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- for power found in ambiguous clauses of the Constitution—e.g., power as commander in chief, duty to “take care that laws be faithfully executed”
- (executive power)
•Greatest source of power lies in politics and public opinion
White House Office
- - Rule of propinquity
- - Pyramid structure
- - Circular structure
- - Ad hoc structure
Rule of propinquity
power is wielded by people who are in the room when a decision is made
- •most assistants report through hierarchy to chief of staff, who then reports to president
- –Eisenhower, Nixon, Reagan, Bush, Clinton (late in his administration)
cabinet secretaries and assistants report directly to the president
Ad hoc structure
task forces, committees, and informal groups deal directly with president
Requirement to be President
•35 years of Age
•Natural Born Citizen
•Resident 14 Years
•Limit to 2 terms via the 22nd amendment
- - The total number of electors is equal to the number of representatives each state has in Congress.
- - There are 538 electoral votes up in each election.
- - In case of tie, vote goes to House of Representatives.
Succession to the Presidency
•Speaker of the House
•President Pro Tempore
•Cabinet positions as created
*If VP dies, President recommends someone to take his place and all of congress must agree.
Hats of the President
•Global President (Most Important)
•Symbolic President (Our App)
•Manage Economy (Only Congress can actually spend money)
Ways the President carries out his duties
- •Executive Memorandums (Just under Law)
- - Special Memo's that are almost as mandatory as a law.
- •Executive Orders
- - can be used to enforce
- legislative statutes
- - can be used to enforce the Constitution or treaties with foreign nations
- - can be used to establish or modify rules and practices of executive administrative agencies
- •Amicus Curiae Briefs ("Friend of the Court")
- - The name for a brief filed with the court by someone who is not a party to the case.
What makes a good President?
- •What type of attitude should he/she have?
- •Energy level?
- •Ability to work with others
- •Education level
- •Kennedy: bold, articulate, amusing leader; improviser who bypassed traditional lines of authority
- •Nixon: expertise in foreign policy; disliked personal confrontation; tried to centralize power in the White House
- •Reagan: set policy priorities and then gave staff wide latitude; leader of public opinion
- •Clinton: good communicator; pursued liberal/centrist policies
- •George W. Bush: tightly run White House; agenda became dominated by foreign affairs following the September 11th attacks
Eight Ways to leave office
- •Term limit
- •Choose not to run
- •Lost re-election bid
- •Impeach and convict
- •Inability exists-loses power if not the office
- •Lose party nomination
Limits on the President
- •War Powers Resolution of 1973
- (The War Powers Resolution requires the president to notify Congress within 48 hours of committing armed forces to military action and forbids armed forces from remaining for more than 60 days)
- •Budget and Impoundment Control Act 1973
- (In addition to prohibiting Presidential impoundment of funds, the act established the House and Senate Budget Committees.)
The Executive Organization
The Cabinet – comprised of the 15 cabinet positions, 14 secretaries and the Attorney general, the cabinet is an advisory group selected by the president to aid in making decisions.
- The Executive Office of the President (the EOP) – consists of 10 staff agencies that assist the president in carrying out major duties.
- - includes the White House Office (WHO)
- - the National Security Council (NSC)
- - the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
- - the Council of Economic Advisors (CEA)