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- A substance produced by a microbe that inhibits the growth of other microbes
- Most antibiotic-producing microbes have a sporulation process
- Sensitivity depends upon:
- LPS: helps exclude large or hydrophobic molecules
- Porins: exclude large hydrophobic molecules
- Antibiotics can inhibit normal intestinal flora
- Can lead to a proliferation of other microbes
- Penicillin is a Competitve Inhibitor
- Penicillinase breaks the B-lactam ring
- Gm- are resistant to Penicillin
- Block the space (“tunnel”) through which mRNA feeds on ribosome
- Inhibits protein synthesis
3. Injury to Plasma Membrane
- Bacterial division requires elongation of plasma membrane
- Inhibitors of fatty acid synthesis; inhibits growth
4. Inhibitors of Nucleic Acid Synthesis
- DNA or RNA inhibitors
- The topoisomerase makes it easier for the helicase to go through. Quinolones stop the topoisomerase.
5. Inhibiting Synthesis of Essential Metabolites
Usually competitive inhibitors
- 3 categories. Eflux Pump. Every bacteria cell has an eflux pump. It gets in but the pump pumps it back out.
- Antibiotic degrading enzyme breaks up the antibiotic
- Antibiotic altering enzyme alters the structure of the antibiotic which makes it useless
Mechanisms of Resistance
- Enzymatic Destruction or Inactivation of drug
- Prevention of penetration to target site within microbe
- Alteration of drug target site (e.g. surface protein)
- Rapid efflux of antibiotics
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