30. What is the role of the government under a Legalist?
    • - Group of practical political thinkers
    • - Believed highly efficient and powerful government= key to restore order in society
    • - Name- belief, end civil disorder, restore harmony
  31. 2 powers that together represented natural rhythms of life. One is cold, dark, soft, mysterious; the other is warm, bright, hard, and clear. Both represents harmony and rhythm of universe- complement each other
    Yin and Yang
  32. How did the Qin Dynasty take control of China?
    • -Used legalist ideas
    • - Shi Huangdi hated internal conflict, used publicity support
  33. Why was the Great Wall built?
    Discourage attacks by northern nomads
  34. How did Chandragupta conquer and rule India?
    • -Killed unpopular Nanda King and claimed the throne
    • - Lagalists
    • - Unified India
    • - Seized all land forms of Magadha
  35. How was the rule of Asoka different from Chandragupta?
    Lighted taxes, instead of spies, he used government officials
  36. How was the family life different in northern and southern India?
    • - Northern families were patriarchal
    • - Southern families were motriarchal
  37. - Brahma- creator of the world
    - Vishnu- preserver of the world
    - Shiva- destroyer of the world
    Three most important Hindu Gods
  38. What were some of the achievements of the Indian culture?
    Literature, Art, Astronomy, and Math
  39. What types of items did India trade with Rome and China?
    silk roads
  40. When the Han Dynasty came to power, how did they win popular support?
    • -Lowered taxes
    • - Softened harsh punishments
    • - Centralize government, central authority controls running of state
  41. Why was Wudi called the "Martial Emperor?"
    adopted the policy of expanding the Chinese empire through war
  42. the administrative departments of a government- especially those in which employee's are hired on the basis of their scores of examinations
    Civil Service
  43. What improvements were made in technology under the Han?
    • -Paper was invented
    • - help spread education in China
    • -Documents now recorded
    • - Invented wheel barrow
    • - Improved iron tools
  44. 1. The adoption of a conqueror's culture by a conquered people
    2. A policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institutions and customs
    Assimulation
  45. What was the role of women under the Han Dynasty?
    • - Confucius said women must decote themselves to families
    • - Important contributions to home - duties at home and work in fields in family farm
    • Upper Class
    • - If in Aristocratic and land owning families = education and culture
    • - Some ran small shops; others still practiced medicine
  46. Help start Silk roads
    Han Dynasty
  47. Ashoka replaced spies with....
    officials of righteuousness
  48. Book containing words of wisdom by confucius
    The Analects
  49. Chandragupta's grandson
    Ashoka
  50. In Buddhism, the number of Noble Truths
    4
  51. A collection of religious ritual hymns
    Vedas
  52. Meaning of Buddha
    enlightened onee
  53. Lowest member of the Caste system
    untouchables
  54. Material used by the Sang artists
    Bronze
  55. Old name for Sri Lanka
    Ceylon
  56. Mountains that separates China and India
    Himalayas
  57. Came to Indus Valley around 1500 B.C.
    Aryans
  58. Man-made object, visible in space
    Great Wall
  59. Goal at the end of the Eight Fold Path
    Nirvana
  60. Divine Wind
    Kamikaze
  61. Famous European in Kublai Khan's court
    Marco Polo
  62. Percentage used for farming
    1/5
  63. One who serves
    Samarai
  64. Mongol Group Leader
    Khan
  65. Military weapon used for fireworkds
    gunpowder
  66. US state Size of Japan
    California
  67. Early religion of Japan
    Shintoh
  68. Way of the Warrior
    Bushido
  69. Japanese word for meditaion
    Zen
  70. Dry grassland of Mangolia
    Steppe
  71. Helped trading system
    Grand Canal
  72. Early religion of Japan
    Shinto
  73. Home of the Chinese Emperor
    Forbidden City
  74. Sung used to make cup and dishes
    porcelain
  75. United Mongols
    Gengis Khan
  76. Who are the Devil's Horseman
    MOngols
  77. Class of people below nobles but above common people
    Gentry
  78. Failed to conquer Japn
    Kublai Khan
  79. Supreme general for Emperor's army
    Shogun
  80. Government was first to print money
    Sung

    1. What was the greatest achievement
      under the Sui (sway) Dynasty?


    • Grand Canal – connected Huang He and Chang Jiang River
    • Created route for trading between northern cities
    • and southern rice-producing region of the Chang delta

    1. How did the Tang pick government
      officials?


    • Civil service examination begun by Han Dynasty
    • Exams open to all men, but only the rich could afford
    • necessary years of education
    • Those who passed became an elite group of scholar-officials



    1. List four inventions under the Song
      era-



    • -Gunpowder- led to explosive weapons (ex:// bombs, grenades,small rockets, and cannon
    • -Movable type- a printer
    • -Others: porcelain, mechanical clock, paper money, and magnetic compass for sailing




    1. What was the point of foot binding?





    • -To change status of women of upper-class girls
    • -Means that you were wealthy and can afford someone else to
    • the work instead of your wife; women could just sit there and look beautiful
    • but was crippled
    1. What role did geography play in the development of the Mongols?


    • - Two main expanses of Eurasian steppe: western steppe and
    • eastern steppe
    • - Western steppe – from Central Asia to eastern Europe, home
    • of invaders including Hittites
    • - Eastern steppe – covering the area of present-day Mongolia,
    • first home of Huns, Turks, and Mongols


    • -
    • Nomadic people were pastoralists – herded domesticated
    • animals

    • -
    • Steppe nomads traveled together in kinship groups called clans


    • -
    • Lived in yurts – portable felt tents



    1. What techniques did Genghis Khan use
      to conquer so many areas?




    • -Genghis Khan or “universal leader”
    • wanted to unify Mongols under his leadership by defeating his rivals one by one
    • -Genghis Khan was a successful conqueror – he was a brilliant
    • organizer, gifted strategist, and used cruelty as a weapon
    • -Launched campaign of terror across Central Asia destroying
    • one city after another and slaughtering many inhabitants; Central Asia was
    • under Mongol control by 1225
    1. How did the Mongols divide and rule the empire after the death of Genghis Khan?



    • - Genghis Khan’s sons and grandsons took over the job of
    • conqueror by following Khan’s footsteps and expanding the land of the Mongols
    • - Mongols divided their empire into 4 regions or khanates:
    • Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China), Khanate of Chagatai (Central
    • Asia), Ilkhanate (Persia), and Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia)
    • - A descendant of Genghis would rule each khanate
    • - Areas that were invaded were never recovered, destroyed
    • ancient irrigation systems, land no longer supported resettlement, adopted
    • cultures from people they ruled


    1. How did the kamikaze help stop Kublai
      Khan’s invasion of Japan?



    • - Kamikaze or “divine wind”
    • - Mongols send 150,000 Mongol, Chinese, and Korean warriors to
    • invade Japan but a typhoon swept furiously across the Sea of Japan; Mongol
    • ships were upended, swamped, and dashed to bits

    1. Whom did Kublai trust with the high
      government posts in the government?


    • - High government posts went to Mongols or foreigners because
    • he believed that foreigners were more trustworthy since they had no local
    • loyalties
    • -The Chinese were kept out of high government offices

    1. Why was Marco Polo’s visit important
      to China?


    • - Marco Polo was captured and imprisoned in Genoa. While in
    • prison, Marco Polo told a story of his travels and adventures. He told about
    • the fabulous cities, fantastic wealth, and the strange things he had seen
    • there. His stories have been published in a book by a fellow prisoner and the
    • country of China was now known throughout Europe.


    1. What role did geography play in the
      development of Japanese civilization?



    • - About 4,000 islands make up the Japanese archipelago or
    • island group
    • - Most people lived on 4 largest islands: Hokkaido, Honshu,
    • Shikoku, and Kyushu
    • - Southern Japan – mild climate with plenty of rainfall,
    • mountainous but only about 12% was suitable for farming
    • - Short supply of coal, oil, and iron
    • - Late summer and early fall: typhoons occur, earthquakes and
    • tidal waves are also threats
    1. What religion did Japan blend with Buddhism?


    • - Shinto – “way of the gods”, respect for the forces of nature
    • and on the worship of ancestors
    • - Believed in kami,
    • divine spirits that dwelled in nature : beautiful tree, rock, waterfall, or
    • mountain considered home of kami

    1. What cultural ideas did Japan borrow
      from China?


    • - System of writing
    • - Arts of everyday living such as cooking, gardening, drinking
    • tea, and hairdressing
    • - Religion – Buddhism
    • - Japanese adapted Chinese ways to suit their needs

    1. What role did geography play in the
      development of Southeast Asia?


    • - Consists of two main parts: (1) Indochina, the mainland
    • peninsula that borders China to the north and India to the west, and (2) the
    • islands, the largest of which include Sumatra, Borneo, and Java
    • - All of Southeast Asia lies within warm, humid tropics;
    • monsoon winds brings heavy seasonal rains
    • - Seas and straits separates islands of Southeast Asia;
    • between valleys rise hills and mountains makes communication difficult

    1. How did India and China influence
      Southeast Asia?


    • India:
    • - Influenced religions, languages, and art forms
    • - Merchant chips: advantage of monsoon winds
    • - Hindu and Buddhist missionaries spread faith to region
    • - Kingdoms arose, followed religions and were modeled on
    • Indian political ideas
    • - Shaped aspects of the region’s culture

    • China:
    • - Ideas and culture spread southward through migration and
    • trade
    • - Exerted political influence over parts of mainland Southeast
    • Asia through direct rule or demanding tribute from local rulers

    1. What role did geography play in the
      development of Korea?


    • - Located on peninsula that juts out from Asian mainland
    • toward Japan
    • - Same size as state of Utah
    • - Summer: Hot
    • - Winter: Very cold
    • - Mountainous limited portion of peninsula can be farmed
    • - Because of mountains and seas, Korea developed isolation
    • from its neighbors

    1. What ideas did Korea borrow from
      China?


    • - Central government, Confucianism, Buddhism, and system of
    • writing

    1. What are some of the great
      achievements of Korea?


    • - Culture
    • - Celadon pottery – famous for milky green glaze
    • - Great treasures of Buddhist world – thousands of large
    • wooden blocks for printing all the Buddhist scriptures

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