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What are Bryophytes?
Mosses with dominant gametophyte, no vascular tissue, flagellated sperm
What are Seedless Vascular Plants?
Ferns with dominant sporophye, free-living gametophyte, vasculartissue, and flagellated sperm.
What are Gymnosperms?
Conifers with dominant sporophyte, vascular tissue, and production of seeds.
What are Angiosperms?
Flowering plants with dominant sporophyte, vascular tissue, and production of seeds & fruits.
What are the 5 steps in the Angiosperm life cycle?
- 1. Meiosis in the anthers produces haploid spores that form the male gametophyte (pollen grains)
- 2. Meiosis in the ovule produces a haploid spore that forms a tiny female gametophyte, including the egg
- 3. A pollen tube from the pollen grain to the ovulecarries a sperm that fertilizes the egg to form a zygote
- 4. Each ovule develops into a seed, consisting of anembryo (a new sporophyte) with a food supply and aseed coat
- 5. The ovary wall forms a fruit
Where does primary growth occur?
What happens during primary growth?
It allows roots to push down through soil and shoots to grow upward toward the sun.
Where does secondary growth occur?
In what direction does secondary growth cover?
What two cells does the Vascular Cambium produce and what does each cell do?
- Secondary xylem produces wood toward the interior of the stem
- Secondary phloem produces the inner bark toward the exterior of the stem
What three types of cells does Bark consist of?
- Secondary phloem
- Cork cambium
Where is Sapwood located and what is its function?
Sapwood is located near the vascular cambium and transport water.
What is the function of Heartwood?
Stores resins and wastes, becomes clogged.
What are the characteristics of Xylem?
- Dead at maturity
- Transports water & minerals through a combination of transpiration and root pressure
What are the characteristics of Phloem?
- Alive at maturity
- Transport sugar/sap through pressure flow mechanism
What is the function of Vascular tissue?
Support and long-distance transport.
What is the function of Dermal tissue?
Outer protective covering
What is the function of Ground tissue?
- Bulk of the plant body
- Food production, storage, support
What are Annuals?
Plants that complete their life cycle in one year.
What are Biennials?
Plants that complete their life cycle within two years.
What are Perennials?
Plants that live for many years.
What is the equation of Photosynthesis?
CO2 + H2O + Sunlight ----> C6H12O6 + O2
What is the redox reaction of photosynthesis?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 - ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O
Explain Light Reactions.
They occur in thylakoid membranes and involve photons exciting electrons in Photosystem II and Photosystem I. The electrons that become excited in the pigment molecule in Photosystem II are replaced with electrons from splitting water molecules. The electrons progress from Photosystem II through an electron transport chain (generating ATP) to Photosystem I, where they're excited by another photon, at which point they can energize the electron shuttle molecule.
Explain the Calvin Cycle.
Occurs in the stroma and converts CO2 to a 3-carbon sugar using the energy from ATP and electron shuttle molecules produced in the light reactions. Technically the cycle must run three times (one for each CO2 molecule) to produce the 3-carbon sugar.
What is destroying the Ozone layer?
The free radical activity of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
What is Global Warming?
Thought to be encouraged by the greenhouse effect, where excess CO2 in the atmosphere traps heat energy instead of allowing it to pass through the atmosphere into space.
What is the Stomata and what is its function?
Pores in leaves that allow CO2 to enter into the leaves but also allows water to evaporate when from the surface of leaves.
What is the function of the Guard cells that surround the Stomata?
Regulate the amount of water lost from leaves by changing shape and closing thestomatal pore
What are Lichens?
consist of fungi, like algae and cyanobacteria, living in close association with photosynthetic organisms.
What are Carnivorous plants?
Plants that trap insects and other arthropods in order to get nutrients.
What do Root Hairs do?
They increase surface area for absorption.
What are Fungi?
Absorptive heterotrophic eukaryotes thatdigest their food externally and absorb the nutrients
What are Fruits?
Angiosperms that provide the majority of human diet.
What are Photoautotrophs?
Autotrophs that use the energy of light to produce organic molecules
What is Mycorrhizae?
A fungus that works with the roots to help absorb water and minerals from the soil.
What is the Alternation of Generations?
- The Haploid Gametophyte that produces gametes (eggs and sperm)
- The Diploid Sporophyte that produces haploid spores in sporangia by meiosis
What are 3 advantages of C4/CAM strategies?
- Only opening stomata at night when air is cooler
- Saving water during photosynthesis
- Bank CO2 as a 4-Carbon sugar
What is the Casparian strip?
The waxy barrier on the cells of the endodermis.