Nutrition Lecture Cards

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Nutrition Lecture Cards
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2010-09-29 10:27:00
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UCHSC Craniofacial Biology Cranio Nutrition Exam NBDE
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Cards for exam on human nutrition (Cranio exam 3). Lectures from 9-28-10 and 9-24-10
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  1. Water, Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Fats are four of the six classes of nutrients. What are the other two?
    Minerals and Vitamins are the final two. Thus Water, Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats, Minerals and Vitamins are the six classes.
  2. The process by which living things use food to obtain nutrients for energy, growth,
    development & maintenance is better known as...
    Nutrition. This is its definition
  3. Do RDI's or reference daily intakes target both individuals and groups? Is it more acceptable to talk in terms of RDI's or RDAs in the present day?
    Yes, RDI's target both groups and individuals. RDI's are the more acceptable term for healthy eating habits.
  4. True or False. The essential nutrients remain the same throughout life the amounts simply change.
    True. As a person ages, they are recommended to intake more protein, while decreasing the amount of fat in their diet.
  5. True or False. Water is the most important nutrient versus fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, or proteins?
    True, water is the most important nutrient.
  6. True or False. Increasing the variety of foods in a diet increases the likelihood of a deficiency?
    False. Increasing the variety of foods in the diet decreases the likelihood of deficiencies in the diet.
  7. What does the 10, 10, 10 concept recommend?
    The 10, 10, 10 concept is an easy way to remember the breakdown of the percentages of fat intake for an adult. (10% saturated, 10% polyunsaturated, and 10% monounsaturated)
  8. Carbohydrate intake along with the intake of N-6 and N-3 linolenic fatty acids remain pretty constant in the recommended eating habits as a person ages. What recommended nutrient tends to increase as one ages? Decrease?
    The recommended protein intake tends to increase as one ages to help with weight management. The recommended fat intake tends to decrease as you age.
  9. Can humans put in the double bonds in positions 3 and 6 in the fatty acids?
    No humans can not. These omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids need to be obtained in other areas in the diet.
  10. Water-soluble and Fat soluble vitamins are the two types of vitamins. Water-Souble vitamins tend to be absorbed at the top or bottom of the small intestine? Does this process occur by active or passive diffusion?
    Water soluble vitamins require active transport to be absorbed at the top of the small intestine.
  11. When fat soluble vitamins enter the small intestine how do they diffuse?
    They enter through enterocytes which then convert them into chylomicrons. The chylomicron then enters the portal vein and then into the liver.
  12. True or False. Water soluble vitamins are stored
    False. Water soluble vitamins are not stored. However Fat Soluble Vitamins are. They are stored in lipids.
  13. True or false. It is easy to develop a fat soluble vitamin deficiency?
    False. Due to the ability to store fat soluble vitamins, a deficiency is uncommon. Example: Vitamin D deficiency is rare due to its fat soluble character.
  14. Are water soluble vitamins labile in nature, meaning that they are more ephemeral in nature than fat soluble vitamins?
    Yes, in fact the U.S. government is very adamant in regards to inspecting foods for water soluble vitamins
  15. Which has a greater tendency towards toxicity? Fat soluble vitamins or water soluble vitamins?
    Fat soluble vitamins are more toxic. For example, whalers had too much vitamin D in there diets due to the consumption of whale livers during their stay in the arctic circle for 2-3 years.
  16. Vitamin A is fat soluble. Does it play a critical role in vision? Hint: Think about children in Africa and their consumption of Vitamin A capsules.
    Yes, Vitamin A plays a role in vision. It is converted in the eye when it combines with dhopsin to form rhodopsin. It sits in the back of the eye to allow for the conversion of a protein the cis to a trans form. This allows for the perception of light via a sodium channel opening.
  17. In addition to Blindness, a deficiency in Vitamin A leads to the degeneration of the epithelial cells. What is the remaining deficiency that Vitamin A can result in? Hint: Deals with teeth
    Enamel hypoplasia is the disorder that is caused by a deficiency on Vitamin A.
  18. True or False. A deficiency in Vitamin A causes the death of nerve fibers and blindness.
    True. Vitamin A deficiency can cause the death of nerve fibers and blindness.
  19. In regards to toxicity, Vitamin A can cause what kind of "developmental effects" that are often seen at birth?
    Teratogenic effects
  20. What vitamin is associated with cranial swelling? Hint: it is a result of using anti-aging products on the skin
    Vitamin A is associated with cranial swelling.
  21. Can Vitamin A simply be absorbed directly into the skin?
    Yes, Vitamin A can simply be absorbed through the skin because it is a fat soluble vitamin.
  22. PTH, Calcitonin (CT), and Vitamin D are used to regulate the amount of calcium in the blood. Cite their roles in calcium metabolism. AKA Do they increase or decrease the blood calcium?
    PTH and Vitamin D work in concert to increase the amount of calcium in the blood. Calcitonin serves to decrease the amount of calcium in the blood.
  23. What are the three organ systems that are involved in the metabolism of calcium and phosphate?
    The small intestine, the kidney, and bone.
  24. Calcium has extreme biological importance in the body. In addition to its role in salivary gland ion transport and it plays a role in calcium and phosphate metabolism. Muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, membrane stability, blood clotting, and being an intracellular messenger summarize all of its important biological roles what remains to be addressed?
    Calcium also plays a role in the endocrine and exocrine secretory functions of cells. i.e. an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration results from its release from the RER. This is done via Ach binding to it's receptor and activating DAG and IP3 through Phospholipase C.
  25. If I am describing a molecule where its primary biological roles include its participation in the formation of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism, presence in ATP creatine phosphate, and cofactors like NADP, cAMP, Intositol triphosphate, DNA and RNA. What molecule am I describing?
    Phosphate
  26. Typically there is more calcium on the outside of a cell than on the inside (10-3 vs. 10-7) Also, the calcium on the inside of the cell is usually bound to the Rough ER while the calcium on the extracellular side is either ionized, non ionized, or bound to proteins. When there are decreased plasma levels of Calcium what is this called?
    Tetany is the term that describes when there are decreased plasma levels of calcium in the body.
  27. Typically there is more calcium on the outside of a cell than on the inside (10-3 vs. 10-7) Also, the calcium on the inside of the cell is usually bound to the Rough ER while the calcium on the extracellular side is either ionized, non ionized, or bound to proteins. When there are increased plasma levels of Calcium what issues can this lead to?
    Cardiac failure and respiratory failure are the issues that someone with an increased plasma levels of calcium can have.
  28. The average intake of calcium for a person is around 1000mg. What percent is absorbed if 150 mg is secreted into the intestine while 200 mg is secreted into the urine? What percent is being reabsorbed into the kidney tubules?
    If 150 mg of calcium is secreted into the intestine and 200 mg is secreted into the urine then 30% of an average person's calcium intake is absorbed. 98% of this gets reabsorbed by the kidney tubules.
  29. What are the typical percentages for circulating Calcium? (protein-bound nondifussible (inactive, non excreted), complexed with phosphate bicarbonate and citrate, and free calcium (active form))
    • The majority of calcium is the active form at 50% of the total protein concentration. The inactive form is at 40% while the calcium that is found complexed with phosphate, bicarbonate, and citrate is at 10%.
  30. What is the major salt form that calcium is found in the body?
    Calcium phosphate is the major salt form of calcium formed in the body.
  31. True or False. Calcium does not tend to be found chelated in the body by organic acids like citrate, oxalate, phytic acid, and bile salts.
    False. Calcium tends to be found chelated in the body by organic acids like citrate, oxalate, phytic acid, and bile salts.
  32. Where is the site of transport for Calcium? What does it depend on to accomplish this?
    Calcium is transported from the small intestine. It depends on Vitamin D to do this. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin.
  33. Where is the majority of the dietary calcium lost in the body? Is more used for bone remodeling than is secreted in the urine? Is more lost in the urinary secretion than the fecal secretion?
    In fecal secretion. Of the 1000 mg that is ingested 800 is excreted in feces. Bone remodeling uses around 500 mg which is more than the 200 mg that is secreted in the urine.
  34. True or False. PTH or parathyroid hormone that is secreted from the parathyroid (duh) acts on enterocytes in the small intestine?
    False. PTH does not act on, or get absorbed by, enterocytes in the small intestine.
  35. Of the three hormones in the blood that deal with calcium uptake and release (PTH, Vitamin D, and Calcitonin). Which two serve a similar purpose in the regulation of calcium levels? (i.e. lowering or raising the concentration)
    Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) and Vitamin D tend to both increase the levels of blood calcium when the detected plasma levels are low.
  36. What are the three sites at which Vitamin D acts on during calcium/phosphate metabolism in the blood? What site is excluded for calcitonin?
    Vitamin D acts on the kidney, bone, and small intestine. Meanwhile, Calcitonin does not act on the small intestine. This is similar to PTH which also does not function on the small intestine.
  37. What gland in the body is sensitive to changes in blood calcium levels? Do the gland's secretions exert an inverse or direct relationship to the concentration of calcium in the blood?
    The Parathyroid gland is sensitive to changes in blood calcium levels and exerts an inverse relationship to the amount of hormone that is release relative to the blood calcium concentration.
  38. PTH is a single chain peptide of 84 amino acids and signals through cAMP. In fact, a percentage of the bodies cAMP found in urine is due to the activation of adenylyl cyclase. What is this percentage? Also, what organs does PTH act on?
    50% of the cAMP that is found in urine is due to the activation of adenylyl cyclase in the kidney. PTH acts on Bone and Kidney.
  39. Another name for Vitamin D is 1,25(OH)2D3 is Where is 1,25(OH)2D3 formed? What hormone is considered the principal regulator of its synthesis?
    1,25(OH)2D3 is formed in the kidney. The primary regulator is PTH which does not act on the small intestine.
  40. What 2 types of cells are stimulated in the bone by PTH? What are their functions?
    Osteoclasts and Osteoblasts. Osteoblasts "build bone" or remineralize the bone, while osteoclasts "consume bone" or release calcium into the surrounding blood serum and demineralize bone.
  41. True or False. The activation of PTH from the parathyroid allows for the decrease in the amount of phosphate that is reabsorbed in the renal tubules
    True. When PTH is released from the parathyroid gland into the blood, it acts on the kidney and the bone. (indirectly on the blood) It causes the kidney's renal tubules to absorb more calcium and cAMP.
  42. Calcitonin (CT) is secreted from the parathyroid gland. What cells of the parathyroid gland secrete CT? Is the secretion of CT a cAMP dependent process?
    The C-cells secrete calcitonin in the parathyroid and yes the secretion of CT from the parathyroid is a cAMP dependent process.
  43. What are the 2 target organs of Calcitionin? Are they the same as PTH?
    Calcitonin targets the kidney and bone. In the bone calcitonin targets osteoclasts. These are the same target organs as PTH.
  44. True or false. The active form of Vitamin D, 1,25(OH)2D3, is not considered a steroid hormone.
    False. Vitamin D or 1,25(OH)2D3 is considered a steroid hormone.
  45. True or false. Vitamin D or 1,25(OH)2D3 is synthesized in the small intestine.
    False. Vitamin D or 1,25(OH)2D3 is synthesized in the kidney
  46. True or false. 28(OH)D3 is the inactive precursor form of Vitamin D.
    False. 25(OH)D3 is the precursor of the active form of Vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3)
  47. Is Vitamin D found in the human diet? What is another source that one can get vitamin D from?
    Yes, Vitamin D is found naturally in the human diet. The other source by which a human can obtain it is from uv radiation.
  48. Does Vitamin D act on osteoclasts or osteoblasts during the process of a) bone remineralization or b) demineralization?
    Vitamin D acts on osteoblasts during the process of bone remineralization b).
  49. True or false. Vitamin D targets the cells in the renal tubule.
    True. Vitamin D targets the cells in the renal tubule.
  50. Where is another source of Vitamin D that was noted in class other than the kidney?
    The placenta is another location where Vitamin D can be found.
  51. True or false. The removal of hydroxyl groups from a fat soluble vitamin will make it more water soluble.
    False. The addition of hydroxyl groups will make a fat soluble vitamin more water soluble.
  52. True or False. The P550 class of enzymes are the class of enzymes found in the liver and the kidney and are involved in the synthesis of 1,25(OH)D3
    False. The P450 class of enzymes are the ones that are used in the liver and the kidney.
  53. True or False. There is a inverse relationship between the formation of the active form of vitamin D and the synthesis of the molecule 24,25 (OH)2D3.
    True. There is an inverse relationship between the active form of vitamin D and 24,25 (OH)2D3
  54. What family of enzymes are used to convert the precursor Vitamin D to its active form? What position does it add the OH to?
    Hydroxylases are used to convert Vitamin D to its active form. P450 1alpha-hydroxylase is used to add an additional OH to 25(OH)D3
  55. In addition to the uptake of phosphate and magnesium, the small intestine takes up calcium via calcium pumps. Does it use the active precursor of Vitamin D? Where are these pumps inserted in the small intestine?
    Yes, the small intestine responds to active form of Vitamin D slowly via gene regulation, because it is a steroid. These pumps are inserted into the basolateral membrane of the small intestine.
  56. Three of the four cell types in bone include osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes. What is the fourth? What function does this fourth cell type have?
    Lining Cells are the fourth type of cell in bone. They serve to initiate the recruitment of osteoclasts.
  57. What step (1,2,3, or 4) of the bone remodeling process does the creation of matrix formation occur in? Hint: This matrix is called osteoid
    • The creation of matrix occurs in the second stage when osteoblasts are activated.
  58. True or False. Calcitonin acts as a direct inhibitor of osteoblasts.
    False. Calcitonin does act as a direct inhibitor in its action, however, it acts on osteoclasts
  59. Does calcitonin serve to inhibit the calcium reabsorption in the renal system? Yes or No? Why?
    Yes calcitonin serves to inhibit renal absorption in the kidney. This occurs to decrease the overall calcium levels in the blood which is the primary purpose of the hormone.
  60. PTH and Vitamin D (the active form) work together to accomplish what in regards to the concentration of calcium in the blood? How does this get accomplished in the kidney?
    Vitamin D and PTH are hormones that are used to increase the amount of Calcium in the blood. They do this in the kidney by stimulating calcium absorption in the renal tubules.
  61. True or false. PTH stimulates the generation of the active form of Vitamin D
    True. Remember, PTH and Vitamin D work together to increase the amount of calcium in the blood.
  62. Tocopherols are what type of fat soluble, and non-toxic vitamin? Hint: Lipophilic vitamin found in plants
    Vitamin E
  63. What is the vitamin which has a minimal consequence when a person is deficient, and was thought to help with cancer, Alzheimers, and CD (cardiovascular disease)?
    Vitamin E causes minimal issue if it is deficient in the human body. It's lipid soluble antioxidant nature was hypothesized to be useful (i.e. Unsaturated bond regions)
  64. List all the fat soluble vitamins.
    Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K
  65. What Vitamin is primarily responsible for the integrity of a erythrocyte (RBC's) membrane?
    Vitamin E. Red blood cells lacking vitamin E easily lysed when placed in a hypotonic solution.
  66. If you are in clinic and a patient is bleeding profusely during a surgery what drug are they likely taking? What vitamin does this drug inhibit?
    The patient is likely taking dicumerol which is an anti coagulant. Vitamin K is the vitamin that acts to allow for the coagulation of red blood cells and contains several clotting factors.
  67. Which of the two organs; Small intestine, Bone, or Kidney have many Vitamin K dependent proteins? What are these proteins that are found in these two organs called?
    The Bone and the Kidney have Vitamin K dependent proteins. The name of the proteins that are found in the bone and the kidney related to vitamin K are osteocalcins
  68. True or false. Vitamin K is a cofactor that acts to fix CO2 onto the the enzyme.
    • True. Vitamin K is a co factor that helps gamma carboxylase bind gamma carboxylase glutamic acid. Dicumerol inhibits this process. Vitamin K in the lver leads to a gamma carboxylated glutamate residue.
  69. Beriberi is associated with Thiamine. The more traditional vitamin name for Thiamine is...
    Vitamin B1 is the more traditional name for Thiamine.
  70. True or False. Vitamin K mediated carboxylation of glutamine residues occurs in the liver and is protein directed.
    True. Vitamin K utilizes a gamma carboxylase to generate a gamma carboxyglutamic acid that can clot together. This allows gamma carboxyglutamic acid. It is dictated by a specific coding protein that is bound to the glutamate.
  71. True or False. It is hypothesized that Vitamin K plays a role in tooth development.
    True.
  72. People on what medication will tend to bruise easily?
    dicumerol
  73. Is Vitamin B1 water or fat soluble?
    Vitamin B1 is water soluble.
  74. What is the vitamin that a person is more likely to have a deficiency in Vitamin A or Vitamin B1?
    Vitamin B1 because it is a water soluble vitamin and water soluble vitamins are more prone to be deficient in people than fat soluble vitamins.
  75. Vitamin B1 is also called thiamine. If it is not present, will will acetyl CoA be present in the cell? If not, what is the complex that is affected, and what is the process called?
    Glycolysis will not occur properly because Vitamin B1 is part of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex that converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA.
  76. Alcoholism can be associated with Vitamin B1 in what deficiency?
    BeriBeri is the disorder that is associated with alcoholism.
  77. T or F. If riboflavin is present in the diet the TCA cycle and electron transport chain will operate without issue. Hint: Vitamin B2 is commonly referred to as Riboflavin
    False. Without riboflavins or vitamin B2 the TCA cycle will be unable to continue. Also, FMN or flavin mono-nucleotide is used in complex 1 of the ETC to allow for the transport of electrons.
  78. If a patient comes into your office with a dermititis along their lip (epithelium) and you know that it is a flavoprotein deficiency is the primary cause, what vitamin is causing this issue. What is the disease called?
    Vitamin B1. Angular dermatitis. Note: This was on Part II of boards
  79. What vitamins are involved in the electron transport chain and are often needed in higher levels upon exercise?
    Vitamin B2 and Vitamin B3. AKA Riboflavin and Niacin are needed in higher levels if a person is going to exercise more due to their usage in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway and the generation of ATP.
  80. NADP and NAD are seen in the electron transport chain. What vitamin is a key component of these two molecules?
    NADP and NAD are made of Niacin which is Vitamin B3
  81. True or false. If a person complains of Pellagra. Vitamin D is the culprit
    False. Pellegra is caused by a deficiency in Niacin which is also Vitamin B3
  82. Vitamin B5 or pantothenic acid is part of a coenzyme complex. What is the complex called?
    Coenzyme A is the complex that Vitamin B5 or pantothenic acid is a part of.
  83. True or False. Pantothenic acid plays a central role in lipid carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and is needed in large doses.
    False. Even though pantothenic acid or Vitamin B5 plays a central role in amino acid, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism, it is needed in small doses. In fact, because of the small doses that it is required in a deficiency has not been documented.
  84. Vitamin B6 is a common vitamin that is commonly seen on board exams. It is also referred to as Pyradoxine. What role does it play in nitrogen detoxification? and what common enzyme function is it serving in this process?
    Vitamin B6 or Pyradoxine is transfers nitrogen groups from ammonia which is toxic in blood to urea. In this process of transferring nitrogen to urea, it is acting as a transaminase.
  85. True or false. Panothenic acid or Vitamin B5 must be obtained through the diet.
    True. Panothenic acid or Vitamin B5 must be obtained from the diet.
  86. What vitamin is involved in the deamination step of amino acid metabolism to generate a keto acid?
    pyrodoxine or Vitamin B6 is involved in the deamination step of amino acid metabolism.
  87. What vitamins/nutrients are also involved as coenzymes? For each one determine whether it is fat or water soluble. Hint: There are six total.
    • Vitamin K (fat soluble)
    • Vitamin B6 (water soluble)
    • Folic Acid (fat soluble)
    • Vitamin B12 (water soluble)
    • Vitamin B1 (water soluble)
    • Note: Vitamin B5 is part of the coenzyme A structure but itself is not a coenzyme
  88. How many broken down amino acids can a moelcule of urea be responsible for?
    Two amino acids can be broken down per molecule of urea because urea can accept two nitrogens.
  89. Since Vitamin B6 or pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyradoxamine is so important in relation to nitrogen metabolism many bodily processes are effected. Neurotransmitters and amino acid metabolism are some of the items/processes that are effected. What are the two remaining items?
    • Sphingolipid generation is affected due to their incorporation of the amino alcohol sphingosine in addition to the creation of seratonin. The structures are shown below
    • \
    • seratonin above
    • sphingolipid above
  90. A patient is having convulsions which is known to be associated with a serotonin deficiency and a heightened nervous system sensitivity. What vitamin is he deficient in?
    Vitamin B6 (AKA pyradoxine, pyrodoxal, pyradoxamine). This patient may also be hypersensitive as well due to the malfunctioning of neurotransmitter.
  91. What common nutrient other than Vitamin K fixes CO2? Hint: it is also involved in the Gluconeogenic pathway and involved with pyruvate carboxylase and acetyl carboxylase.
    Biotin fixes CO2 and it is rare to see a deficiency in this particular nutrient. It is a common carboxylation enzyme.
  92. What nutrient, although a deficiency is rare, was discussed in relation to children in the tropics where a parasite invades the intestine?
    Biotin. These parasites bind biotin and interfere with its ability to actively transport across a membrane. Remember Biotin is water soluble
  93. Fatigue, dermatitis, neuropathy, and immunodeficiency are associated with the deficiency of molecule? Hint: It has an effect on carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism
    Biotin
  94. The essential nutrient that is involved directly with the synthesis of DNA and RNA is... (hint: it is a contributor to the development of spina bifida)
    Folic Acid or Folate. It allows for the one carbon transfer during the synthesis of DNA and RNA.
  95. ______ Acid is key in the generation of purines and pyramidines that consists of 5 coenzyme forms.
    Folic.
  96. True or False. The inrease in the amount of the water soluble molecule folate in our diet has contributed to the increase in the cases of spina bifida.
    False. Due to the increase in our diet of folate, especially in our food, the cases of spina bifida have declined.
  97. Red blood cells in the marrow require a great amount of DNA. If there is a folic acid deficiency in the person how will this affect that person?
    A folic acid deficiency will cause the person to develop a megaloblastic anemia. The lack of folate in the diet will prevent the completion of the generation of blood cells. (has been on boards)
  98. In chemotherapy Folate (AKA Folic acid) is a common nutrient that is targeted. Why is this the case?
    Folate contributes greatly to the formation of the five intermediates that aid in the generation of DNA. Without folate present, the cancerous cells will be unable to generate more DNA to transcribe and eventually synthesize proteins for new cells.
  99. If I have a pill in my hand and the instruction on the bottle say that it has 5 coenzymes and assists in the synthesis of choline, serine and methionine. What is this pill?
    Folic Acid or Folate is in my hand
  100. Vitamin B12 is also referred to as cobalamin. Why is this name pertinent to the fact that it is only found in bacteria?
    Vitamin B12 is also referred to as cobalamin and only found in bacteria because it contains cobalt. Cobalt is only synthesized in bacteria.
  101. Vitamin B12 is involved in the balancing act of the bodily amount of another acid that contains 5 coenzymes. What is this acid called?
    Folic acid. Note: since these two are linked they tend to cause similar issues.
  102. Shots of this vitamin were needed to ensure that a person had enough of this vitamin due a lack of an understanding about a transporter that required folate to enter the stomach. What is this vitamin?
    • Vitamin B12 was required because it is interconnected with folate via a B12 dependent enzyme known as the "tetrahydorfolate trap"
  103. Abscorbic Acid is associated with scurvy, and is involved in collagen synthesis. What Vitamin is this known as?
    Vitamin C (on boards)
  104. What vitamin is involved in the hydroxylation of a proline which results in the three strands of what molecule to associate in a tetramer?
    Collagen fibrils. When a vitamin C or abscorbic acid deficiency is apparent then the skin will tend to slough off.
  105. True or False. Vitamin C or abscorbic acid allows for the absorption of iron in the ferrous form and is a common supplement for anemia.
    True
  106. Name the water soluble vitamin that is associated with antioxidant properties.
    Vitamin C-Abscorbic Acid
  107. Name the two fat soluble antioxidants
    Vitamin A and Vitamin E
  108. People who smoke generate a lot of free radicals. This is associated with a decline in the numbers of what water soluble antioxidant?
    Vitamin C
  109. A loss in connective tissue is a result of a loss of collagen. What water soluble vitamin is responsible for this?
    Vitamin C or Abscorbic Acid.
  110. What is the most prevalent divalent extracellular cation?
    Calcium, (Ca2+)
  111. What is the most prevalent mineral/trace element that is a divalent intracellular ion? It is also complexed with ATP (Hint: This ion is also the third most common element in bone)
    Magnesium, (Mg2+) ON NBDE
  112. In addition to calcium and magnesium, this trace element is found in bone as well and plays an important role in ATP, DNA, and RNA creation.
    Phosphorus
  113. What mineral/trace element is responsible for linking fibers that are outside the ECM? (Recall the chicken heart story...)
    Copper. Copper allows for the covalent cross-linker of the lysyl oxidase. Without copper in their diet their aorta burst.
  114. What trace mineral is responsible for the cross linking of the elastic fibers in our lungs?
    Copper is responsible for the corss-linking character in our lungs that allows for their elasticity.
  115. What trace mineral is involved directly with transcription factors and has spiked a lot of interest in the past couple of years?
    Zinc. It is found in the zinc finger binding domains of a plethora of transcription factors.
  116. Epidermal deficiencies such as a loss of taste, impaired wound healing, and lesions are a result of a lack of what trace mineral?
    Zinc
  117. What is the most abundant monovalent extracellular ion?
    Sodium, Na+
  118. What is the most abundant monovalent internal ion within a cell?
    Potassium, K+
  119. What is the primary function of the sodium/potassium ATPase? (hint: what ion levels must it maintain)
    Intracellular levels of K+
  120. Sodium and Potassium serve similar roles as trace elements. What are the two differences in their roles?
    Sodium maintains the extracellular fluid volume while Potassium maintains the intracellular fluid volume. Also, sodium maintains blood volume and pressure while potassium does not. Otherwise they both contribute to nerve impulse, muscle contraction and the regulation of acid base balance
  121. What mineral or trace element is involved in the Complex I, NADH-Q reductase, and Cytochrome C, complex II, in the electron transport chain?
    Iron (Fe) is involved in complex I and complex II.
  122. P450 enzymes ar commonly found where? The liver, small intestine, or kidney. (hint: think of the carboxylase enzymes involved in Vitamin D metabolism)
    The liver. The assist in using iron to detoxify the liver
  123. Lactoferrin is involved in what process in regards to saliva.
    Bacterial clearance.
  124. The two principle anions in the body are...(hint: one helps neutralize the pH of saliva)
    Bicarbonate (HCO3-) and chloride (Cl-). Bicarbonate is used to neutralize the acids in the oral cavity.
  125. The basal metabolic rate and the issue of a goiter can be related to what trace element?
    Iodine. Salt is now iodized and also can be found in seafood. Both of which can prevent a throxine issue that can lead to a goiter.
  126. A person is overweight, depressed, and complains a lot. They are also lethargic and have "beady eyes" What genetic disease may they be predisposed to and not know about it?
    Hypo function in the thyroid AKA Hypothyroidism
  127. True or False. The monovalent cations sodium and potassium, in addition to the monovalent anion Chlorine are involved in fluid movement
    True.

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