histo_mod2

Card Set Information

Author:
soren101
ID:
37971
Filename:
histo_mod2
Updated:
2010-09-28 11:46:15
Tags:
histology ms1 mod2
Folders:

Description:
histology ms1 module 2
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user soren101 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. PLURIPOTENT HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL
    PRECURSOR TO WHITE AND RED BLOOD CELLS

    DIFFERENTIATE INTO UNIPOTENTIAL STEM CELL (CFU) AND THEN TO SPECIFIC BLOOD CELL LINES
  2. MONOPHYLETIC THEORY
    SINGLE TYPE OF STEM CELL GIVES RISE TO ALL TYPES OF BLOOD CELLS IN BODY
  3. COLONY-FORMING CELLS (CFU)
    DIFFERENTIATED PLEURIPOTENTIAL CELLS

    CHANNELED INTO SPECIFIC CELL LINE
  4. MAJOR SITES OF HEMATOPOIESIS DURING DEVELOPMENT
    • MESOBLASTIC PHASE
    • 3RD-9TH WEEK OF GESTATION - "BLOOD ISLANDS" DERIVED FROM MESODERM YOLK SAC
    • PRIMITIVE BLOOD VESSLE FORMATION
    • PRIMITIVE ERYTHROBLASTS

    • HEPATIC PHASE
    • 4TH WEEK TO BIRTH - MIGRATION OF PRIMITIVE ERYTHROBLASTS FROM YOLK SAC TO LIVER
    • DEFINITIVE ERYTHROPOIESIS IN SPLEEN, LYMPH NODES AND THYMUS

    • MYELOID PHASE
    • 4TH-5TH MONTH OF GESTATION - MEDULLARY (MYELOID) HEMATOPOIESIS WITH EARLY SKELETAL DEVELOPMENT
  5. AGE RELATED CHANGES OF BONE MARROW
    AT BIRTH, MARROW IS ACTIVE IN HEMATOPOIESIS AND HEPATIC ACTIVITY IS MINIMAL

    INFANT'S LUNGS REPLACE PLACENTA, 02 SATURATION INCREASES, AND ERYTHROPOIESIS PRODUCTION DECREASES (RBC's)

    THROUGH EARLY PUBERTY, MARROW IN MOST OF SKELETON IS RED

    BY EARLY ADULTHOOD ONLY VERTABRAE, RIBS, STERNUM, SKULL, PELVIS, AND PROXIMAL EPIPHYSEAL AREAS OF HUMERUS AND FEMUR HAVE RED MARROW. OTHER BONES FILLED WITH ADIPOSE YELLOW MARROW

    YELLOW CAN CONVERT BACK TO RED IF DEMAND IS HIGH, EXTRAMEDULLARY (LIVER, SPLEEN, ETC) CAN KICK IN ALSO
  6. STRUCTURE OF BONE MARROW
    FOUND BETWEEN TRABECULAE OF SPONGY BONE

    • HIGHLY CELLULAR LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE COMPOSED OF:
    • HEMATOPOIETIC CORDS OF MATURING BLOOD CELLS ALONG WITH A SUPPORTIVE STROMA (esp RETICULAR CELLS AND MACROPHAGES)

    VASCULAR COMPARTEMENTS - ONCE MATURED, BLOOD CELLS MOVE TO ADJACENT SINUSOIDS AND TRAVERSE ENDOTHELIAL LINING TO GET INTO CIRCULATIONAND VASCULAR COMPARTMENTS
  7. ERYTHROPOIETIN
    GLYCOPROTEIN

    STIMULATES STEM CELL DIFFERENTIATION - PROERYTHROBLASTS

    PRODUCED IN KIDNEYS (MAYBE OTHER ORGANS)

    PRODUCED IN RESPONSE TO CHANGES IN O2, BLOOD FLOW, HEME [ ], HEME/O2 SATURATION, etc

    RENAL INSUFFICIENCY OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH DECREASED ERYTHROPOIETIN LEADING TO ANEMIA

    ELEVATED ERYTHROPOIETIN PRODUCTION SEEN WITH RENAL CELL CARCINOMAS, HEPATOCARCINOMAS, etc.

    INCREASED ERYTHROPOIESIS CALLED POLYCYTHEMIA
  8. ERYTHROPOIESIS
    RBC FORMATION 3-7 DAYS

    ERYTHS MAKE UP 25-30% OF MARROW CELLS

    ERYTHS OFTEN SURROUND MACROPHAGE CREATING ERYTHROBLASTIC ISLAND

    DEVELOPING ERYTHROBLASTS THOUGHT TO RECEIVE IRON FROM THE MACROPHAGE AS THE FORMER DEVELOP
  9. PRONORMOBLAST
    ERYTH

    UNIPOTENT CELL DERIVED FROM PLURIPOTENT STEM CELL

    NUCLEUS - REDDISH BLUE; CHROMATIN MORE DEFINED THAN MYELOBLAST

    FREE RIBOSOMES AND NO CYTOPLASMIC GRANUALS

    MITOTIC

    GROWS INTO BASOPHILIC NORMOBLAST
  10. BASOPHILIC NORMOBLAST
    ERYTH (FROM PRONORMOBLAST)

    NUCLEUS - COARSENING OF CHROMATIN PATTERN (DARKER STAIN)

    CYTOPLASM - INC AMOUNTS OF HEME BEGIN TO IMPART REDDISH TINGE

    MITOTIC

    GROWS INTO POLYCHROMATOPHILIC NORMOBLAST
  11. POLYCHROMATOPHILIC NORMOBLAST
    ERYTH (FROM BASOPHILIC NORMOBLAST)

    NUCLEUS - CHECKERBOARD PATTERN

    CYTOPLASM - RED/BLUE

    LAST ERYTH STAGE CAPABLE OF MITOSIS

    GROWS INTO ORTHOCHROMATIC NORMOBLAST
  12. ORTHOCHROMATIC NORMOBLAST
    ERYTH (FROM POLYCHROMATOPHILIC NORMOBLAST)

    NUCLEUS - PYKNOTIC, OFTEN ECCENTRICALLY PLACED

    CYTOPLASM - REDDISH PURPLE DUE TO HEME CONTENT

    GROWS INTO RETICULOCYTE
  13. RETICULOCYTE
    ERYTH (FROM ORTHOCHROMATIC NORMOBLAST)

    NUCLEUS - NO LONGER PRESENT

    CYTOPLASM - REDDISH PURPLE DUE TO HEME, MAY CONTAIN GRANULOFILAMENTOUS MATERIAL (POLYSOMES, ER)

    RESIDUAL RNA AND MITOCHONDRIA IN CYTOPLASM

    RELEASED INTO GENERAL CIRCULATION, CONTINUES DEVELOPMENT INTO ERYTHROCYTE
  14. ERYTHROCYTE
    FROM RETICULOCYTE

    BICONCAVE DISCS

    EOSINOPHILIC CYTOPLASM DUE TO ABUNDANCE OF HEME

    LITTLE, IF ANY, RESIDUAL RNA OR MITOCHONDRIA

    LIFESPAN 100-120 DAYS
  15. MYELOBLAST
    GRANULOPOIESIS (TOTAL 2-3 WEEKS)

    UNIPOTENT CELL (MYOBLASTIC) DERIVED FROM A PLURIPOTENT STEM CELL

    NUCLEUS - ROUND, LIGHT REDDISH PURPLE, FINE CHROMATIN PATTERN

    CYTOPLASM - BLUISH, NONGRANULAR

    MITOTIC

    RER

    GROWS INTO PROMYELOCYTE
  16. PROMYELOCYTE
    GRANULOPOIESIS (FROM MYELOBLAST)

    NUCLEUS - BLUE, DEVELOPMENT OF DISTINCT (PRIMARY AZUROPHILIC) GRANULES

    MITOTIC

    GROWS INTO NEUTROPHILIC MYELOCYTE
  17. NEUTROPHILIC MYELOCYTE
    GRANULOPOIESIS

    NUCLEUS - ROUND, OVAL OR SLIGHTLY INDENTED ON ONE SIDE

    CYTOPLASM - "DAWN OF NEUTROPHILIA" FIRST APPEARANCE OF NEUTROPHILIC (SECONDARY) GRANULES ADJACENT TO NUCLEUS

    LAST MYELOBLASTIC STAGE CAPABLE OF MITOSIS

    GROWS INTO NEUTROPHILIC METAMYELOCYTE
  18. NEUTROPHILIC METAMYELOCYTE
    GRANULOPOIESIS (FROM NEUTROPHILIC MYELOCYTE)

    NUCLEUS - INDENTED "KIDNEY BEAN SHAPE"

    CYTOPLASM - NUMEROUS NEUTROPHILIC (SPECIFIC) GRANULES OUTNUMBER AZUROPHILIC NONSPECIFIC GRANULES

    RARELY SEEN IN CIRCULATION OF NORMAL INDIVIDUALS, MAY BE SEEN IN MYELOCYTIC HYPERPLASIA

    GROWS INTO NEUTROPHILIC BAND
  19. NEUTROPHILIC BAND
    GRANULOPOIESIS (FROM NEUTROPHILIC METAMYELOCYTE)

    NUCLEUS - INDENTATION NOW HORSESHOE SHAPED, PYKNOTIC (VERY DENSE)

    CYTOPLASM - NUMEROUS, EVENLY DISTRIBUTED NEUTROPHILIC GRANULES

    GROWS INTO NEUTROPHIL

    CAN BE FOUND IN NORMAL CIRCULATION
  20. NEUTROPHIL
    GRANULOPOIESIS (FROM NEUTROPHILIC BAND)

    NUCLEUS - SEPARATED INTO DEFINITE 2-4 LOBES LINKED BY THIN STRANDS (SEGMENTED), HIGHLY CONDENSED CHROMATIN

    CYTOPLASM - NUMEROUS EVENLY DISTRIBUTED NEUTROPHILIC GRANULES, AZUROPHILIC GRANULES ARE STILL PRESENT BUT NOT EASILY IDENTIFIABLE
  21. PERCENTAGES OF WHITE CELLS IN BLOOD
    • NEUTROPHILS 50-70%
    • LYMPHOCYTES 20-40%
    • MONOCYTES 2-8%
    • EOSINOPHILS 1-4%
    • BASOPHILS 0.5%
  22. BLOOD SERUM VS. PLASMA
    SERUM: PLASMA MINUS FIBRIN CLOT (FORMED BY COAGULANTS)

    PLASMA: PROTEIN-RICH FLUID SURROUNDING THE BLOOD CELLS
  23. HEMATOCRIT
    PERCENTAGE OF WHOLE BLOOD SAMPLE OCCUPIED BY CELLS (Hct)

    • MEN 47%
    • WOMEN 42%
  24. SHIFT TO THE LEFT
    UNUSUALLY LARGE NUBER OF IMMATURE WBC's PRESENT

    SUGGESTS UNUSUAL DEMAND FOR GRANULOCYTES (SIGNIFICANT INFECTION OR LEUKEMIAS

    SHIFT TO THE RIGHT SUGGESTS INCREASED NUMBER OF AGED CELLS, AS WIT HPERNICIOUS ANEMIA (ie HYPERSEGMENTED NEUTROPHILS)
  25. MEGAKARYOCYTES
    BONE MARROW CELLS THAT MAKE PLATELETS

    DERIVED FROM MEGAKARYOBLASTS CONTAINING SINGLE LARGE NUCLEUS WITH MULTIPLE NUCLEOLI

    POLYPLOIDY WITH LARGE IRREGULAR MULTILOBAR NUCLEUS (30x DNA AS DIPLOID CELL)

    FOUND NEAR SINUSOIDS, CYTOPLASMIC PROCESSES EXTEND THROUGH SINUS WALL AND RELEASE PLATELETS INTO CIRCULATION

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview