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ecosystem ecology generally focuses on
- the way that abiotic characteristics impact the living organisms present in that area
- the cycling of nutrients through the system (carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, hudrogeologic cycle)
a biological community consists of the speciel that interact with each other within a particular area
community ecology focuses on
the interactions between species and their impact on each other
a group of individuals of the same species that lives in the same area at the same time
population ecology focuses on
- how the numbers of individuals in a population changes over time due to the interaction of individuals
- its affected by the total number, density, and distribution of individuals in the population
a measurement of the total number of dindividuals per unit area
location of individuals or dispersal of individuals in the space
a separate living entity comprised of single or multiple cells functioning as a unit
prganismal ecology focuses on
how individuals interact with their environment by examining the morphological , physiological, and behavioral adaptations that allow individuals to live successfully in a particular area
the study of ecosystem dynamics such as energy flow among diff types of organisms (producers, consumers, decomposers), biogeochemical cycles, and human impacts
set of all special and abiotic factors in an area
four components to ecosystems that are linged by a flow of energy
abiotic factors (non living such as water, nutrients, ions, amoung of sunlight energy)
primary producers (organisms that synthesize its own food)
consumers (organisms that eat other organisms)
decomposers (organisms that obtain energy by feeding on dead remains)
feeding level in an ecosystem
energy flow from one trophic level to another always involves a loss of...
energy is lost as...
heat during metabolism
used for maintenance
dedicated to growth and reproduction
lost when organism tries to process other organism
energy that is invested in new tissue (able to be passed onto another trophic level)
food chains and food webs can describe...
who eats who in an ecosystem
most food chains/webs are short because
they rarely can provide enough energy for many species feeding above the secondary consumer level
the abiotic factors in an ecosystem do not remain stagnant in one location
always moving throughout the ecosystem
into and out of living organisms
into the atmosphere
into the water sources
human impacts on ecosystem
population is increasing exponentially
exponentially increasing resources used by that population
a study of the interactions and effect of interactions between species in an area
one gains and other dies or isnt affected
parasitism and predation
+/- one gains other loses
both benefit from interactions
increase in average temperature of the earths near surface air and oceans
a condition where there is too much phosphorus in lakes and streams, as a result from poor timing on fertilizer application
When too much phosphorus enters lakes and streams, it can cause algae blooms. Algae blooms block sunlight from reaching the fish and other aquatic plants, and the aquatic life dies.
precipitation that is unusually acidic. elevated levels of hydrogen ions
a region of exceptionally depleted ozone in the stratosphere over the Antarctic that happens at the beginning of Southern Hemisphere spring
biological science was founded with the developments of
the cell theory
the theory of evolution by natural selection
a highly organized compartment that has a plasma membrane that contains concentrated chemicals in an aqueous solution
all organisms are made of cells and all cells come from pre existing cells
louis paseurs experiment
a hypothesis is a proposed explanation
a prediction is something that can be measured and must be correct if a hypothesis is valid
an explanation using naturally occurring processes to explain a natural phenomenon
louis pasteur demonstrated that...
cells arise from cells and not by spontaneous generation
organisms are related by
in a multicellular organism...
all the cells present descend from pre existing cells and are connected by common ancestry
darwin and wallace proposed that...
- all species are related by common ancestry
- the characteristics of species can be modified from generation to generation
a change in the frequency of traits in a population over time
because populations can evolve over time and become more diff from each other...
eventually they may not be able to exchange genetic material - at this point they are considered diff species
what may explain why evolution can occur
the ability of an individual to produce offspring
- a trait that increases the fitness of an individual in a particular environment
- a trait that evolves due to natural selection
a group of individuals of the same species living in the same area at the same time
what 2 conditions must be met for natural selection to occur in a population
- individuals in the population vary in characteristics that are heritable
- in a particular environment, certain versions of these heritable traits help individuals survive better or reproduce more than other versions
.... acts on individuals but .... is measured in population
- natural selection
- evolutionary change
evolution occurs when...
heritable variation leads to differential success in reproduction
life is unified by...
- common ancestry
- posession of cells
- diversity in overall form and function
an idea that has been scientifically tested numerous times and has not been found false
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