phonetics

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Author:
akactors
ID:
38338
Filename:
phonetics
Updated:
2010-11-03 19:09:12
Tags:
kenyon IPA pronounciation
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Description:
symbols used in Kenyon pronunciation guide, used by Larry Small
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  1. /i/
    • bee, see, fleet, we, eke, teacher
    • point vowel -- high, front, unrounded, tense
  2. /I/ /Ir/
    • bit, pit, city, whittle, dreary
    • rhotic diphthong: hear, steer, really, here, pier
    • high, front, unrounded, lax
  3. /eI/ /e/
    • base, ace, abate, acer
    • chaotic, phonate, mandate, decade, rotate
    • high-mid, front, unrounded, tense
  4. /ɛ/ /ɛr/
    • bet, let, head, met, etch, bury, intend
    • rhotic diphthong: /ɛr/ – air, fair, hair, dare, there
    • Epsilon
    • low-mid, front, unrounded, lax
  5. /æ/
    • bash, had, trash, language, ass, Alabama
    • The Ash
    • Point vowel -- low, front, unrounded, lax
  6. /u/
    • (oo) boot, soon, through, chew, loot
    • ju -- ū pupil, music, few, you
    • point vowel -- high, back, rounded, tense
  7. /ʊ/
    • book, put, could, pushed, bull, cool
    • ʊər -- oor tour, lure, sure
    • high, back, rounded, lax
  8. /oʊ/ /o/
    • (oh) boat, toe, no, flow, below
    • prohibit, bodacious, Croatian, rotation
    • high-mid, back, rounded, tense
  9. /ɔ/
    • (aw) caught, paw, war, dawn, thought, wrong, haul, off
    • ɔr – corn, bored, foreign, horn, for
    • low-mid, back, rounded, tense
  10. /ɑ/
    • bar, fart, problem, smart, stop, apart, father,
    • rot, plod, car, latte, bronze, rotten, pot, not, wasp
    • point vowel -- low, back, rounded, tense
  11. /ə/
    • (uh) about, item, edible, gallop, circus
    • only appears in unstressed syllables. Allophones with the phoneme /ʌ/
    • swhwa -- mid, central, unrounded, lax
  12. /ʌ/
    • (uh) butt, cut, run, enough, mustard, must, flood, done
    • only appears in stressed syllables. Allophone with the phoneme /ə/
    • Low-mid, back-central, unrounded, lax
  13. /ɚ/
    • butter, winner, pertain, luxury, percussion, Saturday
    • always in unstressed syllables (therefore lax)
    • mid, central, rounded, lax
  14. /ɜr/
    • er ur urge, term, firm, word, heard, bird
    • burst, deter, third, Thursday, murder, worry, curse
    • only in stressed syllables and only mid that is tense
    • often confused with rhotic diphthong /εr/: hair v. her
    • mid, central, rounded, tense
  15. /aI/
    by, my, ice, light, lie, feisty, thyme, fiber
  16. /ɔI/
    (oi) boy, noise, toy, ahoy, flamboyant, coined, exploit, foil
  17. /aʊ/
    (ow) bout, out, now, bow, sour, clown, around, flower, roused
  18. Labiodental
    f - v
  19. Glottal
    • voiceless
    • /?/
    • /h/
  20. Velar
    • /k/ - /g/
    • - - /ŋ/
    • - - /w/
  21. Palatal
    • /tʃ/ /dʒ/
    • /ʃ/ /ʒ/
    • - - /j/
    • - - /r/
  22. Alveolar
    • /t/ - /d/
    • /s/ - /z/
    • - - /n/
    • - - /l/
  23. Interdental
    /θ/ - /ð/
  24. Bilabial
    • /p/ - /b/
    • - /m/
    • - /w/
  25. Resonant consonants
    • Are produced with resonance throughout the tract. All voiced.
    • Nasals: m, n, ng

    • Approximants:
    • Liquids: /l/, /r/
    • Glides: /w/, /j/ (yuh)
  26. Nonresonant consonants
    Known as?
    Types?
    Phonemes, how many, what are they?
    Obstruents

    • Plosives: /p/, /b/, /t/, /d, /k/, /g/ and glottal stop /?/
    • Frictives: /f/, /v/, /θ/, /ð/, /s/, /z/, /ʒ/, /ʃ/, /h/
    • Affricates: /tʃ/, /dʒ/
  27. /m/
    voiced, bilabial nasal
  28. /p/ /b/
    • voiceless, bilabial stop
    • voiced , bilabial stop
  29. Intraoral Pressure
    air pressure within the oral cavity during the period of closure
  30. /tʃ/
    (ch) church

    voiceless palatal affricate

    cognate pair
  31. /h/
    hat

    glottal
  32. /w/
    which

    voiced velar glide
  33. /dʒ/
    judge

    voiced palatal affricate
  34. /ŋ/
    thing

    voiced velar nasal
  35. /ʃ/
    ship, dish, ration

    voiceless palatal frictive

    cognate pair
  36. /θ/
    thin, thigh, beneath

    voiceless interdental nasal

    cognate pair
  37. /ð/
    this, thy

    voiced interdental nasal
  38. /r/
    voiced palatal liquid
  39. /j/
    yes

    voiced palatal glide
  40. /ʒ/
    (zh) vision, pleasure

    voiced palatal fricative

    cognate pair
  41. Cognates
    phonemes that differ only in voicing
  42. The release of air through the nasal cavity:
    Nasal plosion
  43. tap
    Symbol used to represent the combination of /t/ and /d/, ie: "latter"
  44. glottal stop
    ? life symbol, allophone of /t/
  45. /ʒ/ - /ʃ/
    often consider to be post-alveolar or palatoalveolar articulation
  46. The affricate manner involves a combination of the:
    stop and fricative manners.
  47. Approximants
    Act like vowels and consonants

    Glides and Liquids
  48. Retroflex or bunched
    lifting the tongue or lowering the tongue while pronouncing an "r"

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