Bio H

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Bio H
2010-01-05 21:48:28

Chp 3 & 5
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  1. Organic Compound
    Made primarily of carbon compounds
  2. Functional Group
    Clustors of atoms
  3. Monomers
    Smaller simpler compounds that are build up carbon compounds
  4. Polymer
    A molecule that consists of repeated, linked units
  5. Macromolecules
    Large polymers
  6. Condensation Reaction
    Monomers link to form polymers through a chemical reaction
  7. Hydrolysis
    Water is used to break down a polymer
  8. Carbohydrates
    Organic compounds composed or carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon atom to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom
  9. Monosaccharide
    A monomer of carbohydrate
  10. Disaccharide
    Two monosaccharide can combine in a condensation reaction to form a double sugar
  11. Polysaccharide
    A complex molecule composed of three or more monosaccharides
  12. Proteins
    Organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
  13. Amino Acids
    Proteins are formed from the linkage of monomers
  14. Peptide Bonds
    Two amino acids form a covalent bond
  15. Polypeptides
    Amino acids form very long chains
  16. Enzymes
    RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts
  17. Substrate
    Reactant being catalyzed
  18. Active Site
    Enzymes that has folds
  19. Lipids
    Large nonpolar organic molecules
  20. Fatty Acids
    Unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids
  21. Phospholipids
    Two, rather than three, fatty acids attatched to a molecule of glyceral
  22. Wax
    A type if structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain joined to a long alcohol chain
  23. Steroid
    Molecules that are composed of four fused carbon rings with various functional groups attatched to them
  24. Nucleic Acids
    Very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important information in the cell
  25. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
    Contains information that determines the characteristics of an organism and directs its cell activities
  26. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
    Stores and transfers information from DNA that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins
  27. Nucleotide
    Made of three main components: a phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar, and a ring-shaped nitrogenous base
  28. Passive Transport
    Substances can cross the cell membrane without any input of energy by the cell
  29. Diffusion
    The movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
  30. Concentration Gradient
    Difference in the concentration of molecules across a distance
  31. Equilibrium
    Concentration of molecules will be the same thoughout the space the molecules occupy
  32. Osmosis
    The process by which water molecules diffuse svross a cell membrane from an area of higher concentration, osmosis does not require cells to expend energy
  33. Hypotonic
    When the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is lower than the concentration in the cytosol, the solution outside
  34. Hypertonic
    When the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is higher than the concentration in the cytosol,the solution is outside
  35. Contractile Vacuoles
    Organelles that remove water
  36. Turgor Pressure
    The pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall
  37. Plasmolysis
    The cell shrinks away from the cell walls, and turgor pressure is lost
  38. Facilitated Diffusion
    Type of passive transport
  39. Carrier Proteins
    Proteins that asist molecules across the cell membrane
  40. Ion Channels
    Transport ions from higher to lower concentrations
  41. Sodium-potassium Pump
    Active transport in animal cells that involves a carrier protein
  42. Endocytosis
    The process by which cells ingest external fluid, macromolecules, and large particles, including other cells
  43. Vesicle
    A membrane-bound organelle that pinched off from the cell membrane
  44. Pinocytosis
    Two types of endocytosis are based on the kind of meterial that is taken into the cell
  45. Phagocytosis
    The movement of large particles or whole cells
  46. Phagocytes
    Cells that allow lysosomes to fuse with the vesicles that contain the ingested bacteria and viruses
  47. Exytosis
    The process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance th the cell surface and then fuses with the membrance to let the substance out of the cell