Psychology Chapter 2

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Psychology Chapter 2
2010-09-29 13:07:06
Psychology Chapter

Psychology Chapter 2
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  1. Neuroscientists-
    study development, pharmacology, and pathology of nervous system
  2. Neuron-
    microscopically small cell that transmits information in form of nerve impulses from one part of body to another
  3. Cell Body-
    largest concentration of mass in neuron, containing nucleus of cell
  4. Dendrites-
    protuberances that reach out to receive massages, or neural impulses, from other nearby neutrons
  5. Axon-
    long protuberance extending from the neurons cell body that carries neural impulses to other neurons, muscles, or glands
  6. Myelin-
    white substance composed of fat and protein that covers, insulates, and protects about half of axons in an adult’s nervous system
  7. A loss of myelin-
    A loss of myelin is cause of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS- a neurological disorder affecting nearly 1/1000 young adults- 50% higher rate than 25 yrs ago
  8. Axon Terminals-
    branching series of bare end points where an axon ends and communicate with adjacent neurons
  9. Neurogenesis-
    term used to describe production of functioning neurons after birth
  10. Synapse-
    location at which a neural impulse is relayed from one neuron to another
  11. Synaptic Cleft-
    microscopically small gap between axon terminal and dendrites (or cell body) of another neuron
  12. Vesicles-
    incredibly small containers that hold complex chemicals cell neurotransmitters
  13. Neurotransmitters-
    chemical molecules released at synapse that, in general, will either excite or inhibit a reaction …
  14. Excitatory-
    name of process in which neurotransmitter chemicals are released from vesicles, cross synaptic cleft, and stimulate the next neuron to fire
  15. Inhibitory-
    the name of the process in which neurotransmitters flood across the synaptic cleft, bind to receptor sites, and prevent the next neuron from firing
  16. Acetylcholine (Ach)-
    found throughout nervous system, where it acts as either an excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitter, both within brain and between neurons and muscle cells
  17. Norepinephrine-
    involved in activation, vigilance, and mood regulation
  18. Dopamine-
    associated with thought and mood disturbances of some psychological disorders and impairment of movement