Card Set Information
ocean animals chem lots stuff
-ask a question
-do background research
-test with experiment
-analyze results and draw conclusions
-either report or construct another hypothesis
a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world that can incorporate facts, laws, logical inferences and tested hypothesis
never say going to happen
6 elements that are the major constituentes of living tissue
How much of the bioshere do CHONPS make up?
zone of life on earth
global sum of all ecosystem
components of a system
number of protons
average mass of atoms of an element, calcuated using the relative abundance of isotopes in a naturally occuring
atoms with the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons
first elements made
H and He
When was the big bang
between 13-18 bya
What is the big bang making H and He called?
how fast were H and He formed?
What happened 1 billion years after the big bang?
Stars and hevier elements formed
what was the stars forming 1 billion years after the big bang called?
How do you create heavier elements?
up tempurature and pressure
Who came up with the Nebular hypothosis
What is the Nebular Hypothosis called today
solar nebular disk
The Nebular Hypothosis
Explosion - lots of gas and particles
light on the outside/heavy and dense on inside
formation of protoplanets = mashed together
solar system - dense planets close and gas planets far out
When was earth formed?
How much bigger was the earth when it was formed?
what was the earth made of when formed?
mostly H and He
How did the earth get to the size it is now?
heavier elements pulled into center
H and He blown away by solar wind
What was the earth like when formed
hot and molten
What does our solar system look like?
medium sized star
How many stars in the milky way galaxy?
How many galaxies?
Which direction are most of the galaxies moving?
away from the milky way
Where are the rocky planets?
on the inside
where are the gas giants?
on the outside
What is density?
mass per unit volume ex: g/cm
physical earth layers
-outer core - liquid
-inner core - soild
chemical earth layers
origin of the earth's atmosphere
partial melting resulted in outgasing
when was the atmosphere created?
What is outgassing
similar to gases emitted by a volcanoe
mainly water vapors
Where did the ocean come from?
1. outgasing - water vapor release, condensed as rain, accumulate, 4 bya, mostly from here
2. comets - ice
-70.8% covered by water
-97% in seawater in oceans and seas
-2% freshwater lakes and rivers
-1% ice and snow
.00057% atmospheric water
When was the moon formed?
how was the moon formed
How much of the earth is covered by water?
an atom or molecule where the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net overall negative or positive charge
types of bonds
electrons gained or lost
intermolecular bond of H with an electronegative atom
What is the angle between the two H
what is the bond in a water molecule?
negative and positive ends
bonding between water molecules
which is stronger hydrogen or covalent bond?
what is responsible for water surface tension
makes beads stay in place
H bonding causes
How much water in humans
how much water in blood
how much water in plants?
how much water in jellyfish?
water is the universal solvent
it can dissolved nearly everything
how do water molecules disolve things?
water molecules can fit around sodium
total amount of solid material dissolves in water (not including disolved organic substances) it is the ration of the mass of the disolved stubstances to the mass of the water sample
it does not include fine particles
how do we express salinity?
parts per thousand
what are over 1/2 of the salts in the ocean
how do we measure salinity
principle of constant proportion
principle of constant proportion
the major dissolved constituents responsible for the salinity of seawater occur nearly everywhere in the ocean in exact same proportions, regardless of saleinty
1.80655 x chlorinity
what are the states of matter?
how do change matter from one state to another?
add or remove heat
Heat comes from...
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram by 1 degree C
water as a gas
water as a solid
water as a liquid
solid to liquid
liquid to gas
gas to solid
solid to gas
gas to liquid
liquid to solid