A&P Ch 15

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  1. Oxytocin
    Posterior pituitary gland
    • Promotes contraction of myometrium of uterus (labor)
    • Promotes relaese of milk from mammayr glands
    • Nerve impulses from hypothalamus the result of stretching of cervix or stimulation of ni0pple
    • Secretion from placenta at end of gestation-stimulus unknown
  2. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
    Posterior Pituitary gland
    • Increases water reabsorption by the kidney tubules (water returns to the blood)
    • Decreased water content in the body (alcohol nhibits secretion)
  3. Growth Hormone
    (Anterior Pituitary)
    • Increases rate of mitosis
    • Increases amino acid transport into cells
    • Increases reate of protein synthisis
    • Increases use of fats for energy
    • GHRH (hypothalamus) stimulates secretion
    • GHIH(hypothalamus) inhibits secretion
  4. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
    Anterior Pituitary Gland
    • Increases secretion of thyroxine and T3 by thyroid gland
    • TRH(hypothalamus)
  5. Adrenocorticotropic
    Anterior Pituitary Gland
    • Increases secretion of cortisol by the adrenal cortex
    • CRH(hypothalamus)
  6. Prolactin
    Anterior Pituitary Gland
    • Stimulates milk production by the mammary glands
    • PRH(hypothalamus)
    • PIH(hypothalamus)
  7. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone(FSH)
    Anterior Pituitary Gland
    • In Women:
    • Initiates growth of ova in ovarian follicles
    • Increases secretion of estrogen by follicle cells
    • In Men:
    • Initiates sperm production in the testes
    • Gonadotropic hormone (GnRH)
  8. Luteinizing Hormone(LH)(ICSH)
    Anterior Pituitary Gland
    • In women:
    • Causes ovulation
    • Causes the ruptured ovarian follicle to become the corpus luteum
    • Increases secretion of progesteron by the corpus luteum
    • In Men:
    • Increases secretion of testosterone by the interstitial cells of the testes
    • Gonadotropic hormone (GnRH)
  9. Thyroxine(T4) and Triiodothyronine(T3)
    Thyroid Gland
    • Increase energy production from all food types
    • Increase rate of protein synthesis
    • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  10. Calcitonin
    Thyroid Gland
    • Decreases the reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bones to blood
    • Hypercalcemia
  11. Parathyroid Hormone(PTH)
    Parathyroid Gland
    • Increases the reabsorption of calcium and phosphate from bone to blood
    • Increases absorption of calcuim and phosphate by the small intestine
    • Increases teh reabsorption of calcuim and the excretion of phosphate by the kidneys
    • Hypocalcemia
  12. Glucagon
    • Increases conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver
    • Increases the use of excess amino acids and of fats for energy
    • Hypoglycemia
  13. Insulin
    • Increases glucose transport into cells and the use of glucose for energy production
    • Increases the conversion of excess glucose to glycogen in the liver and muscles
    • Increases amino acid adn fatty acid transport into cells and their use in synthesis reactions
    • Hyperglycemia
  14. Norepinephrine
    Adrenal Medulla
    • Causes vasoconstriction in skin, viscera, and skeletal muscle
    • Sympathetic impulses from the hypothalamus in stress situations
  15. Epinephrine
    Adrenal Medulla
    • Increases heart rate and force of contraction
    • Dilates bronchoiles
    • Decreases peristalsis
    • Increases conversion of glycogen to glucose in the liver
    • Causes vasodilation in skeletal muscles
    • Causes vasoconstriction in skin and viscera
    • Increases use of fats for energy
    • Increases the rate of cell respiration
    • Sympathetic impulses from the hypothalamus in stress situations
  16. Aldosterone
    Adrenal Cortex
    • Increases reabsorption of sodium ions by the kidneys to the blood
    • Increases excretion of potassium ions by the kidneys in urine
    • Low blood sodium
    • Low blood volume or blood pressure
  17. Cortisol
    Adrenal Cortex
    • Increases use of fats and excess amino acids from energy
    • Decreases use of glucose for energy(except for the brain)
    • Increases conversion of glucose to glycogen in the liver
    • Anti-inflammatory effect: stabilized lysosomes and blocks the effects of histamine
    • High blood potassium level
    • ACTH during physiological stress

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A&P Ch 15
2010-09-29 17:26:07


A&P ch 15
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