Theory 1

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sweetpea281
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38236
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Theory 1
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2010-09-29 00:27:29
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Exam1
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Exam 1 Review
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  1. What is the placement order of PPE?
    • Mask
    • Glasses
    • Wash hands
    • Gloves
  2. What um is protected by the mask filtration?
    > 3um is protected
  3. what um is NOT protected with the mask filtration?
    < 3um is not protected
  4. what is the size of tuberculosis?
    .5 to 1 um
  5. What is Resident Bacteria?
    Stable normal Flora of the skin
  6. True/False. Resident Bacteria can be altered by new pathogens or washing of the hands?
    True
  7. True/False. Resident Bacteria can be shed with exfoliation?
    True
  8. What is transient bacteria?
    bacteria on skin from contact
  9. how may transient bacteria be taken off your hands?
    washing hands
  10. What are the indications for a routine handwash?
    • before and after lunch
    • before and after bathroom
    • before and after gloving
    • if gloves become torn
    • if hands become contaminated
  11. When do you perform an antiseptic handwash?
    AM and PM
  12. When do you perform an Antiseptic hand rub?
    within the same patient appointment
  13. what are the four objectives of infection control?
    • prevent transmission of infectious agent
    • reduce level of pathogenic organisms
    • eliminate cross contamination
    • application of standard precautions
  14. what is process for instrument processing?
    • instrument cleaning
    • rinse and dry
    • package
    • seal
    • sterilize
    • store packages
    • clinical use
    • repeat
  15. what is the purpose (2) for instrument packaging?
    • prevent contamination of sterilized instruments
    • maintain sterile environment when storing instruments
  16. what are the three types of sterilization?
    • moist heat-steam under pressure
    • dry heat
    • chemical vapor
  17. What things can not be used with steam under pressure?
    • oils
    • waxes
    • powders
    • or materials that can't be under high temp
  18. what is the temp, pressure, and time for steam under pressure?
    • temp-120c 250 f
    • pressure-15lbs
    • time 15min or 30 for heavy load
  19. what are the advantages for steam under pressure?
    • inexpensive
    • quick
    • economical
  20. what are the disadvantages for steam under pressure?
    corrosive to some instruments
  21. How does Dry heat sterilize?
    sterilizes thru oxidation (outside to inside)
  22. what can you sterilize with dry heat?
    • oils
    • powders
    • burs
  23. what is the temp and time for dry heat?
    • temp-160c 320f
    • time 2hrs
    • temp170c 340f
    • time 1 hr
  24. what are the advantages for dry heat sterilization?
    • used for things that can't be autoclaved
    • no corrosion
    • great for sharp instruments
  25. what are the disadvantages for dry heat sterilization?
    • long time
    • maintain high temp
  26. How does chemical vapor sterilization work?
    combo of alcohols, formaldehyde, ketone, water and acetone heated under pressure produces gas that is an effective sterilizing agent
  27. what is the temp pressure and time for chemical vapor sterilization?
    • temp 127-132c 260-270f
    • pressure 20-40lbs
    • time 20 min
  28. what are the advantages to chemical vapor sterilization?
    • corrosion free
    • short time
    • easy to operate
  29. what are the disadvantages for chemical vapor sterilization?
    • needs good ventilation
    • odors
  30. What are the categories for chemical disinfectants?
    • high level
    • intermediate level
    • low level
  31. what does a high level disinfectant do?
    inactivates spores and all forms of bacteria fungi and viruses
  32. what does an intermediate level disinfectant do?
    kills all microorganisms but not spores
  33. what does a low level disinfectant do?
    inactivates vegetative bacteria and certain lipid type viruses
  34. What are the types of chemical disinfectants?
    • surface
    • immersion disinfection
    • immersion sterilants
  35. what are the classifications of inanimate objects?
    • critical
    • semicritical
    • noncritical
  36. what is a critical object and give and example.
    • penetrates soft tissue
    • needles curettes and probes
  37. what do you do with a critical object after using it during an appointment?
    dispose or sterilize
  38. what is a semi critical object and give an example.
    • doesn't penetrate mucus membrane just touches it
    • mirror
  39. what must be done with semicritical objects after used during a patient appointment?
    sterilize or high level disinfection
  40. what is a noncritical object and give an example.
    • doesn't touch the mucus membrane
    • light
  41. what must be done with an noncritical object after used during a patient appointment?
    intermediate disinfection
  42. what is the water line maintenance pre appointment in the AM and the maintenance before and after each patient?
    • AM-2 minutes
    • Between patients-30 seconds
  43. What are the 2 objectives for the pre-procedural rinse?
    • number of bacteria on gingival or mucosal surface is reduced
    • substantivity of .12% chlorhexide provides lower bacterial count for >60 minutes
  44. What is the procedure following an occupational accident exposure?
    • wash wound immediately with soap and water
    • flush nose, mouth, eyes or skin with clear water, saline or sterile irrigant
    • report to designated official
    • complete incident report as required
    • follow clinic procedures
    • post exposure policies must follow guidelines given by the United States public health services
  45. What are six rules for patient introductions?
    • always introduce yourself to the patient
    • Always call by Mr. Mrs or Miss
    • Lady's name proceeds gentlemen
    • Older person before younger (when of the same sex)
    • Patient name before dental personnel
    • Elderly never by 1st name unless requested
  46. what are the four chair positions?
    • upright
    • semi-upright
    • supine
    • trendelenberg
  47. what are the contradictions to supine position?
    • cardiovascular
    • respiratory
    • vertigo
    • pregnancy
    • requests (elderly)
  48. Define ergonomics
    practice that makes work safe, decreases strain and fatigue, eliminating hazards, improve work process affecting health and well being of clinician and patient
  49. what is NWP?
    neutral working position
  50. what are the 5 things to consider when thinking about relationship to patient and equipment?
    • clinician chair-next to pt chair, thighs parallel to floor
    • height of patient chair- at clinicians elbow
    • dental light-easy to reach 45degrees max and straight on for man
    • clinician- clock positions
    • bracket table-level or below shoulders
  51. what are the 4 clock positions and what areas are they used for?
    • 8 to 9- anterior surfaces toward
    • 9- posterior surfaces toward
    • 10-11-posterior surfaces away
    • 12- anterior surfaces away
  52. what are the four uses of the mouth mirror?
    • indirect vision
    • illumination
    • transillumination
    • retraction
  53. what are the precautions for using the air/water syringe?
    • alert patient
    • avoid sharp blasts
    • avoid air into pockets
    • avoid deflecting saliva
    • avoid patient throat
  54. what angle must the probe be inserted at?
    parallel to long axis of the tooth
  55. where is the perio probe inserted at?
    distal line angle
  56. what kind of strokes are used when probing?
    walking strokes
  57. how many measurements are taken when probing and from where?
    • 6 measurements
    • 3 buccal and 3 lingual
  58. Can pockets be seen on radiographs?
    no, must be probed
  59. define universal precautions
    infection control in which all human blood and certain body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious for HIV, HBV, and other blood borne pathogens
  60. define standard precautions
    infection control to protect dental health care personnel and patients from pathogens spread thru blood or other body fluids (except sweat)
  61. what are the modes of disease transmission?
    • direct contact
    • indirect contact
    • airborne
  62. what are the 7 factors influencing infection development?
    • presence of infectious agent
    • number of organism
    • duration of exposure
    • virulence of the organism
    • immune status of host
    • general physical health of the host
    • nutritional status of the host
  63. what are the characteristics of aerosols?
    • less than 50 um but usually less than 5 um
    • solid or liquid
    • visible or invisible
    • long air suspension
    • less than 5um can go deep into lungs
  64. what are areosols created by?
    • breathing
    • coughing
    • sneezing
  65. what are the characteristics of spatter?
    • >50um
    • shorter air suspension than aerosols because they are heavier
    • visible especially when they land
  66. what are some ways spatter can be created?
    • handpieces
    • ultrasonics
    • air water spray
  67. how is TB transmitted?
    • inhalation
    • aerosols
    • not good standard precautions
    • droplet nuclei through mask
    • airborne
    • ingestion
    • direct inoculation
  68. how is hep A tansmitted?
    • fecal/oral
    • waterborne/food borne
    • blood
  69. how is hep B transmitted?
    • percutaneous
    • blood transfusion
    • sexual exposure
    • perinatal transmission- in utero and birth
  70. how is hep B transmitted?
    • percutaneous-blood, needles
    • saliva
    • nonpercutaneous- sexual and perinatal
  71. What is HHV1 (Herpes Labialis)?
    • cold sore or fever blister
    • get a prodrome-burning stinging before lesion
  72. what is HHV1 (herpes whitlow)?
    • occurs on fingers- enters thru skin abrasions
    • saliva, direct contact, nail biting
  73. what is HHV3 (varicella)?
    • chicken pox
    • highly contagious
    • direct or indirect contact
  74. what is HHV3 (zoster)
    • shingles
    • latent in dorsal root ganglia
    • localized or unilateral
    • intraoral lesions when 2nd branch of trigeminal nerve is involved
  75. when can you legally defer a patients treatment?
    with active TB
  76. when can you postpone treatment to another day?
    with herpes lesion
  77. what are the (6) features of a health history?
    • logical sequence
    • quick identification
    • space for patients comments
    • space for interviewers notes
    • size consistent with other ecordes
    • other languages
  78. what are the two types of exams for health histories?
    • questionnaire
    • interview
  79. what type of patients are required to take prophylatic antibiotics?
    required for patients at risk for infective endocarditis for soft tissue instrumentation, that may create a bacteremia.
  80. what are some health indications for profphylatic antibiotic?
    • prosthetic cardiac valves
    • previous endocarditis
    • congenital heart disease
  81. for prophlatic antibiotic patients what procedures do they need to take antibiotics for?
    • manipulation of gingival tissue
    • involving PA region of the tooth
    • perforation of the oral mucosa

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