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Chapter 3 The Brain, Biology, and Behavior.
An individual nerve cell.
The study of how biological processes, especially activity in the brain and nervous system, relate to behavior.
Neuron fibers that receive incoming messages.
The main body of a beuron or other cell.
Fiber that carries information away from the cell body of a neuron.
Branching fibers at the ends of axons.
An electrically charged molecule.
The electrical charge of a neuron at rest.
The point at which a nerve impulse is triggered.
The nerve impulse.
Channels through the axon membrane.
An event that happens completely, or not at all.
The microscopic space between two neurons, over which messages pass.
Any chemical released by a neuron that alters activity in other neurons.
Areas on the surface of neurons and other cells that are sensitive to neurotransmitters or hormones.
The neurotransmitter released by neurons to activate muscles.
A drug that competes with acetylcholine, causing paralsis.
Brain chemicals that regulate the activity of neurons.
Opiate-like brain chemicals that regulate reactions to pain and stress.
Chemicals that are similar in structure and pain-killing effect to opiate drugs such as morphine.
A bundle of neuron fibers.
A fatty layer coating some axons.
A layer of cells that encases many axons.
Central Nervous System (CNS):
The Brain and Spinal chord.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS):
All parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal chord.
The system of nerves linking the spinal chord with the body and sense organs.
The system of nerves carrying information to and from the internal organs and glands.
A branch of the ANS that arouses the body.
A branch of the ANS that quiets the body.
Areas that appear white because of the presence of myelin.
Major nerves that carry sensory and motor messages in and out of the spinal chord.
Major nerves that leave the brain without passing through the spinal chord.
The simplest behavior, in which a stimulus provokes an automatic response.
A nerve cell that carries information from the senses toward CNS.
A nerve cell that serves as a link between two others.
A nerve cell that carries motor commands from the CNS to muscles and glands.
Cells in muscles and glands that are capable of producing come type of response.
An intensive investigation of the behavior of a single person, especially one suffering from some injury, disease, or disorder.
Surgical removal of tissue.
Any device (such as wire, needle, or metal plate) used to electrically stimulate nerve tissure or to record its activity.
Removal of tissure within the brain by use of an electrode.
Electrical stimulation of the brain:
Direct electrical stimulation and activation of brain tissue.
An electrode small enough to record the activity of a single neuron.
Technique to measure waves of electrical activity produced by the brain.
A device that detects, amplifies, and records electrical activity in the brain.
Computed tomographic (CT) scanning:
A computer-enhanced three- dimensional representation of the brain or body, based on the body's response to a magnetic field.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging:
A computer-enhanced three dimensional representation of the brain or body, based on the body's response to a magnetic field.
Magnetic resonance imaging that records brain activity.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan:
A computer-generated image of brain activity, based on glucose consumption in the brain.