A&P1_2010

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etombs
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A&P1_2010
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2010-09-28 22:22:06
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Anatomy physiology final exam
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Anatomy and physiology 1 final exam
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  1. ________________ measure chemical changes in the body
    Chemoreceptors
  2. True or False - Pain receptors are not localized very well
    True
  3. Pain from another part of the body can be known as what?
    Refferred pain
  4. Hearing an equalibrium are measured by the ______?
    Ears
  5. The four primary taste sensations are :Sour, bitter, Salty, and ______________
    Sweet
  6. True or false: Spicy food activate pain receptors
    True
  7. The Auditory tube is also know as the _____________
    Eustachian tube
  8. The colored part of the eye is the _____________
    Iris
  9. _________ Lenses cause light rays to diverge
    Convave
  10. ____________ are visual receptors responsible for color vision
    Cones
  11. What kind of lense corrects nearsightedness
    Concave
  12. ___________ can stimulate bone growth
    Physical excercise
  13. The jaw is also known as the ______________
    Mandible
  14. The axial skeleton consists: skull, thoracic cage and the _________
    vertebral column
  15. The knee cap is known as the _____________
    Patella
  16. True or False: The foramen Magnum is the largest in the body and serves as an opening for the spinal chord
    True
  17. The ___________ bones are located on each side of the skull just behind the frontal bone
    Parietal
  18. There are _____ vertebrae in the thoracic region
    12
  19. The knee cap is also known as the ___________
    Patella
  20. ___________ connect bone to bone
    Ligaments
  21. ____________ connect muscle to bone
    Tendons
  22. the ____________ serve as shoick absorbers between two articulating surfaces
    Menisci
  23. The shoulder is a __________ joint
    Ball and socket joint
  24. The Elbow is a _____ joint
    Hinge
  25. The ankle performs ___________ and ___________
    Dorsiflexion, plantarflexion
  26. The knee joint consists of the femur, tibia, and ______________
    Patella
  27. the four ligaments in the knee are: MCL, LCL, ACL, and _______
    PCL
  28. True or false: The radial collateral ligament holds the ulna to the radius
    False
  29. the ____________ is the bony protrusion on the posterior side of the elbow joint
    olecranon process
  30. The two types of protien filaments found in muscles are _____________ and _________
    Actin, Myosin
  31. _______________ is the neurotransmitter that motor neurons use to control skeletal muscle
    Acetylcholine
  32. As long as there is __________ you will have muscle contraction
    Calcium
  33. True or false: Myoglobin creates a sense of fatigue in muscles.
    False
  34. a ____________ contraction occurs with the lengthening of a muscle
    Eccentric
  35. ____________ twitch muscle fibers are dominant in endurance athletes
    slow
  36. the ___________ performs knee extension
    quadriceps
  37. the ________ is the strongest supinator in the body
    Biceps
  38. The _____________ performs shoulder elevation
    trapeizius
  39. The triceps perform elbow _____________
    extension
  40. The three main bones making up the shoulder joint are
    clavacle, scapula, humerous
  41. give two examples of hinge joins
    Elbows and joints between the philanges of the finger
  42. Give two examples of ball and socket joints
    Shoulder joint and hip joint
  43. name the five movements of the shoulder
    flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and rotation
  44. the four bones making up the knee joint are:
    PAtella, Femur, Tibia, Fibula
  45. The olfactory nerve is:
    assocaited with smell
  46. the facial nerve does what
    it moves the muscles of the face
  47. the ____________ nerve transmits impulses to the viscera
    Vagus
  48. The glossopharyngeal nerve does all of the following except:
    associated with hearing(it controls the tongue, swallow and the muscles of the neck)
  49. true or false: the optic nerve transmits impulses for facial expression
    False
  50. True or false: the troclear nerve transmits impulses that raise eyelids
    false
  51. the __________ nerve raises the eyelids
    oculomotor
  52. The abducens nerve is associated with
    movement of the eyes
  53. The accessory nerve does:
    Swallows and moves neck
  54. The hypoglossal nerve does all the following except:
    sense of smell (it actually swollows, moves the tongue and neck)
  55. the peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of ____________ and ___________
    Cranial nerves, spinal nerves
  56. true or false: the largest part of the brain is the medulla oblongata
    false
  57. The ___________ is responsible for posture and balance
    Cerebellum
  58. _________________ carry the message away from the neurons
    Axon
  59. unmyelinated nerve tissue appears what color
    gray
  60. if threshold potential is reached an _______________ results
    action potential
  61. the three parts of a neuron are all of the following except:
    d) mylen ( dentdrite, axon and cell body are correct parts of a neuron)
  62. ________________ is the seat of intelligence and personailty
    cerebrum
  63. true or false: the left hemisphere is dominant in most individuals
    true
  64. the three parts of the brainstem are: pons, medulla oblongata, and ________________
    midbrain
  65. ____________ controls coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and vomitting
    Medula oblongata
  66. true or false: Slow wave sleep is where your dreams occur
    false
  67. The ____________ connects the brain to the spinal chord
    brainstem
  68. True or false: there are only two ventricles in the brain
    false
  69. CSF stands for
    Cerebrospinal fluid
  70. an example of negative feedback is:
    A) Blood clotting
    B) digestion
    C) Muscle Conentration
    D) body tempurature
    D) body tempurature
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. Positive feedback in homeostitic control mechanisms ______________ actions of the body
    increases
  72. True or False: Anatomical position requires the palms facing forward and thumbs out.
    True
  73. The sagital plane divides the body into _______________
    Left and right
  74. The transverse plane divides the body into _______________
    superior and and inferior (top and bottom)
  75. The frontal plane divides the body into
    anterior and posterior
  76. What is the most common type of feedback loop?
    Negative
  77. What is the smallest particle of an element?
    Atom
  78. Protons carry:
    a positive charge
  79. True or false: A buffer does not resist ph change.
    False
  80. a ___________ is the particle formed by the chemical union of two or more atoms
    molecule
  81. Neutrons and __________________ are found in the nucleus of an atom
    protons
  82. The second shell of an atom can hold up to:
    8 electrons
  83. Matter is anything that has _____ and takes up space
    Mass
  84. In bonding the ______ shells are filled 1st
    lower
  85. ____________ are positively charge Ions
    cations
  86. true or false: a cation forms when an atome loses electrons
    true
  87. true or false: a covalent bond forms by sharing electrons
    true
  88. Hydrogen atoms form ______ bonds
    single
  89. The basic building block of protien is:
    Amino acids
  90. A neutral pH is equal to ____
    7
  91. The three major parts of a cell are : the nucleus, cytoplasm, and ____________
    cell membrane
  92. true or false: The cell membrane only has one layer.
    False
  93. What is the powerhouse of the cell?
    mitochondria
  94. The _______________ modifies, packages, and delivers protiens
    Golgi aparatus
  95. Sperm cells often have ______________, a whiplike organelle that aids in motility
    flagellum
  96. This organelle transports materials in the cell, provides attachment for ribisomes, and synthesizes lipids
    the endoplasmic rectilium
  97. true or false: smooth ER has ribosomes
    False
  98. in Diffusion, substances move from ___________ concentration , ___________ concentrations
    higher, lower
  99. a solution that has lower osmotic pressure (water gain) is:
    hypotonic
  100. in __________, smaller molecules are found through pourous membranes
    filtration
  101. true or false: Active transport is where carrier molecules transport substannces across a membrane from regions of lower concentration to regions of higher concentration
    true
  102. How do cells reproduce?
    mitosis
  103. the process in which cytoplasm divides
    cytokinesis
  104. In _____________ spindle fibers attach to the centromeres
    metaphase
  105. an example of tight junctions would be:
    cells that line the intestine
  106. There are four types of tissues: epithilia, connective, nervous, and __________
    muscle
  107. Epithilial tissues include all of the following EXCEPT:
    A) simple squamous
    B) simple columnar
    C) pseudostratified squamous
    D) stratified squamous
    C) pseudostratified squamous
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  108. Stratified squamous tissues are found ______________
    lining the oral cavity, vagina, and anal canal
  109. ____________ is the major structural protien of the body
    collagen
  110. True or false: Adipose tissue is also known as fat.
    True
  111. Three kinds of cartilage are: fibrocartilage, elastic, and ___________
    Hyaline
  112. The three kinds of muscle tissue include all of the following EXCEPT:
    A) smooth
    B) agonist
    C) skeletal
    D) cardiac
    B) agonist
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  113. true or False: epithilial tissus are avascular
    True
  114. The most abundant type of tissue is _____________
    connective
  115. ______________ cartilage is flexible and located on the external ear
    elastic
  116. true or false: cartilage has good blood supply
    false
  117. ____________ are involved in clotting
    platelets
  118. What type of muslce is voluntary?
    Skeletal
  119. ____________ is responsible for sensory reception
    nervous
  120. Hormones of the Anterior Pituitary
  121. ACTH (Adrenocortocotrpic Hormone)
    • TSH (Thyroid Stimulating hormone)
    • FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone)
    • LH (luteinizing hormone)
    • GH (Growth Hormone)
    • PRL (Prolactin)
  122. Hormones of the posterior Pituitary
    • ADH (Antidiuretic hormone)
    • Oxytocin
  123. Hormones of the Thyroid
    • Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
    • Calcitonin
  124. Hormones of the Parathyroids
    PTH (Parathyroid hormone)
  125. Hormones of the adrenal medulla
    epinephrine and noepinephrine
  126. Hormones of the Adrenal Cortex
    • cortisal (95% of glucoocorticoids)
    • Aldosterone
    • sex hormones
  127. Hormones of the Pacreatic islets
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
  128. Testes
    testosterone
  129. hormones of the Ovaries
    • Estrogens
    • progesterone
  130. thymus
    Thymosin
  131. Pineal
    Melatonin
  132. GH function
    promotes growth of all body tissues
  133. TSH functions
    Stimulates thyroid to produce thyroid hormones
  134. ACTH functions
    stimulates adrenal cortex to produce cortical hormones, and in protecting body in stree situations(injusry and pain)
  135. PRL functions
    Stimulates milk secretion by mamary glands
  136. FSH functions
    stimulates growth and hormone activity in ovarian follicles; stimulates growth of testes, promotes develpment of sperm cells
  137. LH functions
    Causes development of corpus luteum at site of ruptured ovarian follicle in female, stimulates testosterone secretion in male
  138. ADH function
    promotes reabsorbtion of water in kidneyt tubules; high concentrations causes constriction of blood vessles
  139. oxytocin functions
    contraction of uterine muscle, cause milk ejection from mamry glands
  140. Thryoxine functions
    increases metabolic rate, required for normal growth knfluences physical and mental activities
  141. Calcitonin function
    decreases calium in blood level
  142. PTH functions
    regualtes exchange of calcium between blood and bones, increase calcium leve in blood
  143. Epinephrine and neopinephrine
    increase blood pressure and heart rate, activates cells influences by the sypathetic nervous system plus many not affected by the sympatheitc nerves
  144. Cortisol functions
    aids in metabolism of carbohydrates, protiens, and fatsd, active during stress
  145. aldosterone functions
    aids in regulating electyrolytes and water balance
  146. sex hormones function
    may influence secondary sexual characteristics
  147. insulin functions
    needed for transport of glucose into the cells, required for cellular metabolism of foods, especially glujcose, decreases blood sugar levels
  148. Glucogen functions
    Stimulates live to release glucose, therby increasing blood sugar levels
  149. Testosterone functions
    stimulates growth and development of sexual organs plus develoiment of secondary sexual characterstics such as hair, deepening voice, maturations of sperm cells
  150. Estrogen functions
    stimulates growth and development of sexual organs plus develoiment of secondary sexual characterstics such as breasts and changes in pelvis
  151. progesterone functions
    stimulates growth and development of sexual organs (uterine and tubes) prepares the uterine lining of egg implatation
  152. Thymosin functions
    Promotes groth of T-cell active in immunity
  153. Melatonin functions
    regualtes mood, sexual development, and daily cycles in response to the amount of light in the environment

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