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Modern psychology aims to be an ___ science.
empirical- cannot test assumptions about things unless we observe and measure that behavior (guiding princiople behind thios kind of skepticism is the scientific method)
What is the scientific method?
organized way of using experience and testing ideas in order to expand and refine knowledge
Psychologists usually begin by formulating a research question. What are the sources of research questions?
- daily expereicnes, psychological theory, folklore
- EX: day-car centers may motivate us to conduct research on wehther day care affects development of social skills or the bonds of attachment. Social cognitive principles of observational learning may prompt research on the effects of TV violence
What is a resarch question also known as?
hyoptehsis: specific statement about behavior or mental procseses taht is tested through research.
Psychologists next examine the research question or test the hypothesis through controlled methods such as the experiment. They draw conclusions about their research on the basis of...?
observations of indings (when observations do not bear out theier hypotehjses, they may modify teh tehories from which the hopotehse were derived)
As psychologists draw conclusions they are gudied by principleso f critical thinking. For example, they try not to confuse ____ with ____
correlation; associations (b/w findigs with cause and effect)
What is a selection factor?
source of bias tha tmay occur in research findings when subjects are allowed to choose for themselves a certain treatment in a scientific study
EX: consider a study on the relationship b/w exercise and health/ Imagine that we were to compare a gorup of ppl who exercised regularly with a group who did not. We might find htat exercisers were healthier than couunch potatoes, but we cant conclude without doubt taht exercise is a causal factor in good health. The selection facotr- the fact taht one gorup chose to exercise and the other did not- could also explain the results.
Some psychologists include publication in professional journasl as acrucial aprt of the scientific method. Why?
Researchers are obligated to provide enough details of their work so that others will be able to replicate it to see whether the findings hold up over time and with different subjects
Samples must be drawn so that they accurately represent the population they are intended to reflect. Only representative samples allow to _____ our findings from research samples to populations
generalize (extend from particular to general) (sample to population)
The individuals who are studied are referred toa s a ___. It is a segment of a ______
Many factors must be considered in interpreting the accuracy of the results of scientific research. One is the nature of the research sample. We must question whether or not we can generalize the results to different groups
So what is one way of achieving a represetnative sample?
- random sampling- each member of a population has an equal chance of being selected to participate
- stratified sample- selected so that identified subgroups in the population are represented proportionately in the sample
What is volunteer bias?
source of bias or error in research reflecting the prospect that people who offer to particpaite in research studeis differe systematically from people who do not
What about social desirability?
many people involved in research studies tend to tell the interviewer what they think the interviewer would like to hear and not what they really think
What are there methods of observation widely used by psychologists and otehr behaviorist scientists?
case study, survey, and naturalistic observation method
Our own informal ideas about human nature tend to be based on case studies (information we collect about individuals and small groups). Waht can they provide?
compelling portraits of individuals (biography that may be obtained through interviews, questionaires, and psychology tests)
How may case studies be inaccurate?
gaps and factual inaccuraceis in people's memories; people may also dsitort their apstas to please the interviewer or becasue they want to remember things in certain ways
psychologists conudct surveys to learn about behavior and mental processes that can be observed in the natural setting or studied experimentally. Advantages? DisadvantageS?
by distributing questionnaires and analyzing answers with a computer, psychologists can study many thousands of people at a time.
variosu soruces of inaccuracy: may recall their behavior inaccurately or purposefully misrepresent it; ethnic or socioeconomic background differences may also affect thi
Who is Alfred Kinsey?
published two surveys of sexual behavior that shocked the nation. Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female
You use naturalistic observation every day. SO do psychologists and other scientists. Advantage?
allowing psychologists and other scientists to observe behavior where it happens or in the field. They use unobtrusive measures to avoid itnefering with the behaviors they are observing.
Who is Jane Goodall?
observed the behavior of chimpanzees in their natural environment to learn about their social behavior, sexual heavior, use of tools, and other facts of chimp life: shown use that we were incorrect to think only humans use tools and kissing on the lips is used by chimpanzees as well as humans
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