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pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
tracheal (hyaline) cartilage
sound production at larynx
formation of words
lipid secretion coating alveolar surface to prevent collapse
ability of lungs to tolerate change in volume
hypocapnia vs hypercapnia?
- hypocapnia- low carbon dioxide concentration r/t hyperventilation
- hypercapnia- high carbon dioxide concentration r/t hypoventilation or inadequate tissue perfussion
volume of air move in and out of lungs during normal quiet respiratory cycle
amt of air you can take in lungs after you complete a quiet resp cycle ( TV + IRV)
inspiratory reserve volume
max amt of air taken into lungs after a quiet respiratory cycle ( TV + IRV)
Expiratory Reserve volume (ERV)
amt of additional air moved out of lungs after a normal exhalation
vital capacity (VC)
max amt of air moved in and out of lungs (IRV + ERV + TV)
residual volume (RV)
amt of air remains in lungs after max forced exhalation
functional residual volume (FRV)
amt of air left after completing a quiet respiratory cycle ( ERV + RV)
total lung capacity (TLC)
total volume of lungs (VC + RV)
anatomical dead space
amt of air in conducting passages
respiratory minute volume
amt of air move in and out each minute
why cartilage rings in trachea incomplete posterior?
allow food bolus travel down posterior esophagus to bulge anterior
function of nasal cavity mucosa
filter, warm, moisten incoming air
function of cilia and goblet cells?
sweep and move away debris mucus superior , or away from lungs
what happens when you cough?
- stuff touches vestibular or vocal folds.
- triggers cough reflex
- glottis kept closed when chest and abdomen muscle contracts
- lungs compressed
- glottis opens suddenly, resulting in blast of air from trachea
- this ejects material blocking entrance to glottis
what causes lungs to stay against thoracic wall?
- 1-interpleural pressure less then alveolar pressure
- 2-surface tension high in pleural fld and low in surfactant
4 factors increasing hemoglobin saturation?
- 1- decrease pCO2-
- 2- high blood pH
- 3- decrease temp
- 4- decrease BPG
3 things reducing compliancy of lungs
- 1- increase surface tension in alveoli (pulm edema, pneumonia)
- 2- decrease elasticity of lung (TB scar tissue)
- 3- decrase ability for chest wall to expand (paralysis, damage to phrenic nerve)
BPG is what kind of substance?
- produced during glycolysis in RBC
- increases dissociation of osygen from hemoglobin
what is result of stimulating apneustic center?
hering breuer reflex protects what ?
protect lungs from damge d/t overinflation
1) what is decompression sickness?
2) what gas causes the problem?
- 1) painful condition developing when person is exposed to sudden drip in atmospheric pressure.
- 2) nitrogen causes the problem
why does pulmonary edema cause a decrease in effeciency of diffusion?
it increases diffusion distance for oxygen
what does lung perfusion do?
constrict capillaries in response to low oxygen
which is greater, RR when BP drops OR RR when BP rises?
When BP falls
how is CO2 transported ?
- disolve in plasma
- disolve in cytoplasm of RBC
- carbonic acid
- combined with globin part of hemoglobin
DRAW THE CHART for RESPIRATORY FXN and the different values
DRAW respiratory fxn chart
what is the COMPLETE equation for CO2 in Water?
CO2 + H2O <=> H2CO3 <=> H+ + HCO3-
what will decrease FEV1?
obstructive pulmonary disease
what keeps lungs up against thoracic wall?
- surface tension
- intrapleural pressure less than alveolar pressure
muscles that contract during forced exhalation?
- external oblique
- transverse abdominus
- internal obliques
- rectus abdominus
- internal intercostals
what does hypoventilation do to pH?
If the chest wall (including the parietal pleura) is punctured, would the pressure in the pleural cavity increase or decrease?
examples of Restrictive pulmonary disease?
- muscular dystrophy
what are the sounds As air passes through the trachea?
After a normal inhalation, Joan normally exhaled into a hand held
spirometer and got a reading of 375 ml. Following the exhalation, her
instructor told her to keep on exhaling using all of her accessory
muscles and she was able to exhale an additional 1300 ml. Which lung
volume or capacity was the 1300 ml measuring?
expiratory reserve volume
The amount of air that remains in the lungs after you exhale your tidal volume
functional residual volume
Given the following information:
TV = 400 ml
ERV = 2000 ml
IRV = 1000 ml
RV = 1200 ml
The inspiratory capacity is
- IC = TV + IRV
- IC = 400 + 1000
- IC = 1400 ml
Tidal volume: 600 ml
Expiratory reserve volume: 2500 ml
Inspiratory reserve volume: 3500
residual volume: 1400 ml
what is TLC?
- TV + ERV+ IRV + RV = TLC
- 600 + 2500 + 3500 + 1400 = 8000 ml
what is being measured when determining tidal volume?
Volume of air in and out during normal or quiet breathing
formula to calculate vital capacity?
VC = ERV + TV + IRV
Austin is breathing rapidly and deeply after running 5 blocks. what will happen to VC?
VC will stay the same
FXN of Respiratory System?
- 1. protect and condition resp surfaces
- 2. sense odors
- 3. produce sound
- 4. move air in to and from exhange surfaces of lungs
- 5. provide extensive area for gas exchange
- 6. assist in regulation of blood volume and pressure/pH balance
exchange of gas between atmosphere and blood
exchange of gas between blood and interstitial fld
why is tracheal cartilage C ringed?
keep airway open, as esophagus is behind and it allows it to bulge when bolus of food swallowed
why trachealis muscle is smooth?
change diameter of trachea r/t coughing stuff up and out of trachea
Order of Bronchi from large to small?
- 1. primary bronchi (divide trachea-carina at end of trachea)
- 2. secondary bronchi
- 3. tertiary bronchi
- 4. bronchioles
- 5. terminal bronchioles
- 6. respiratory bronchioles
- 7. alveoli (gas exchange)
character differences of R and L bronchi and why?
- R- shorter, larger diameter
- L- longer, smaller diameter, more horizontal
R/T position of heart and how they have to go over the heart
conducting portion of resp system is where?
above diaphragm before getting to alveoli (dead space)
fxn of larynx?
- open airway
- act as switch mechanism for air vs food
- sound production
produce sound by vibration of vocal folds
diaphragm moves funny so you breath in air sudden and air hits vocal cord when not ready
formation of words
if vocal cord tension is tight what sound is made?
if it is looser what is the sound made?
- tight- high pitch
- loose- low pitch
what is in resp portion of resp system?
- resp bronchioles
- alveolar sac
- alveolar duct
what is the only cell to do gas exchange? can they regenerate? why ? shape of cell?
- only cell for gas exchange is-- type 1 alveolar cell
- no mitosis occurs so they do not regenerate
- shape is simple squamous
type 2 alveolar cell secretes what fld? what is the shape? can it regenerate?
- fluid secreted is surfactant.
- shape is simple cuboidal
- YES regenerates
what is surfactant ? fxn?
- surfactant- watery liquid lining alveoli .
- made of phospholipid/lipoprotien.
- it looks like soapy detergent
- fxn- reduce surface tension during breathing.
- expiration ( prevent collapse of alveoli)
- inspiration (reduce force required to inflate lungs)
if a lung is collaped what would it look like on an xray?
not full of air so appear more dense = more white seen
why does air move into lungs?
why does it move out of lungs?
- 1) moves into lungs - pressure in lungs LESS then atmospheric pressure
- 2) moves out of lungs- pressure in lungs is GREATER then atmospheric pressure
according to boyles law
if the size of a container decreases what happens to pressure? why?
- if container size decreases then pressure will increase (inverse relationship)
- r/t molecules in container have less area to hit so pressure increases on each inch of area
applying boyles law to lungs--
what happens to volume and pressure as you inhale and exhale? what happens to position of thoracic cavity?
boyles law says:
- inhalation= volume increase/pressure decrease--->diaphragm moves downward position and ribs outward and up
- exhalation= volume decrease/pressure increase--->diaphragm relaxes so ribs move in downward position
- each gas is a mixture and exherts own gas. It acts as if there are no other gasses present.
- TOTAL pressure = sum of all partial pressures
equation for calculating partial pressure?
Pp= 760 (x) % of air that is in gas
quantity of gas that will disolve in a liquid is dependant on amt of gas present and solubility of soln.
what happens to nitrogen during decompression sickness?
nitrogen increases more pressure in blood so it can dissolve in the blood. as you come back to surface too fast the nitrogen goes back to gas form and puts air bubbles in capillaries where they can rip or even burst
what happens to breathing in a high altitude? why?
in a high altitude there is less ability to breathe r/t less gas exchange
which part of brain controls speed of breathing and sets the pace?
which part of brain speeds up /or slows it down?
- medulla controls breathing rate
- pons speeds up/slows it down
what part of pons controls inhibitory impules ? what does that do to lungs?
pneumotaxic center - inhibitory to stop lungs from overinflating during inspiration
what part of pons controls stimulatory signals? why do we need them?
apneustic center stimulates inspiratory area to speed up so it doesnt prolong inspiration
what is hypoxia? what are the types and give examples of how you can get it?
- lack of O2 at tissue level
- 1) hypoxic hypoxia- low pO2 in arterial blood (high altitude, fld in lung, obstruction)
- 2) anemic hypoxia- too little fx Hb (hemorrhage, anemia)
- 3) ischemic hypoxia- blood flow too low
- 4) histotoxic hypoxia- cyanide poison (blocked metabolic stages, O2 usage)
effects of smoking on respiratory efficiency?
- 1)nicotine contrict term bronchioles
- 2)carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin
- 3) irritant in smoke cause excess mucus secretion
- 4) irritant inhibit movement of cilia
- 5) destroy elastic fiber in lung leading to emphysema