The system involved in fighting against hostile bacteria, fungi, and viruses and provides resistance to disease.
The two defense systems of the immune system.
Innate defense system (nonspecific)
Adaptive defense system (nonspecific)
The defense system that is always prepared. Protects body within minutes and includes intact skin and mucosa.
The elite fighting force of the immune system. Takes a longer time to initiate and to respond.
The defense system of the immune system that uses antimicrobial proteins, phagocytes, and other cells to inhibit the invaders' spread throughout the body.
The immune defense system that is responsible for humoral (B cells) and cellular (T cells) immunity.
The body's highly effective first line of defense include these two surface barriers.
This keratinized epithelial membrane presents a physical barrier to most microorganisms.
This provides protection by way of mechanical barriers within the body (sticky traps).
pH of the acids released by innate defenses?
pH 3 to 5
Along with the mechanical barrier and the release of acids, the innate defense system also includes the release of what?
Digestive and lytic enzymes (pepsinase, lysozyme)
Pathogens that get through the skin and mucosa into the underlying connective tissue are digested by what?
These are the main phagocytes. Formed from WBC as monocyte and mature in the bloodstream.
What are the two types of macrophages?
These are the most abundant type of WBC. Become phagocytes on encountering infectious material tissues.
What is the type of WBC that is weakly phagocytic?
After a phagocyte engulfs particulate matter by cytoplasmic extensions, it is enclosed within a membrane-lined what?
Vacuole, forming a phagosome
What are fused within a phagocyte to form a phagolysosome?
When bacterial surfaces have been coated to facilitate phagocytosis, what has occurred?
How does the opsonization of pathogens help phagocytosis?
Coating provides handles to which phagocyte receptors can bind.
Five ways phagocytes destroy particulate matter.
Respiratory burst (neutrophils), H2O2
How is indigestible and residual material removed from a phagosome?
This unique group of nonspecific defensive cells can lyse and kill. They are large granular lymphocytes that can eliminate a variety of infected or cancerous cells by detecting the lack of "self" cell surface receptors. Able to secrete potent chemicals involved in inflammatory response.
Natural killer cells or neutrophil
How neutrophils, or natural killer cells, kill.
Attach and undergo apoptosis.
The tissue response that is triggered by injury through physical trauma, intense heat, irritating chemicals, or infection by viruses, fungi, or bacteria.
Name three beneficial effects of inflammation.
Prevents spread of damaging agents,
Disposes of cell debris and pathogens,
Sets stage for repair.
Name four signs of acute (short-term) inflammation.
Name the four events of inflammation.
The process of cells of an inflamed area releasing CAMs for the binding of neutrophils is known as what?
Inflammatory chemicals attracting neutrophils and other WBCs to the site of injury is known as this.
The process of neutrophils squeezing through capillary walls during inflammation.
When chemicals from injured cells promote release of neutrophils from red bone marrow this has occurred.
These follow neutrophils to the injury site to become macrophages and remove pathogens.
These interfere with viral replication and are secreted by the viruses themselves in small amounts.
Viruses are nucleic acids surrounded by a protein coat that lack organelles that carry out what two functions?
Name three types of interferons.
This term refers to a group of plasma proteins that normally circulate in the blood in an inactive state. They destroy foreign substances in the body and their activation releases chemical mediators that amplify the inflammatory process.
Complement proteins include these.
C1 through C9
Factors B, D, and P
Other regulatory proteins
The nonspecific defensive mechanism provided by complement plasma proteins complements which defense system?
Both innate and adaptive
How do complement proteins destroy foreign substances in the body?
By inserting MAC and making a hole in target cell's membrane, causing lysis.
A protein that is a clinical marker for inflammation that is produced by the liver. It binds to certain surface molecules of pathogens/exposed self-antigens of damaged body cells marking them for disposal by phagocytes and complements.
C-Reactive Protein (CRP)
Elevated CRP levels increases the likelihood of what?
This defense system is specific, systemic (not isolated), and has the ability to recognize a particular pathogen or foreign substance after an initial exposure.
Immunity provided by antibodies present in the body's fluids.
Humoral or antibody-mediated immunity
Immunity provided by lymphocytes.
These are large, complex molecules that are not normally present in the body that can mobilize the immune system provoking an immune response. They are the target of all immune responses.
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins that are present on all body cell surfaces that is not foreign to a specific person, but is to others are also known as this.
Name the two classes of self-antigens and where they are found.
Class I MHC - found on all body cells
Class II MHC- only on certain cells that act in immune response
These MHC also binds to fragments of foreign antigens that come from within the infected cell.
These MHC display peptides that come from outside the cell.
The three cell types involved with the adaptive immune system.
B cells (humoral) - Antigen-Presenting Cells (APC)
T cells (cellular)
The immune response that is triggered during the first encounter with antigen and is initiated in the spleen or a lymph node. B cells produce antibodies against the challenger.
The type of cell that remembers how to respond to an antigen.
Memory B cell
Exposure to an antigen causes cellular proliferation of specific B cells and differentiation of daughter cells into plasma cells. Occurs 3 to 6 days after the challenge. Primary or secondary humoral response?
Faster more prolonged, and more effective response, memory cells are on alert and immune system is primed to antigen in primary or secondary humoral responses?
Examples of passively acquired natural and artificial immunities.
Natural- antibodies pass from mother to fetus via placenta, or breastmilk
Artificial- injection of immune serum (gamma globulin)
Examples or actively acquired natural and artificial immunities.
Natural- infection, contact with a pathogen
Artificial- vaccine, dead or attenuated pathogens
These proteins that are secreted by B cells or plasma cells in response to an antigen are capable of binding to that specific antigen.
Antibodies or immunoglobins
Antibodies' differences in structure and function separate them into how many groups?
The heavy or light chains of an antibody have these two regions.
Variable ( V ) region
Constant ( C ) region
Name the five classes of antibodies.
The huge antibody that is the first released. It has five monomers.
Monomer antibody that is always bound to a B cell surface, acts as a B cell receptor.
Monomer antibody that is most abundant in plasma, is able to cross the placenta barrier, and can fix complement.
Monomer and dimer antibody in mucous and other secretions that prevent pathogens from entering the body.
Monomer antibody involved in allergies that are found in small quantities.
Name the two effector T cells that are involved with cell-mediated immunity.
Name the effector T cells that are cytotoxic whose role is to destroy any cells in the body that harbor anything foreign.
Helper T cells.
Other T cells include these two along with rarer subgroups.
Regulatory T cells
Memory T cells
These chemical messengersare hormone-like ar paracrine-like glycoproteins that influence cell development, differentiation, and responses in the immune system. Include interferons and interleukins and promote T cell proliferation.
Any congenital or acquired condition that causes immune cells, phagocytes, or complement to behave abnormally.
Immunodeficiency that interferes with the activity of helper T cells (TH).
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Immunodeficiency caused by a virus that destroys helper T cells (TH), depressing cell-mediated immunity.
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
After HIV is contracted, the virus steadily multiples where throughout most of the asymptomatic period?
These diseases are characterized by the immune system turning on itself due to the inability to distinguish self from foreign antigens.
In an autoimmune disease the body produces autoantibodies and these sensitized cells destroy its own tissue.
Give four example of autoimmune diseases.
Myasthenia gravis- lack of communication between nerves and skeletal muscles
Type I diabetes mellitus- destruction of pancreatic B cells, result in insulin deficiency and inability to use carbs
Systemic lupus erythmatosus (SLE)- affects the kidneys, lungs, and skin
Rheumatoid arthritis- destroys joints
When the immune system causes tissue damage as it fights off a threat. Include acute/type I (can be local or systemic), subacute, or delayed.
Type of hypersensitivity caused by the antibodies IgG and IgM. (1-3 hours after exposure, lasts 10-15 hours)
Antibody-mediated hypersensitivities that are slower to appear (1-3 days later).
Hypersensitivities that happen within seconds of contact and last about half an hour. Local (skin and mucosa), or systemic (circulating in blood and causing anaphylactic shock).