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What is unique to acids?
Have a relatively low PH
Turn litmus red
What is unique to bases?
Turn litmus blue
Have a slippery feel
Have a relatively high PH
Reaction type 1
Acid+ reactive metal -> salt + hydrogen
Reaction type 2
Acid + metal hydroxide -> salt + water
Reaction type 3 (acid rain)
Acid + Metal oxide -> salt + water
Reaction type 4
Acid + metal carbonate -> salt + water + carbon dioxide
Reaction type 5
Acid + metal hydrogen carbonate -> salt + water + carbon dioxide
Reaction type 6
Acidic oxide + base -> salt + water
What is an ionic chemical equation?
Deleteing spectator ions
What is the Bronsted-Lowry theory
Acids are proton donors
Bases are proton acceptors
What are amphiprotic substances?
Can act as either acids or bases depending on what they are reacting with.
Can donate or receive protons
What makes strong acids and bases?
When they ionise completely
Donates/accepts protons easily
What makes weak acids and bases?
Doesn't ionise completely
Doesn't donate/ accept protons easily
What are polyprotic acids?
Able to donate more than one proton from each molecule.
pH to H+ = ?
H+ to OH- = ?
H+ to pH = ?
Don't use in excess use limiting reagent
What you what to find out over what you want to find out
Molar ratio * moles
Mass required- m=n*Mr
chem exam/ test