A&P Chapter 9 - Joints

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tiffanydawnn
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38190
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A&P Chapter 9 - Joints
Updated:
2010-09-28 22:12:37
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Chapter Joints
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A&P Chapter 9 - Joints
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  1. articulation
    • aka joint
    • any place where two bones come together
    • classified by structure and function
  2. joint structures
    • fibrous
    • cartilaginous
    • synovial
  3. fibrous joint
    • no cavity
    • bones held together by fibrous connective tissue
    • ex: sutures of the skull, distal tibiofibular joint (ankle)
  4. cartilaginous joint
    • no cavity
    • bones held together by cartilage
    • ex: ribs to sternum, symphysis pubis
  5. synovial joint
    • cavity
    • always has fluid
    • ex: knee, shoulder
  6. joint functions
    • synarthrotic
    • amphiarthrotic
    • diarthrotic
  7. synarthrotic joint
    • no movement
    • ex: sutures, gomphosis (teeth/jaw)
  8. synchondrosis joint
    • synarthrotic
    • any immovable joint with hyaline cartilage
    • ex: ribs to sternum
  9. amphiarthrotic joint
    slightly movable
  10. syndesmosis joint
    • amphiarthrotic
    • fibrous joint with more fibrous connective tissue than a suture
    • ex: distal tibiofibular joint
  11. symphysis joint
    • amphiarthrotic
    • connecting cartilage is always fibrocartilage
    • ex: symphysis pubis, vertebral discs
  12. diarthrotic joint
    • freely movable
    • always a joint cavity
    • end of bone covered in hyaline cartilage
    • sleeve-like structure extends from periosteum of one bone to periosteum of other
    • outside: dense regular CT
    • inside: synovial membrane that produces synovial fluid
    • meniscus between bones
    • bursae cushions joint
  13. meniscus
    fibrocartilage that holds bones tightly together
  14. bursae
    sacs filled with fluid that cushion joints
  15. gliding joint
    • diarthrotic
    • ex: intertarsal, intercarpal
  16. hinge joint
    • diarthrotic
    • ex: elbow, knee, finger, ankle, occipital-C1
  17. pivot joint
    • diarthrotic
    • ex: proximal radioulnar
  18. saddle joint
    • diarthrotic
    • ex: carpal-metacarpal of thumb
  19. condyloid joint
    • diarthrotic
    • ex: radiocarpal
  20. ball and socket joint
    • diarthrotic
    • ex: hip, shoulder
  21. flexion
    decrease angle between 2 bones
  22. extension
    increase angle between 2 bones
  23. hyperextension
    extend body part out of anatomical position
  24. abduction
    move body part away from midline
  25. adduction
    move abducted body part back to anatomical position
  26. circumduction
    move body part in a complete circle
  27. inversion
    soles of feet pointing inward
  28. eversion
    soles of feet pointing outward
  29. dorsiflexion
    flex the foot up (toward shin)
  30. plantarflexion
    flex the foot down
  31. rotation
    move a body part around a central axis
  32. protraction
    move a body part forward keeping it parallel to the ground
  33. retraction
    move protracted part back into anatomical position
  34. supination
    palms up
  35. pronation
    palms down
  36. elevation
    move a body part up
  37. depression
    move elevated body part back down

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