In Chinese history, the divine approval thought to be the basis of royal authority
Mandate of Heaven
Most important virtue in Chinese culture?
Respect for one's parents
What information has been uncovered about the Shang Dynasty?
- Lasted from 1700 B.C. to 1027 B.C.
- First family of Chinese rulers to leave written records
- Shang kings built elaborate palaces and tombs uncovered by archaeologists
1. A fertile deposit of windblown soil
2. Soil from Yellow River
What natural barriers isolated China from the rest of the world?
The historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties
What improvements were made under the Zhou Dynasty?
- Gave control to different regions
- Established Feudalism
- Local lords lived in walled towns and grew strength
A person's understanding between Atman and Brahman, achieves perfect understanding and release from life in this world
In Hinduism and Buddhism, the process by which a soul is reborn continuously until it achieves perfect understanding
In Hinduism and Buddhism, the totality of the good and bad deeds performed by a person, which is believed to determine his or her fate after rebirth
In Buddhism, a state of perfect wisdom in which one understands basic truths about the universe
What are the Four Noble Truths?
1. Life is full of suffering and sorrow
2. Cause of all people's selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of this world
3. Way to end all suffering is to end desires
4. To overcome desires, attain enlightenment to follow the Eightfold called Middle-Way between desires and self denial
How does one reach Nirvana?
One must follow the Eightfold path: Tight views, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration
Why is Buddhism so popular?
Buddhism is so popular because he believed that all human beings, animals, and creatures could study the way of Buddhism
What geographic term describes India?
How did monsoons effect India?
Caused a lot of damage to India - floods and wiping out villages
Describe Harappan culture
Indus Valley civilization, had own language that no one can define. Had a uniformity religion and culture, Had a successful city.
Why do they believe the Indus Valley culture ended?
In China, what two rivers helped form early civilizations?
Yellow Sea (Huang He) and Chang Jiang (Yangtze)
What features of Chinese geography helped isolate China from outside influences?
Huang He floods devoured whole cities (China's Sorrow)
What were most Shang home built from?
Higher classes - timber-framed houses with walls of clay and straw
Peasants- lived in huts outside of the city
Describe family life in Chinese culture
respect for one's parents, elder men controlled family, women treated as inferiors, women 13-16 had arranged marriages and move in with their husbands
How did the Zhou control their regions of the land?
Nobles or lords took charge of the regions of the lands, lords grew strong as towns turned into cities
What are some improvements made by the Zhou in technology and trade?
Roads and canal were built for better transportation, blast furnaces to build, Iron was made and used to build weapons
What ideas did Confucius have about family?
- Respect for family and ancestors (filial piety)
- Filial Piety- devote oneself to one's parents during lifetime
- Honor memories after death by performance of certain rituals
What ideas did Confucius have about the government?
- Good education= humbly born person into gentleman
- Bureaucracy- trained civil service, one who runs government
What are the 4 virtues of Confucius?
1. private conduct - courteous
2. serving his master - punctilious (precise)
3. needs for people
4. exacting service from people
How would a Daoist live?
- Natural order is more important that social order
- Universal force guides all things
- Human beings should live simply and in harmony with nature
What is the role of the government under a Legalist?
- Group of practical political thinkers
- Believed highly efficient and powerful government= key to restore order in society
- Name- belief, end civil disorder, restore harmony
2 powers that together represented natural rhythms of life. One is cold, dark, soft, mysterious; the other is warm, bright, hard, and clear. Both represents harmony and rhythm of universe- complement each other
Yin and Yang
How did the Qin Dynasty take control of China?
-Used legalist ideas
- Shi Huangdi hated internal conflict, used publicity support
Why was the Great Wall built?
Discourage attacks by northern nomads
How did Chandragupta conquer and rule India?
-Killed unpopular Nanda King and claimed the throne
- Unified India
- Seized all land forms of Magadha
How was the rule of Asoka different from Chandragupta?
Lighted taxes, instead of spies, he used government officials
How was the family life different in northern and southern India?
- Northern families were patriarchal
- Southern families were motriarchal
- Brahma- creator of the world
- Vishnu- preserver of the world
- Shiva- destroyer of the world
Three most important Hindu Gods
What were some of the achievements of the Indian culture?
Literature, Art, Astronomy, and Math
What types of items did India trade with Rome and China?
When the Han Dynasty came to power, how did they win popular support?
- Softened harsh punishments
- Centralize government, central authority controls running of state
Why was Wudi called the "Martial Emperor?"
adopted the policy of expanding the Chinese empire through war
the administrative departments of a government- especially those in which employee's are hired on the basis of their scores of examinations
What improvements were made in technology under the Han?
-Paper was invented
- help spread education in China
-Documents now recorded
- Invented wheel barrow
- Improved iron tools
1. The adoption of a conqueror's culture by a conquered people
2. A policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institutions and customs
What was the role of women under the Han Dynasty?
- Confucius said women must decote themselves to families
- Important contributions to home - duties at home and work in fields in family farm
Upper Class- If in Aristocratic and land owning families = education and culture
- Some ran small shops; others still practiced medicine
Help start Silk roads
Ashoka replaced spies with....
officials of righteuousness
Book containing words of wisdom by confucius
In Buddhism, the number of Noble Truths
A collection of religious ritual hymns
Meaning of Buddha
Lowest member of the Caste system
Material used by the Sang artists
Old name for Sri Lanka
Mountains that separates China and India
Came to Indus Valley around 1500 B.C.
Man-made object, visible in space
Goal at the end of the Eight Fold Path
Famous European in Kublai Khan's court
Percentage used for farming
One who serves
Mongol Group Leader
Military weapon used for fireworkds
US state Size of Japan
Early religion of Japan
Way of the Warrior
Japanese word for meditaion
Dry grassland of Mangolia
Helped trading system
Early religion of Japan
Home of the Chinese Emperor
Sung used to make cup and dishes
Who are the Devil's Horseman
Class of people below nobles but above common people
Failed to conquer Japn
Supreme general for Emperor's army
Government was first to print money
What was the greatest achievement
under the Sui (sway) Dynasty?
Grand Canal – connected Huang He and Chang Jiang River
Created route for trading between northern cities
and southern rice-producing region of the Chang delta
How did the Tang pick government
Civil service examination begun by Han Dynasty
Exams open to all men, but only the rich could afford
necessary years of education
Those who passed became an elite group of scholar-officials
List four inventions under the Song
-Gunpowder- led to explosive weapons (ex:// bombs, grenades,small rockets, and cannon
-Movable type- a printer
-Others: porcelain, mechanical clock, paper money, and magnetic compass for sailing
What was the point of foot binding?
-To change status of women of upper-class girls
-Means that you were wealthy and can afford someone else to
the work instead of your wife; women could just sit there and look beautiful
but was crippled
What role did geography play in the development of the Mongols?
- Two main expanses of Eurasian steppe: western steppe and
- Western steppe – from Central Asia to eastern Europe, home
of invaders including Hittites
- Eastern steppe – covering the area of present-day Mongolia,
first home of Huns, Turks, and Mongols
Nomadic people were pastoralists – herded domesticated
Steppe nomads traveled together in kinship groups called clans
Lived in yurts – portable felt tents
What techniques did Genghis Khan use
to conquer so many areas?
-Genghis Khan or “universal leader”
wanted to unify Mongols under his leadership by defeating his rivals one by one
-Genghis Khan was a successful conqueror – he was a brilliant
organizer, gifted strategist, and used cruelty as a weapon
-Launched campaign of terror across Central Asia destroying
one city after another and slaughtering many inhabitants; Central Asia was
under Mongol control by 1225
How did the Mongols divide and rule the empire after the death of Genghis Khan?
- Genghis Khan’s sons and grandsons took over the job of
conqueror by following Khan’s footsteps and expanding the land of the Mongols
- Mongols divided their empire into 4 regions or khanates:
Khanate of the Great Khan (Mongolia and China), Khanate of Chagatai (Central
Asia), Ilkhanate (Persia), and Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia)
- A descendant of Genghis would rule each khanate
- Areas that were invaded were never recovered, destroyed
ancient irrigation systems, land no longer supported resettlement, adopted
cultures from people they ruled
How did the kamikaze help stop Kublai
Khan’s invasion of Japan?
- Kamikaze or “divine wind”
- Mongols send 150,000 Mongol, Chinese, and Korean warriors to
invade Japan but a typhoon swept furiously across the Sea of Japan; Mongol
ships were upended, swamped, and dashed to bits
Whom did Kublai trust with the high
government posts in the government?
- High government posts went to Mongols or foreigners because
he believed that foreigners were more trustworthy since they had no local
-The Chinese were kept out of high government offices
Why was Marco Polo’s visit important
- Marco Polo was captured and imprisoned in Genoa. While in
prison, Marco Polo told a story of his travels and adventures. He told about
the fabulous cities, fantastic wealth, and the strange things he had seen
there. His stories have been published in a book by a fellow prisoner and the
country of China was now known throughout Europe.
What role did geography play in the
development of Japanese civilization?
- About 4,000 islands make up the Japanese archipelago or
- Most people lived on 4 largest islands: Hokkaido, Honshu,
Shikoku, and Kyushu
- Southern Japan – mild climate with plenty of rainfall,
mountainous but only about 12% was suitable for farming
- Short supply of coal, oil, and iron
- Late summer and early fall: typhoons occur, earthquakes and
tidal waves are also threats
What religion did Japan blend with Buddhism?
- Shinto – “way of the gods”, respect for the forces of nature
and on the worship of ancestors
- Believed in kami,
divine spirits that dwelled in nature : beautiful tree, rock, waterfall, or
mountain considered home of kami
What cultural ideas did Japan borrow
- System of writing
- Arts of everyday living such as cooking, gardening, drinking
tea, and hairdressing
- Religion – Buddhism
- Japanese adapted Chinese ways to suit their needs
What role did geography play in the
development of Southeast Asia?
- Consists of two main parts: (1) Indochina, the mainland
peninsula that borders China to the north and India to the west, and (2) the
islands, the largest of which include Sumatra, Borneo, and Java
- All of Southeast Asia lies within warm, humid tropics;
monsoon winds brings heavy seasonal rains
- Seas and straits separates islands of Southeast Asia;
between valleys rise hills and mountains makes communication difficult
How did India and China influence
- Influenced religions, languages, and art forms
- Merchant chips: advantage of monsoon winds
- Hindu and Buddhist missionaries spread faith to region
- Kingdoms arose, followed religions and were modeled on
Indian political ideas
- Shaped aspects of the region’s culture
China:- Ideas and culture spread southward through migration and
- Exerted political influence over parts of mainland Southeast
Asia through direct rule or demanding tribute from local rulers
What role did geography play in the
development of Korea?
- Located on peninsula that juts out from Asian mainland
- Same size as state of Utah
- Summer: Hot
- Winter: Very cold
- Mountainous limited portion of peninsula can be farmed
- Because of mountains and seas, Korea developed isolation
from its neighbors
What ideas did Korea borrow from
- Central government, Confucianism, Buddhism, and system of
What are some of the great
achievements of Korea?
- Celadon pottery – famous for milky green glaze
- Great treasures of Buddhist world – thousands of large
wooden blocks for printing all the Buddhist scriptures