Respiratory System - 6

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Respiratory System - 6
2010-10-06 00:43:37
breathing lungs respiratory

Respiratory system and function
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  1. lamina propria
  2. lamina propria
  3. lamina propria
  4. mucous in bronchiole
  5. muscularis
  6. muscularis
  7. muscularis
  8. pneumonia
  9. pneumonia
  10. pneumonia
  11. pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
  12. smokers lungs
  13. smokers lung
  14. smokers lung
  15. submucosa
  16. submucosa
  17. submucosa
  18. tracheal (hyaline) cartilage
  19. tracheal cartilage
  20. type 1 alveolar cell
  21. type 2 alveolar cell
  22. type 2 alveolar cell
  23. venricular fold
  24. ventricular fold
  25. vestibule
  26. vocal folds
  27. phonation
    sound production at larynx
  28. articulation
    formation of words
  29. surfactant
    lipid secretion coating alveolar surface to prevent collapse
  30. compliance
    ability of lungs to tolerate change in volume
  31. hypocapnia vs hypercapnia?
    • hypocapnia- low carbon dioxide concentration r/t hyperventilation
    • hypercapnia- high carbon dioxide concentration r/t hypoventilation or inadequate tissue perfussion
  32. tidal volume
    volume of air move in and out of lungs during normal quiet respiratory cycle
  33. inspiratory capacity
    amt of air you can take in lungs after you complete a quiet resp cycle ( TV + IRV)
  34. inspiratory reserve volume
    max amt of air taken into lungs after a quiet respiratory cycle ( TV + IRV)
  35. Expiratory Reserve volume (ERV)
    amt of additional air moved out of lungs after a normal exhalation
  36. vital capacity (VC)
    max amt of air moved in and out of lungs (IRV + ERV + TV)
  37. residual volume (RV)
    amt of air remains in lungs after max forced exhalation
  38. functional residual volume (FRV)
    amt of air left after completing a quiet respiratory cycle ( ERV + RV)
  39. total lung capacity (TLC)
    total volume of lungs (VC + RV)
  40. anatomical dead space
    amt of air in conducting passages
  41. respiratory minute volume
    amt of air move in and out each minute
  42. why cartilage rings in trachea incomplete posterior?
    allow food bolus travel down posterior esophagus to bulge anterior
  43. function of nasal cavity mucosa
    filter, warm, moisten incoming air
  44. function of cilia and goblet cells?
    sweep and move away debris mucus superior , or away from lungs
  45. what happens when you cough?
    • stuff touches vestibular or vocal folds.
    • triggers cough reflex
    • glottis kept closed when chest and abdomen muscle contracts
    • lungs compressed
    • glottis opens suddenly, resulting in blast of air from trachea
    • this ejects material blocking entrance to glottis
  46. what causes lungs to stay against thoracic wall?
    • 1-interpleural pressure less then alveolar pressure
    • 2-surface tension high in pleural fld and low in surfactant
  47. 4 factors increasing hemoglobin saturation?
    • 1- decrease pCO2-
    • 2- high blood pH
    • 3- decrease temp
    • 4- decrease BPG
  48. 3 things reducing compliancy of lungs
    • 1- increase surface tension in alveoli (pulm edema, pneumonia)
    • 2- decrease elasticity of lung (TB scar tissue)
    • 3- decrase ability for chest wall to expand (paralysis, damage to phrenic nerve)
  49. BPG is what kind of substance?
    • produced during glycolysis in RBC
    • increases dissociation of osygen from hemoglobin
  50. what is result of stimulating apneustic center?
    prolonged inspiration
  51. hering breuer reflex protects what ?
    protect lungs from damge d/t overinflation
  52. 1) what is decompression sickness?
    2) what gas causes the problem?
    • 1) painful condition developing when person is exposed to sudden drip in atmospheric pressure.
    • 2) nitrogen causes the problem
  53. why does pulmonary edema cause a decrease in effeciency of diffusion?
    it increases diffusion distance for oxygen
  54. what does lung perfusion do?
    constrict capillaries in response to low oxygen
  55. which is greater, RR when BP drops OR RR when BP rises?
    When BP falls
  56. how is CO2 transported ?
    • disolve in plasma
    • disolve in cytoplasm of RBC
    • carbonic acid
    • combined with globin part of hemoglobin
  57. DRAW THE CHART for RESPIRATORY FXN and the different values
  58. DRAW respiratory fxn chart
  59. what is the COMPLETE equation for CO2 in Water?
    CO2 + H2O <=> H2CO3 <=> H+ + HCO3-
  60. what will decrease FEV1?
    obstructive pulmonary disease
  61. what keeps lungs up against thoracic wall?
    • surface tension
    • intrapleural pressure less than alveolar pressure
  62. muscles that contract during forced exhalation?
    • external oblique
    • transverse abdominus
    • internal obliques
    • rectus abdominus
    • internal intercostals
  63. what does hypoventilation do to pH?
  64. If the chest wall (including the parietal pleura) is punctured, would the pressure in the pleural cavity increase or decrease?
  65. examples of Restrictive pulmonary disease?
    • emphysema
    • pneumonia
    • TB
    • polio
    • paralysis
    • pneumothorax
    • muscular dystrophy
    • pregnancy
    • Tuberculosis
  66. what are the sounds As air passes through the trachea?
    bronchial sounds
  67. After a normal inhalation, Joan normally exhaled into a hand held
    spirometer and got a reading of 375 ml. Following the exhalation, her
    instructor told her to keep on exhaling using all of her accessory
    muscles and she was able to exhale an additional 1300 ml. Which lung
    volume or capacity was the 1300 ml measuring?
    expiratory reserve volume
  68. The amount of air that remains in the lungs after you exhale your tidal volume
    functional residual volume
  69. Given the following information:
    TV = 400 ml
    ERV = 2000 ml
    IRV = 1000 ml
    RV = 1200 ml

    The inspiratory capacity is
    • IC = TV + IRV
    • IC = 400 + 1000
    • IC = 1400 ml
  70. Tidal volume: 600 ml
    Expiratory reserve volume: 2500 ml
    Inspiratory reserve volume: 3500
    residual volume: 1400 ml

    what is TLC?
    • TV + ERV+ IRV + RV = TLC
    • 600 + 2500 + 3500 + 1400 = 8000 ml
  71. what is being measured when determining tidal volume?
    Volume of air in and out during normal or quiet breathing
  72. formula to calculate vital capacity?
    VC = ERV + TV + IRV
  73. Austin is breathing rapidly and deeply after running 5 blocks. what will happen to VC?
    VC will stay the same
  74. FXN of Respiratory System?
    • 1. protect and condition resp surfaces
    • 2. sense odors
    • 3. produce sound
    • 4. move air in to and from exhange surfaces of lungs
    • 5. provide extensive area for gas exchange
    • 6. assist in regulation of blood volume and pressure/pH balance
  75. external respiration?
    exchange of gas between atmosphere and blood
  76. internal respiration?
    exchange of gas between blood and interstitial fld
  77. why is tracheal cartilage C ringed?
    keep airway open, as esophagus is behind and it allows it to bulge when bolus of food swallowed
  78. why trachealis muscle is smooth?
    change diameter of trachea r/t coughing stuff up and out of trachea
  79. Order of Bronchi from large to small?
    • 1. primary bronchi (divide trachea-carina at end of trachea)
    • 2. secondary bronchi
    • 3. tertiary bronchi
    • 4. bronchioles
    • 5. terminal bronchioles
    • 6. respiratory bronchioles
    • 7. alveoli (gas exchange)
  80. character differences of R and L bronchi and why?
    • R- shorter, larger diameter
    • L- longer, smaller diameter, more horizontal

    R/T position of heart and how they have to go over the heart
  81. conducting portion of resp system is where?
    above diaphragm before getting to alveoli (dead space)
  82. fxn of larynx?
    • open airway
    • act as switch mechanism for air vs food
    • sound production
  83. phonation?
    produce sound by vibration of vocal folds
  84. why hiccup?
    diaphragm moves funny so you breath in air sudden and air hits vocal cord when not ready
  85. articulation
    formation of words
  86. if vocal cord tension is tight what sound is made?
    if it is looser what is the sound made?
    • tight- high pitch
    • loose- low pitch
  87. what is in resp portion of resp system?
    • resp bronchioles
    • alveolar sac
    • alveolar duct
    • alveoli
  88. what is the only cell to do gas exchange? can they regenerate? why ? shape of cell?
    • only cell for gas exchange is-- type 1 alveolar cell
    • no mitosis occurs so they do not regenerate
    • shape is simple squamous
  89. type 2 alveolar cell secretes what fld? what is the shape? can it regenerate?
    • fluid secreted is surfactant.
    • shape is simple cuboidal
    • YES regenerates
  90. what is surfactant ? fxn?
    • surfactant- watery liquid lining alveoli .
    • made of phospholipid/lipoprotien.
    • it looks like soapy detergent
    • fxn- reduce surface tension during breathing.
    • expiration ( prevent collapse of alveoli)
    • inspiration (reduce force required to inflate lungs)
  91. if a lung is collaped what would it look like on an xray?
    not full of air so appear more dense = more white seen
  92. why does air move into lungs?
    why does it move out of lungs?
    • 1) moves into lungs - pressure in lungs LESS then atmospheric pressure
    • 2) moves out of lungs- pressure in lungs is GREATER then atmospheric pressure
  93. according to boyles law
    if the size of a container decreases what happens to pressure? why?
    • if container size decreases then pressure will increase (inverse relationship)
    • r/t molecules in container have less area to hit so pressure increases on each inch of area
  94. applying boyles law to lungs--
    what happens to volume and pressure as you inhale and exhale? what happens to position of thoracic cavity?
    boyles law says:

    • inhalation= volume increase/pressure decrease--->diaphragm moves downward position and ribs outward and up
    • exhalation= volume decrease/pressure increase--->diaphragm relaxes so ribs move in downward position
  95. Dalton's Law?
    • each gas is a mixture and exherts own gas. It acts as if there are no other gasses present.
    • TOTAL pressure = sum of all partial pressures
  96. equation for calculating partial pressure?
    Pp= 760 (x) % of air that is in gas
  97. Henry's law?
    quantity of gas that will disolve in a liquid is dependant on amt of gas present and solubility of soln.
  98. what happens to nitrogen during decompression sickness?
    nitrogen increases more pressure in blood so it can dissolve in the blood. as you come back to surface too fast the nitrogen goes back to gas form and puts air bubbles in capillaries where they can rip or even burst
  99. what happens to breathing in a high altitude? why?
    in a high altitude there is less ability to breathe r/t less gas exchange
  100. which part of brain controls speed of breathing and sets the pace?
    which part of brain speeds up /or slows it down?
    • medulla controls breathing rate
    • pons speeds up/slows it down
  101. what part of pons controls inhibitory impules ? what does that do to lungs?
    pneumotaxic center - inhibitory to stop lungs from overinflating during inspiration
  102. what part of pons controls stimulatory signals? why do we need them?
    apneustic center stimulates inspiratory area to speed up so it doesnt prolong inspiration
  103. what is hypoxia? what are the types and give examples of how you can get it?
    hypoxia- lack of O2 at tissue level

    • 1) hypoxic hypoxia- low pO2 in arterial blood (high altitude, fld in lung, obstruction)
    • 2) anemic hypoxia- too little fx Hb (hemorrhage, anemia)
    • 3) ischemic hypoxia- blood flow too low
    • 4) histotoxic hypoxia- cyanide poison (blocked metabolic stages, O2 usage)
  104. effects of smoking on respiratory efficiency?
    • 1)nicotine contrict term bronchioles
    • 2)carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin
    • 3) irritant in smoke cause excess mucus secretion
    • 4) irritant inhibit movement of cilia
    • 5) destroy elastic fiber in lung leading to emphysema