Chapter 21

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Chapter 21
2010-01-06 19:03:36

Chapter 21 Pscy
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  1. Social Facilitation
    the concept that people often perform better when other people are watching than they do when they are alone
  2. Evaluation Apprehension
    the concern about the opinion of others, is another reason that the presence of other people may improve an individual's performance
  3. Social Loafing
    when people are working together toward a common goal rather than working on individual tasks, they may "slack off" and not try as hard
  4. Diffusion of Responsibility
    the tendency for people to feel less responsible for accomplishing a task when the effort is shared among members of a group
  5. Risky Shift
    the tendency for people to take greater risks when they are part of a group than they would as individuals acting on their own
  6. Social Decision Scheme
    rules that govern group decision making
  7. Majority-Wins Scheme
    the group agrees to a decision that was initially supported by a majority of group members
  8. Truth-Wins Scheme
    the members of a group come to realize that one option is better than others after they learn more about the different choices available
  9. Two-Thirds-Majority Scheme
    some groups concur with a decision after two-third of their members come to an agreement about the correct choice
  10. First-Shift Scheme
    applies to groups that are deadlocked, or split fifty-fifty, about a decision
  11. Group Polarization
    this strengthening of a group's shared attitudes
  12. Authoritarian Leaders
    exert absolute control over all decisions for the group
  13. Democratic Leaders
    encourage group members to express and discuss their ideas and to make their own decisions
  14. Laissez-Faire Leaders
    encourage group members to express and explore their own ideas
  15. Conform
    to modify one's attitudes and behavior to make them consistent with those of other people
  16. Social Norms
    the standards of behavior that people share
  17. Explicit Norms
    spoken or written rules
  18. Implicit Norms
    unspoken, unwritten rules
  19. Foot In the Door Effect
    tendency for people to give up in to major demands once they have given in to minor ones
  20. Catharsis
    venting of aggressive impulses
  21. Bystander Effect
    people are less likely to give aid when other bystanders are present