form of dosage.txt

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form of dosage.txt
2010-09-28 23:14:47

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  1. Solid form of dosage
    lozeges, troches, patches
  2. Liquid form of dosage
    sprays, inhalants, emulsions, suspensions, enemas
  3. Semisolid form of dosage
    cream, lotion, ointments, powders, gelatins, suppositories.
  4. CD
  5. CR
  6. CRT
    controlled-release tablet
  7. LA
  8. SA
  9. SR
  10. TD
  11. TR
  12. XL
  13. XR
  14. The main difference between capsules and caplets is
    capsules can be pulled apart
  15. Pulvule
    type of capsule that is shaped differently for identification purposes
  16. some hard-shelled capsule that does not come apart because
    to ensure tamper resistant
  17. Lozenges/Troches
    releases the medication more slowly; similar to hard candy; chalky consistency
  18. patches
    • For angina, nitroglycerin patches
    • For chronic pain, Duragesic (fentanyl patch)
    • For motion sickness, scopolamine transdermal patches
  19. Common devices available OTC inhalants and aerosols are
    vaporizers and humidifiers
  20. Metered dose inhalers (MDIs)
    dispense a specific amount of drug with each puff or inhalation. MDIs are used for asthma, bronchitis, or emphysema
  21. Enemas might be administered for two different reasons:
    retention or evacuation. Most common use is to evacuate the lower intestine to prepare for surgeries or for women in labor
  22. Pastes
    contain a smaller amount of liquid base than solids. They are able to absorb skin secretions, unlike other topical agents
  23. Suppositories
    Can be used both rectally and vaginally, bypass the stomach
  24. Parenteral
    the Greek and means "side of intestine" or "outside of intestine"
  25. SL
    sublingual, tablet, sprays
  26. Buc
    buccal, in the cheek; lozenge/troche
  27. PR
    Per rectum; suppository, solution, enema, ointment
  28. IT
    intrathecal, in the spine; solution
  29. IA
    intraarterial, in the artery; solution
  30. natural body barriers
    the skin, stomach, intestines, blood-brain barrier, and other membranous tissues,How well the drug passes through these barriers is the one factor that determines its ultimate effectiveness
  31. Absorption
    the taking in of nutrients from food and liquids
  32. Bioavailability
    the amount of drug that reaches its intended destination by being absorbed into the bloodstream
  33. Bioequivalence
    the difference between a drug that is mnaufactured in a diffeent dosage form or by a different company; include the rate of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion
  34. Distribution
    the ability of a drug to pass into the bloodstream
  35. Excretion
    elimination of waste products through stools and urine
  36. instill
    to place into; instrutions used for ophthalmeic or otic drugs.
  37. Metabolism
    the physical and chemical changes that take place within an organism.
  38. Pharmacokinetics
    the life of the drug, which includes absorption, metabolism, distribution, and excretion.
  39. Weak salth acid/base, ie. hydrochloric acid
    helps dissolve drug easier once it arrives in the GI system
  40. Preservative, i.e. Phenol
    improves shelf life
  41. Antifugal, i.e.Benzonic acid
    prevents fugal growth
  42. Base, i.e. Petrolatum
    main component to which medication is added for ointments and creams.
  43. "refrigerate or keep forzen"
    the contents should never be left lying aroung to thaw and become unusable