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Importance of Carbon
- 4 outer shell electrons - great binding capacity
- covalent bonds (stable linkage)
- Organic chemistry
a brachn of chemistry devoted to the study of compounds that have carbon as their central element
- organic molecule consisting only of carbons and hydrogen atoms
- ex. methane, propane, butane, benzene
- Different shapes of hydrocarbons:straight-chain, rings (double bondsand means share two pair of electrons) other forms.
- Isomers - same molecular formula but different arrangement of atoms.
a group of atoms that confers a special proerty on a carbon-based molecules (one or more carbon to carbons. Addition to a functional group changes the charge of a molecule making it polar (or one end negative, so it can bind easily again.)
Functional groups need to know
- -COOH carboxyl ( in fatty and amino acids)
- -OH Hydroxyl (alcohols, carbs)
- -NH2 Amino (amino acids)
- -PH4 Phosphate (DNA, ATP)
A large molecule made up of many similar or identical subunits. ex. starch
a small molecule that can be combined with other similar or identical molecules to make a polymer. ex. glucose
organic molecules that alwasy(in most instances only) contain C, O and H. Twice as many H atoms as O atoms ex. C6H12O6
- monomers of carbohydrates - simple sugars - most things broken down to glucose and used as energy source.
- ex. glucose, fructose, deoxyribose
- -ose means sugar
- two monomers(glucose) moleculesbonding together creating maltose. In the reaction the products are maltose and water.
- ex. maltose, sucrose, lactose
- polymer of carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrate
- ex. starch, glycogen, cellulose and chitin
a complex carb found in plants. In pants, mainly serve as the main form of carb storage, as seed or as roots.
serves as the primary form of carb storage in animals(humans). If used immideatly glycogen and starch is broken down into glucose and if not than stored in muscle cells and liver as complex carb glycogen.
- a rigid, complex carbohydrate contained in the cell walls of many organisms. Serves as insolubale fiber for humans, which helps move foods through the digestive tract.
- Termits and Cow digest cellulose.
is a complex carb that forms the external skeleton of the arthropods --all insects, spiders,
- made of C, H and O, but much more H than O
- good energy storage and insulator
- the most common lipid
- Head - glycerol
- Tail - on or more fatty acids, each cosisting of a long chain of C and H atoms(or hydrocarbon chain)
- -OH group at each side of glycerol links the fatty acids.
- Rs stanf for long chain of hydrocarbon chain.
3 fatty acids bounded to glycerol
found in many lipids, composed of hydrocarbon chain bounded to a carbohyl group (-COOH)
Saturated fatty acid
Full of H atoms no double lines between carbons of hydrocarbon chains. Streight chain. Pakes together tightly in a griglyceride. Solid at room temp
Monounsaturated fatty acid
one double bond = between carbon atoms, which makes a kink in a chain and makes the lipid liquid at the room temp, rather than solid fat.
Polyunsaturated Fatty acid
two or more double bonds = between carbon atoms. Liquid at room temp. The most healthy
- to be stored- must be in triglyceride form
- to be used - must be broken down into glycerol and 3 fatty acids
- to be stored - as complex carbohydarte glycogen
- to be used - as glucose
- chemically made by hydrogenation - adding hydrogen to where =bonds were artificially.
- Turn oils to fats at room temp. gives creamy texture, increases shelf live,
- class of lipids that composed of four fused carbon rings.
- Two types of Steroids
- 1. Cholesterol
- 2. Hormones - testosteron and estrogen.
- Anabolic steroids - synthetic form of testosteron, increase muslce mass, strengh, stamina. mood swings, depression, dicreased sex drive
is a steroids mlecules that forms part of the outer membrane of all animal cells and acts as a precursor for many other steroids.
- 3rd class of lipids, a charged lipid composed of two fatty acids, glycerol and a phosphate group.
- Phosphate group - linkied up with glycerol's thired -OH group.
- Fatty acid tail is hydrophobic
- Phosphate gead is hydrophilic
lipid made of a single fatty acid chaked linked to a long -chain alcohol (glycerol)
- made of amino acids(like monomers) smal chain of about 10
- many amino acids linked together in a chain called polypeptide, but the cain folds up in 3-D shape tha makes a ProteinShape of a protein dictates its funtion
- 20 kinds of amino acids that are the basis for all proteins
- consists of 3 groups
- 1. Amino group (-NH2)
- 2. Carboxyl group ( -COOH)
- 3. R group "side-chain" differ that makes each amino acid differ from on another
- WHen two amino acids combine together carbaxyl to amino group the by product is water H2O
4 levles of protein structure
- Primary structure
- Secondary structure
- Tertiary strucutre
- Quaternary structure
sequence of amino acids
H binding amino acids fold together in accordian or corckscrew
fold even more into more like 3D strucutre
2 or more polypeptide chains come together to from a protein
a protein looses its shape and therefore its function
- transfer fat around the body in a fat globe sourrounded by proteins
- 2 types:
- LDLs - carry cholesterol from different areas of body to heart "bad cholesterol" larege amount of lipids in comparison to protein
- HDL's -carry cholesterol to liver from heart and other tissues "good cholesterol"
- combination of proteins and carbohydrates. Play role in immune response
- receptors on cells , some hormones.
- building blocks are nucleotides
- DNA -deoxyribonecleic acids - gives instructions on constructiong proteins. Composed of two linked chains of nucleotides. DNA packaged into unites called chromosomes.
- RNA help in making proteins
three parts: Phospage group, Sugar(deoxyrobose) and a nitrogen-containing base.