GN terms 2

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GN terms 2
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2010-09-28 01:36:53
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  1. Lacks a centromere; Produced when crossing over takes place w/in a paracentric inversion. The ___ does not attach to a spindle fiber and does not segregate in meiosis or mitosis; so it is usually lost after 1 or more rounds of cell division
    Acentric Chromatid
  2. Chromosome in which the centromere is near one end, producing a long arm at one end and a knob, or satellite, at the other end
    Acrocentric Chromosome
  3. Component of the genetic variance that can be attributed to the additive effect of diff genotypes
    Additive Genetic Variance
  4. Type of segregation that takes place in a heterozygote for a translocation. If the original, nontranslocated chromosomes ar N1 and N2 and the chromosomes containing the translocated segments T1 and T2, then __ takes place when N1 and T2 move toward one pole and T1 and N2 move toward the opposite pole
    Adjacent-1 Segregation
  5. Type of segregation that takes place in a heterozygote for a translocation. If the original, nontranslocated chromosomes are N1 and N2 and the chromosomes containing the translocated segments are T1 and T2, then __ takes place when N1 and T1 move toward one pole and T2 and N2 move toward the opposite pole
    Adjacent-2 Segregation
  6. Proportion of a particular allele in a population
    Allelic Frequency
  7. Condition in which the sets of chromosome of a polyploid individual possessing more than 2 haploid sets are derived from 2 or more species
    Allopolyploidy
  8. Type of segregation that takes place in a heterozygote for a translocation. If the original, nontranslocated chromosomes are N1 and N2, and the chromosomes containing the translocated segments T1 and T2, then __ takes place when N1 and N2 move toward one pole and T1 and T2 move toward the opposite pole
    Alternate Segregation
  9. Type of allopolyploidy in which 2 diff diploid genomes are combined, so that every chromosome has 1 and only 1 homo partner and the genome is functionally diploid
    Amphidiploidy
  10. Change from the wild type in the # of chromosomes; Most often an increase or decrease of 1 or 2 chromosomes
    Aneuploidy
  11. Selection practiced by the humans
    Artificial Selection
  12. Special site on a bacterial chromosome where a prophage may insert itself
    Attachment Site
  13. Condition in which all the sets of chromosomes of a polyploid individual possessing more than 2 haploid sets are derived from a single species
    Autopolyploidy
  14. Proportion of the phenotypic variance that can be attributed to genetic variance
    Broad-Sense Heritability
  15. Loss of a chromosome segment
    Chromosome Deletion
  16. Mutation that doubles a segment of a chromosome
    Chromosome Duplication
  17. Rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome has been inverted 180 degrees
    Chromosome Inversion
  18. Difference from the wild type in the # or structure of 1 or more chromosomes; Often affects many genes and has a large phenotypic effects
    Chromosome Mutation
  19. Change from the wild type in the structure of 1 or more chromosomes
    Chromosome Rearrangement
  20. Clump of genetically identical bacteria derived from a single bacterial cell that undergoes repeated rounds of division
    Colony
  21. Capable of taking up DNA from its envt (capable of being transformed)
    Competent Cell
  22. Used to culture bacteria or some other microorganism; Contains all the nutrients required for growth and synthesis, including those normally synthesized by the organism. Nutritional mutants can grow on __
    Complete Medium
  23. Mechanism by which genetic material may be exchanged btw bacterial cells. During __, 2 bacteria lie close together and a cytoplasmic connection forms btw them. A plasmid or sometimes a part of the bacterial chromosome passes through this connection from 1 cell to the other
    Conjugation
  24. Degree of association btw 2 or more variables
    Correlation
  25. Statistic that measures the degree of association btw 2 or more variables. A __ can range from -1 to +1. A + value indicates a direct relation btw the variables; a - value indicates an inverse relation. The absolute value of the __ provide info about the strength of association btw the variables
    Correlation Coefficient
  26. Process in which 2 or more genes are transferred together from 1 bacterial cell to another. Only genes located close together on a bacterial chromosome will be __
    Cotransduction
  27. Process in which 2 or more genes are transferred together during cell transformation
    Cotransformation
  28. Structure produced when the 1 centromeres of a dicentric chromatid are pulled toward opposite poles, stretching the dicentric chromosome across the center of the nucleus. Eventually, the __ breaks as the 2 centromeres are pulled apart
    Dicentric Bridge
  29. Chromatid that has 2 centromeres; Produced when crossing over takes place w/in a paracentric inversion. The 2 centromeres of the __ are frequently pulled toward opposite poles in mitosis or meiosis, breaking the chromosome
    Dicentric Chromatid
  30. Selection in which one trait or allele is favored over another
    Directional Selection
  31. Chromosome rearrangement in which the duplicated segment is some distance from the original segment, either on the same chromosome or on a diff one
    Displaced Duplication
  32. Component of the genetic variance that can be attributed to dominance (interaction btw genes at the same locus)
    Dominance Genetic Variance
  33. Characterized by variable degrees of mental retardation, characteristic facial features, some retardation of growth and development, and an increased incidence of heart defects, leukemia, and other abnormalities; Cased by the duplication of all or part of the chromosome 21
    Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)
  34. Characterized by severe retardation, low-set ears, a short neck, deformed feet, clenched fingers, heart problems, and other disabilities; Results from the presence of 3 copies of chromosome 18
    Edward Syndrome (Trisomy 18)
  35. Effective # of breeding in adults in a pop; Influenced by the # of individuals contributing genes to the next generation, their sex ratio, variation btw individuals in reproductive success, fluctuations in pop size, the age structure of the pop, and whether mating is random
    Effective Population Size
  36. Component of the phenotypic variance that is due to environmental differences among individual members of a pop
    Environmental Variance
  37. Plasmid capable of integrating into a bacterial chromosome
    Episome
  38. Situation in which no further change takes place; in pop genetics, refers to a pop in which allelic frequencies do not change
    Equilibrium
  39. Episome of E coli that controls conjugation and gene exchange btw E coli cells. The __ contains an origin of replication and genes that enable the bacterium to undergo conjugation
    F Factor
  40. Caused by a Robertsonian translocation in which the long arm of chromosome 21 is translocated to another chromosome; tends to run in families
    Familial Down Syndrome
  41. Reproductive success of a genotype compared w/ that of other genotypes in a pop
    Fitness
  42. Point at which one allele reaches a frequency of 1. At this point, all members of the pop are homo for the same allele
    Fixation
  43. Sampling error that arises when a pop is established by a small # of individuals; leads to genetic drift
    Founder Effect
  44. Constriction or gap that appears at a particular location on a chromosome when cells are cultured under special conditions. One __ on the human X chromosome is associated w/ mental retardation (fragil-X syndrome) and results from an expanding trinucleotide repeat
    Fragile Site
  45. Graphical way of representing values. In genetics, usually the phenotypes found in a group of individuals are displayed as a __. Typically, the phenotypes are plotted on the horizontal x axis and the numbers (or proportions) of individuals w/ each phenotype are plotted on the vertical y axis
    Frequency Distribution
  46. Total of all genes in a pop
    Gene Pool
  47. Transduction in which any gene may be transferred from one bacterial cell to another by a virus
    Generalized Transduction
  48. Sampling error that arises when a pop undergoes a drastic reduction in a pop size; Leads to genetic drift
    Genetic Bottleneck
  49. Phenotypic correlation due to the same genes affecting 2 or more characteristics
    Genetic Correlation
  50. Change in allelic frequency due to sampling error
    Genetic Drift
  51. Introduction of new genetic variation into an inbred pop that often dramatically improves the health of the pop in an effort to increase its chances of long-term survival
    Genetic Rescue
  52. Component of the phenotypic variance that is due to genetic differences among individual members of a pop
    Genetic Variance
  53. Component of the phenotypic variance that results from an interaction btw genotype and envt. Genotypes are expressed differently in diff envts
    Genetic-Enviromental Interaction Variance
  54. Component of the genetic variance that can be attributed to genic interaction (interation btw genes at diff loci)
    Genic Interaction Variance
  55. Proportion of a particular genotype
    Genotypic Frequency
  56. Individual organism that is a mosaic for the sex chromosomes, possessing tissues w/ diff sex-chromosome constitutions
    Gynandromorph
  57. Must be present in 2 copies for normal function. If one copy of the gene is missing, a mutant phenotype is produced
    Haploinsufficient Gene
  58. Important principle of pop genetics stating that, in a large, randomly mating pop not affected by mutation, migration, or natural selection, allelic frequencies will not change and genotypic frequencies stabilize after one generation in the proportions p2 (the freq of AA), 2pq (the freq of Aa), and q2 (freq of aa), where p=freq of allele A and q=freq of a
    Hardy-Weinberg Law
  59. Frequencies of genotypes when the conditions of the Hardy-Weinberg law are met
    Hardy-Weinbergy Equilibrium
  60. Proportion of phenotypic variation due to genetic differences
    Heritability
  61. Transfer of genes from one organism to another by a mechanism other than reproduction
    Horizontal Gene Transfer
  62. Mating btw related individuals that takes place more frequently than expected on the basis of chance
    Inbreeding
  63. Measure of inbreeding; The probability (ranging from 0 to 1) that two alleles are identical by descent
    Inbreeding Coefficient
  64. Decreased fitness arising from inbreeding; Often due to the increased expression of lethal and deleterious recessive traits
    Inbreeding Depression
  65. Maps the locations of mutations w/in a single locus
    Intragenic Mapping
  66. Statistic that describes the center of a distribution of measurements; Calculated by dividing the sum of all measurements by the # of measurements; Also called the average
    Mean
  67. Group of interbreeding, sexually reproducing individuals
    Mendelian Population
  68. Characteristic whose phenotype varies in whole numbers, such as number of vertebrae
    Meristic Characteristic
  69. Chromosome in which the two chromosome arms are approximately the same length
    Metacentric Chromosome
  70. Movement of genes from one pop to another
    Migration (Gene Flow)
  71. Used to culture bacteria or some other microorganism; contains only the nutrients req by prototrophic (wild-type) cells-typically, a carbon source, essential elements such as nitrogen and phosphorus, certain vitamins, and other req ions and nutrients
    Minimal Medium
  72. Absence of one of the chromosomes of a homo pair
    Monosomy
  73. Condition in which regions of tissue w/in a single individual have diff chromosome constitutions
    Mosaicism
  74. Proportion of the phenotypic variance that can be attributed to additive genetic variance
    Narrow-Sense Heritability
  75. Differential reproduction of genotypes
    Natural Selection
  76. Mating btw unlike individuals that is more frequent than would be expected on the basis of chance
    Negative Assortative Mating
  77. Movement of a chromosome segment to a nonhomo chromosome or region w/o any (or w/ unequal) reciprocal exchange of segments
    Nonreciprocal Translocation
  78. Common type of freq distribution that exhibits a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve; Usually arises when a large # of independent factors contribute to the measurement
    Normal Distribution
  79. Absence of both chromosomes of a homo pair (2n-2)
    Nullisomy
  80. Mating btw unrelated individuals that is more frequent than would be expected on the basis of chance
    Outcrossing
  81. Selection in which the heterozygote has higher fitness than that of either homozygote; Also called heterozygote advantage
    Overdominance
  82. Chromosome inversion that does not include the centromere in the inverted region
    Paracentric Inversion
  83. Characterized by severe mental retardation, a small head, sloping forehead, small eyes, cleft lip and palate, extra fingers and toes, and other disabilities; Results from the presence of 3 copies of chromosome 13
    Patau Syndrome (Trisomy 13)
  84. Chromosome inversion that includes the centromere in the inverted region
    Pericentric Inversion
  85. Correlation btw 2 or more phenotypes in the same individual
    Phenotypic Correlation
  86. Measure the degree of phenotypic differences among a group of individuals; Composed of genetic, environmental, and genetic-environmental interaction variances
    Phenotypic Variance
  87. Extension of the surface of some bacteria that allows conjugation to take place. When a _ on one cell makes contact with a receptor on another cell, the _ contracts and pulls the 2 cells together
    Pili (Singular, Pilus)
  88. Clear patch of lysed cells on a continuous layer of bacteria on the agar surface of a petri plate. Each _ represents a single original phage that multiplied and lysed many cells
    Plaque
  89. Small, circular DNA molecule found in bacterial cells that is capable of replicating independently from the bacterial chromosome
    Plasmid
  90. Possession of more than 2 haploid sets of chromosomes
    Polyploidy
  91. The group of interest; Often represented by a subset called a sample. Also, a group of members of the same species
    Population
  92. Dependence of the expression of a gene on the gene's location in the genome
    Position Effect
  93. Mating btw like individuals that is more frequent than would be expected on the basis of chance
    Positive Assortative Mating
  94. Caused by the presence of 3 copies of chromosome 21
    Primary Down Syndrome
  95. Phage genome that is integrated into a bacterial chromosome
    Prophage
  96. Expression of a normally recessive allele owing to a deletion on the homo chromosome
    Pseudodominance
  97. Genetic analysis of complex characteristics or characteristics influenced by multiple genetic factors
    Quantitative Genetics
  98. A gene or chromosomal region that contributes to the expression of quantitative characteristics
    Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL)
  99. Narrow-sense heritability measured from a response-to-selection experiment
    Realized Heritability
  100. Reciprocal exchange of segments btw 2 non-homo chromosomes
    Reciprocal Translocation
  101. Analysis of how one variable changes in response to another variable
    Regression
  102. Statistic that measures how much one variable changes, on average, w/ a unit change in another variable
    Regression Coefficient
  103. The amt that a characteristic changes in one generation owing to selection; equals the selection differential times the narrow-sense heritability
    Response to Selection
  104. Duplication of a chromosome segment in which the sequence of the duplicated segment is inverted relative to the sequence of the original segment
    Reverse Duplication
  105. Translocation in which the long arms of 2 acrocentric chromosomes become joined to a common centromere, resulting in a chromosome w/ 2 long arms and usually another chromosome w/ 2 short arms
    Robertsonian Translocation
  106. Subset used to describe a pop
    Sample
  107. Deviations from expected ratios due to chance occurrences when the number of events is small
    Sampling Error
  108. Measure of the relative intensity of selection against a genotype; equals 1-fitness
    Selection Coefficient
  109. Difference in phenotype btw the selected individuals and the average of the entire pop
    Selection Differential
  110. Transduction in which genes near special sites on the bacterial chromosome are transferred from one bacterium to another; requires lysogenic bacteriophages
    Specialized Transduction
  111. Statistic that describes the variability of a group of measurements; the square root of the variance
    Standard Deviation
  112. Chromosome in which the centromere is displaced toward one end, producing a short arm and a long arm
    Submetacentric Chromosome
  113. Duplication of a chromosome segment that is adjacent to the original segment
    Tandem Duplication
  114. Chromosome in which the centromere is at or very near one end
    Telocentric Chromosome
  115. Bacteriophage that utilizes the lysogenic cycle, in which the phage DNA integrates into the bacterial chromosome and remains in an inactive state
    Temperate Phage
  116. Presence of 2 extra copies of a chromosome (2n+2)
    Tetrasomy
  117. Discontinuous characteristic whose expression depends on an underlying susceptibility that varies continuously
    Threshold Characteristic
  118. Contains a piece of the bacterial chromosome inside the phage coat
    Transducing Phage
  119. Bacterial cell that has received genes from another bacterium through transduction
    Transductant
  120. Type of gene exchange that takes place when a virus carries genes from one bacterium to another. After it is inside the cell, the newly introduced DNA may undergo recombination with the bacterial chromosome
    Transduction
  121. Cell that has received genetic material through transformations
    Transformant
  122. Mechanism by which DNA found in the medium is taken up by the cell. After _, recombination may take place btw the introduced genes and the cellular chromosome
    Transformation
  123. Movement of a chromosome segment to a non-homo chromosome or to a region w/in the same chromosome. Also, movement of a ribosome along mRNA in the course of translation
    Translocation
  124. Individual organism heterozygous for a translocation
    Translocation Carrier
  125. Presence of an additional copy of a chromosome (2n+1)
    Trisomy
  126. Presence of 3 copies of chromosome 8; in humans, results in mental retardation, contracted fingers and toes, low-set malformed ears, and a prominent forehead
    Trisomy 8
  127. Gamete that has a variable # of chromosomes; Some chromosomes may be missing and others may be present in more than one copy
    Unbalanced Gametes
  128. Selection in which the heterozygote has lower fitness than that of either homozygote
    Underdominance
  129. Inheritance of both chromosomes of a homo pair from a single parent
    Uniparental Disomy
  130. Statistic that describes the variability of a group of measurements
    Variance
  131. Bacteriophage that reproduces only through the lytic cycle and kills its host cell
    Virulent Phage
  132. Noncellular replicating agent consisting of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat; Can replicate only w/in its host cell
    Virus

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