Human Anatomy Learning Objectives 1 and 2

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Human Anatomy Learning Objectives 1 and 2
2010-10-17 01:05:41
Human anatomy histology

1st Set of Human anatomy Learning objectives covers Ch. 1,2,4
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  1. Cytology
    Cellular anatomy
  2. Homeostasis
    Control and regulatory mechanisms within an organism maintain a consistent internal enviroment.
  3. Ventral cavity
    Arises from a space called Coelom, eventually becomes partitioned into superior thoracic cavity and the inferior abdominopelvic cavity with the formation of the thoracic diaphram (that devides between these two cavities.)
  4. Serous membrane
    The ventral cavities are lined with this, which is composed of 2 layers.Has the consistance of oil and acts as a lubricant.
  5. Parietal layer
    (part of serous membranes) lines the internal surface of the body wall of the ventral cavity.
  6. Visceral Layer
    (part of the Serous membranes) covers the external surface of organs within the ventral cavity.
  7. Cystic Fibrosis
    A defenctive plasma membrane that affect Chloride ion channels.The abnormal membranes are found near the lining of the respiratory passage ways and ducts in glands (such as pancreas). Becuase of the abnormal flow of chlorine ions causes salt to be trapped within the cytoplasm increaseing the osmatic flow of water across the membrane, which causes a thinkness of mucas in repsitory and pancreatic ducts. The mucus plugs the airways which leads to breathing problems and increase risk of infection.
  8. extra cellular matrix
    surrounds cells and is produced by cells. They are composed of varying amounts of water, protien fibers, and dissolved macromolecules. Range from liqued to solid. Epithelial, muscle and nervous has a relatively little matrix. Connective tissue has a varying amount of it.
  9. Characteristics of Epithelial tissue
    • Cellulatiry (composed of almost all cells)
    • Polarity (has a apical surface and a basal surface)
    • Attachment (at basal surface is bound to a thin basement membrane)
    • Avascularity (Lack blood flow)
    • Innervation (detect changes in enviroment)
  10. Apical Surface
    The free or top surface of a epthelium
  11. Basal surface
    Fixed or bottom surface of epithelial cells
  12. Basement membrane
    Between the epithelium and the underlying connective tissue, very thin, has 2 layers called basal lamina and reticular lamina. Provides physical support, anchoring the epithelium to the connective tissue, acts as barrieror.
  13. Basal lamina
    one of the 2 layers of the basement membrane, contains collagen fibers as well as specific protiens and carbs that are secreted by the cells of the epithelium.
  14. Reticular lamina
    2nd layer of the basement membrane of epithelial cells. contains protien fibers and specific protiens and carbs secreted by the connective tissue cells.
  15. endothelium
    Simple squamous epithelium that lines the lumen of the blood and lymphatic vessels and the heart and its chambers is termed.
  16. Mesothelium
    is simple squamous epithelium of the serous membrane that lines the internal walls of the pericardium,pleural and peritoneal cavities.
  17. Simple cuboidal epithelium
    functions to abosorb fluids and other substances across its apical membrane and to secrete specific molecules. Found in surface of the ovary and lines the follicles of the thyroid gland.
  18. Simple squamous epithelium
    lines blood and lymph vessels and the heart and chambers (endothelium) Mesothelium is the simple of the serous membrane. Does diffusion, filtration, and some secretion in serous membranes.
  19. nonciliated simple columnar epithelium
    contains microvill and goblet cells, functions for absorption and secretion of mucin.
  20. Microvilli
    tiny cytoplasmic projections on the apical surface of the cell that increase the surface area for secretion and absorption, you can't see individual microvilli but collectively known as the brush border.
  21. Goblet cells
    A scattered unicellular gland that secretes mucin, a glycoprotien that upon hydration forms mucus for lubrication. Lines most of the digestive tract from the stomach to the anal canal.
  22. Ciliated columnar epithelium
    cilia projects from the apical surfaces of the cells, mucus covers these apical surfaces and is moved along by the cilia, goblet cells are interdespersed. Found in the uterine tubes and bronchioles of the lungs.
  23. nonkeratinized Stratified Squamous epithelium
    remain alive all the way to its apical surface, which are kept moist with secretions such as saliva or mucus. keratin ( a fibrous intercellular protien, is NOT present within these cells.)
  24. Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
    the apical surface is composed of layers of the cells that are dead, these dead cells lack nucli and organelles, and filled with tough, protective keratin. the keratin makes them strong.
  25. stratified cuboidal epithelium
    has 2 or more layers, forms the walls of the larger ducts of most exocrine glands, mainly protective, serves to strengthen the wall of gland ducts.
  26. pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
    looks like multiple layers of cells all cells are in direct contact with the basement membrane, looks stratified but is pseudostratified due to the fact that the nuclei are scattered different distances from the basal surface but not all cells reach the apical surface. the columnar cells always reach the apical surface the shorter cells are stem cells. the ciliated form houses goblet cells that the mucus traps foreign particles by the cilia, lines respitory tract,nasal cavity.
  27. pseudostratified nonciliated columnar epithelium
    looks like multiple layers of cells all cells are in direct contact with the basement membrane, looks stratified but is pseudostratified due to the fact that the nuclei are scattered different distances from the basal surface but not all cells reach the apical surface. the columnar cells always reach the apical surface the shorter cells are stem cells. Nonciliated form no goblet cells its a rare epithelium that occurs in the male urethra and epididymis.
  28. Transitional epithelium
    Varies on looks depending if it's relaxed or streched. when stretched it gets thin, were it looks like sguamous. but it is binucleated cells, it lines the bladder.
  29. Glands
    Glands are individual or multicellular organs of mainly epithelial tissue. that produce or secrete substances. 2 kinds endocrine or exocrine
  30. exocrine glands
    originate from epithelium that burrows into deeper connective tissues. the maintain their contact with epithelium by means of a duct, like the skin ducts for sweat. or the internal ducts like the pancreas to the small intestine or the salivary glands.
  31. Ground substance
    The cells and the protien fibers are in this. may be viscous or semisolid (cartilage) or solid (bone), together the ground substance abd the protien fibers form the extracellular matrix. most connective tissues are composed promarily of the groud substance and small amount of cells.
  32. mesenchyme
    first type of connective tissue to emerge in a embryo, gel like ground substance with fine immature protien fibers, lot more ground substance thatn mesenchymal cell. it is the source of all otheer connective tissue, adults hace a bit to repair. called stem cells
  33. Fiberoblasts
    Large flat cells, they produce fibers and ground substance (part of connective tissue proper and is resident cells)
  34. Adipocytes
    Fat cells, appear in small clusters within connective tissue proper. if a larger cluster in dominated area they are called adipose connective tissue. (part of connective tissue proper loose connective)
  35. Fixed macrophages
    large, irregular shaped cells with holds and projections. when they encounter foreign materials the cells release chemicals that stimulate the immune system (part of connective tissue proper resident cells)
  36. Mast cells
    small, and mobile usually found close to the blood vessels, they secrete heprin to inhibit blood clotting and histamine to dilate blood vessels. (Connective tissue proper, wondering cell)
  37. Plasma
    when B-lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell) are exposed to foreign materials, the cells are matured into plasma cells, the synthasize antibodies. (connective tissue proper, wandering cell)
  38. Free macrophages
    Mobile phagocytic cells are formed from monocytes (type of white blood cells) they wander through connective tissue abd engulf and destroy any bacteria, foreign particles or damaged cells they encounter. (connective tissue proper, wandering cell)
  39. Reticular fibers
    Are thinner then collagen fibers that are coated with glycoprotien (a protien with carbs attached to it). Found abundantly in the stroma (a structural connective tissue framework in organs such as lymph nodes, spleen and liver.
  40. Areolar connective tissue
    contains all of the cell types of connective tissue proper, the most prominant cells is the fibroblast. The ground substance cushions the shock and can be distorted without damage. The dermis of the skin contains a superficial layer of areolar. It surrounds nerves, blood vessels and individual muscle cells. Major component of the subcutaneous layer of skin. (part of connectiive tissue proper, loose connective)
  41. Dense regular connective tissue
    collagen fibers are packed tightly and aligned parallel to an applied force. Resembles lasanga noodles, found in ligaments and tendons where stress is applied in a single direction. (part of connective tissue proper, dense connective tissue)
  42. Dense irregular connective tissue
    individual bundles of collagen fibers extend in all directions in a scattered meshwork. Provides support and resistance to stress to multiple directions. Found under the deep portion of the dermis, around cartiledge and bone except at joints (perichondrium and peristeum). (part of connective tissue fiber, dense connective tissue)
  43. Elastic connective tissue
    has branching elastic fibers and more fibroblasts than loose connective tissue. ability to deform and return to shape, found in vocal cords, suspensory ligament of penis, and some ligamentsof the spinal column. (part of connective tissue proper, dense connective tissue)
  44. Cartilage
    Has firm gel like extracellular matrix. mature cartilage cells are called chondrocytes. They occupy small spaces called lacunae within the extracellular matrix. Cartilage is stronger and more resilisant than any previously discussed connective tissue (found as the tip of the nose or the external part of ear. usually has a covering called perichondrium (part of suppotive connective tissue)
  45. Chondrocytes
    mature cartildge cells, produce a chemical that prevents blood vessel formation and growth within the extracellular matrix. thus making it avascular, so condrocytes must exchange nutrients and waste products by diffusion.
  46. Hyaline cartilage
    Most common type of cartilage and also the weakest. Sourrounded by perichondrium. forms most of the fetal skeleton. found on the articular ends of long bones in a joint to move freely and easily. Found in nose, trachea most of larynx, costal cartildge.
  47. Fibrocartilage
    A sparse amount of ground substance, often the chondrocytes are arranged in parrellel rows. extremely durable, no perichondrium. Found in the intervertebral discs and the menisci, acts as a shock absorber and resists compression.
  48. elastic cartilage
    Appears yellow in fresh sections. The chondrocytes of elastic cartilage are almost the same from hyaline cartilage. Extremely resilient and flexible. Has perichondrium. Found in epiglottis and the extrenal ear. (supportive connective tissue)
  49. bone
    1/3rd of dry weight is bone. made of organic matter (protien) and inorganic (calcium salts primarily calcium phosphate) Almost all bone surfaces are covered by dense irregular connective tissue called the periosteum. compact bone appears solid but has a number of vascular canals. Spongy bone is located within the interior of the bone. containes spaces od latticework structure that is very strong but lightweight. Compact bone has a pattern. (part of supportive connective tissue)
  50. fluid connective tissue
    Is the only connective tissue thats fluid. made of erythrocytes (red blood cells) leukocytes (white blood cells) and plasma.
  51. mucous membrane
    lines body passageways and compartments that eventually open to the external enviroment. preform absorptive, protective and/or secretory function. Composed of epithelium and underlying connective tissue called the lamina propria. Mucus derived from goblet cells
  52. Serous membrane
    Composed of a simple squamous epithelium called mesothelium and a thin underlying layer of loose connective tissue, produce serous fluid. composed of 2 parts: Parietal layer lines the body cavity and a visceral layer tht covers organs with a thin layer of serous fluid to reduce friction.
  53. Cutaneous membrane
    called the skin composed of keratinized stratified squamous
  54. Lines of cleavage
    in the skin identifiy the predominant orientation of collegen bundles. These are clinically and surgically significant because any procedure resulting in a cut at right angles to a cleavage line is usually pulled open due to the recoil from cut elastic fibers. This is often results in slow healing and increased scarring. In contrast, a cut parallel to a cleavage line usually remains closed, resulting in faster healing.
  55. Basal cell carcinoma
    most common, least dangerous type (seldom metastasizes), originates in stratum basale,usually on face
  56. squamous cell carcinoma
    Arises from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum, may metastasize to other part of the body.
  57. malignant melanoma
    most deadly, arises from melanocytes usually a preexisting mole, increase risk for those that had severe sunburn especially as a child.
  58. Long bones
    have a greater length than width, the most common bone shape. Long bones are found in the upper limb and lower limbs (arm forearm. palm and fingers).
  59. Short bones
    have a length nearly equal to their width, external surfaces are covered by compact bone and the interior is composed of spongy bone. (carpel tunnels, the patella)
  60. Flat bone
    Have flat thin surfaces, composed of roughly parallel surfaces of compact bone with a layer of internally placed spongy bone. Provide place for muscle attachment, the scapulae, the sternum, and the ribs.
  61. Irregular bones
    have complex shapes. they include the vertebrae, ossa coxae and several bones in the skull.
  62. Trabeculae
    spongy bone forms an open lattice of narrow plates of bone called this
  63. Diploe
    is the flat bone in the skull the spongy bone is sandwhich between 2 layers of compact bone.
  64. intramembranous ossification
    means bone growth within a membrane, the thin layer of mesenchyme in these areas is sometimes referred to as a membrane. 1.ossicication centers form within thickened regions of mesenchyme. 2. osteoid undergoes calcification 3. woven bone and its surrounding periosteum form Lamellar bone (2nd bone) is formed. 4. Lamellar bone replaces woven bone, as compact bone and spongy bone form.
  65. Endochondral ossification
    begines with hyline cartilage model. 1. the fetal hyaline cartilage model develops. 2. cartilage calcifies and a periosteal bone collar forms. 3. The primary ossification center forms in the diaphysis. 4. 2ndary ossification centers form in the epiphyses. 5.bone replaces cartilage except the articular cartilage and epiphyseal plates. 6. epiphyseal plates ossify and form epiphyseal lines.