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main organs of urinary tract....
- kidneys 2
- ureters 2
- external urinary meatus
what organ do urinary drugs treat?
kidneys, bladder, urinary tract, some male reproductive systems
in diuretic drugs (water pills) kidneys filter circulating blood by.....
- extracting waste products
- retaining what we need
know about diuretic drugs......
- keep sodium & K from being reabsorbed back into blood
- extra sodium & K increase urine volume
what is the therapeutic action of a diurectic....?
to increase the natural excreation of sodium/water and with this lowers blood pressure.
what is the fuctioning unit of the kidney......?
thiazide diuretic drugs
also block sodium and K from being reabsorbed into the blood.
- trade names:
loop diuretic drugs......
- also block from going into the blood stream
- ex: bumex
potassium sparing diuretic drugs......
conserve potassium and allows it to be reabsorbed from the tublule back into the blood
osmotic diurectic drugs....
remain inactive in body increases concentration of the filtrates. Holds water and electrolytes and prevents the water from being reabsorbed.
carbonic anhydrase inhibitor diurectic drugs....
inhibit enzyme carbonic anhydrase in tubule wall cells. bicarbonate and hydrogen ions are NOT formed.
combination diurectic drugs.....
thiazide diurectic drug (hydrochlorothiazide) and potassium sparing diurectic drug
diet modification to replace potassium (bananas)
if another supplement is needed, it can be given...
liquids, powders, effervescent tablets, capsules, and tablets
how are dosages measured?
- in milliequivalents
potassium deficiency (hypokalemia) can lead to life-threating cardiac arrhythmias bc electrolyte potassium is crucial to the normal contraction of heart muscle.
what is the primary cause of a UTI..?
gram negative bacteria like Ecoli
antibiotics do what?
anti-infective is what?
inhibits their growths and eventually bacteria simply die off.
quinolone antibiotic is only used to treat what?....
what kind of drug doesn't kill bacteria but inhibits growth by hindering formation of folic acid?
sulfonamide anti-infective drugs
folic acid antagonist drugs....
block formation folic acid in bacterial cells interferes ability of some bacteria to grow and reproduce.
other antibiotic types drugs.....
change urine to ammonia and formaldehyde that kills bacteria.
combination antibiotic/anti-infective drugs....
antibiotic anti-infective sulfa drug works synergistically
synergism is when 2 drugs combine to produce an effect that is greater than either drug used alone.
what type of environment does bacteria prefer?
suppresses bacteria growth
symptoms of a UTI....
- burning when urinating
- frequent and painful urination
- have sm amounts
what can bring on spasms in UT...?
- urinary retention
- kidney stones
- overactive bladder
anti-spasmodic drugs do what?
relax smooth muscle in urethra/bladder to allow normal emptying
combination drugs contain.....
- -anti infective
what is an overactive bladder?
urinary urgency, frequency, and urinary incontinence due involuntary contractions
drugs to treat overactive bladder......
block action of acetylcholine and reduce smooth muscle tone of bladder to decrease bladder contractions, spasms, and incontinence
what does BPH stand for?
- benign prostatic hypertrophy
- enzyme found in prostate cells interacts with testosterone converting it to dihydrotestosterone which turns prostate gland to hypertrophy.
BPH is common in men 50 and older
symptoms of BPH...
- difficulty urinating
- decreased urinary stream
- enlarged prostate
- drug of choice for treating BPH
- enzyme inhibits dihydrotestosterone/reduces its level reducing negative effect on prostate cell.
- *the only prob with this is has to b taken 6-12 months to make a difference in the gland
what does androgen refer to?.......
all the various male hormones
what does dihydrotestosterone cause?
BOTH BPH and male pattern baldness
block receptors in smooth muscle of nd prostate allowing relaxation for easier flow of urine
what is prostatitis?...........
acute or chronic bacterial infection of prostate gland due urinary tract infection or sexually transmitted disease
how do medications help with erectile dysfunction....?
- relaxing smooth muscle of penis arteries, increases blood flow and creating an erection by activating chemical cGMP
- OR inhibit an enzyme will inactivate chemical cGMP
- meds can either b oral or injected into the side of penis or pallet inserted into the urethra.
what does the musculoskeletal system do for the body?....
- body strength
- capability of movement
support/protect from outside forces
move bones/produce heat maintain a normal body temperature
what diseases is musclular drugs used for?......
- rheumatoid arthritis
- muscle spasms
- sprains, strains, pulled muscles
thinning of bone
what are the 2 types of bone cells?....
- osteoblasts-deposit of new bones
- osteoclasts-break down and remove old/damaged bone
how is osteoporosis prevented...?
- taking estrogen
- supplementing calcium
- increasing exercise
people that have a higher chance of osteoprosis......
- more common in women
- sm stature caucasion/asian
- post menopsusal women
- fair skin, red heads, blonds
- decreased exercise
- (known as degenerative joint disease) wear and tear of cartilege in joint
- pain swelling in hips/knees
*NO DRUG CAN REVERSE CARTILAGE/BONE DAMAGE THAT HAS ALREADY OCCURED IN JOINT
what are the 4 ways aspirin work?......
- anti imflammatory
- anti pyretic (decreses fever)
- anti coagulant (thins blood)
1st drug class of osteoarthritis...
2nd drug class of osteoarthritis......
acetaminophens work as....?
3rd drug class is NSAIDS which stands for what?.......
nonsteroidal anti-iflammatory drugs
what do NSAIDS do?.......
inhibit production of prostaglandins with some analgesic effect less chance of causing ulcers
4th drug class of osteoarthritis is COX-2 inhibitor drugs which....
inhibit cyclo oxytenase-2 (or cox-2) decrease the production of prostaglandins annd releive pain.
5th drug class......
corticosteroids-anti-inflammatory effect shouldn't b given long due to side effects
6th drug class........
OTC topical drugs-used to treat pain by diminishing sensory nerve signals
7th drug class under other drugs...
hyaluronic acid secreted synovial membrane of joint maintain lub in the joint
inflammation, swelling, pain, joint deformity, loss of joint function that is triggered by a virus
acetaminophen is used for rheumatoid arthritis
the 1st line of treatment for rheumatoid arthritis is.......
salicylates, NSAIDS, COX-2
what are keletal muscle relaxants used to treat..
starins, sprains, pulled muscles
what is fibromyalgia?
- pain in the neck, back, or hips
- cause is unknown
caused by accumulation in uric acid in blood bc kidneys unable to excrete excess uric acid, crystallizes in the joints bringing pain&inflammation
how do the drugs treat gout?
- increasing excreation of uric acid in urine
- inhibiting enzymes produce uric acid in blood