The Origins of Judaism and Christianity; Roman, Hellenistic, and Greek culture
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Where in the Med. was Palestine located?
The eastern shores
What was the promise land in which the Hebrews settled?
Who did God chose to be the father of the Hebrews?
Where did Abraham travel around 1800 BC?
From Ur to Canaan.
After moving to Canaan, where did Abraham's descendents move in 1650 BC?
What did Abraham promise to Adonai in exchange for the covenant?
Obedience to his will
Why did the Hebrews move from Canaan to Egypt?
Who was the brother who was friends with the Pharoah who allowed the Jews to come to Egypt?
The Jews were originally considered royalty in Egypt, as time progressed, how did their status change?
They became slaves.
What was the phenomenal event that Moses performed when leading the Jews from Egypt, and what was the removal of the Jews called?
Parting the red sea; the Exodus
In what desert did the Jews wander for 40 years?
When the Hebrews finally settled on a form of government, what was it?
Who were the kings of the kingdom of Israel?
Saul and David
How did David become king, and what was his son's name?
He killed Goliath, and then became king. His son was Solomon.
For what is king Solomon infamous?
He spent money excessively by building temples and many other public entities.
What caused the rebellion in the north of Israel?
High taxes to pay off Solomon's debt accrual.
What were the names of the North and South sections of what was formerly Israel, and how many tribes occupied those lands?
- N: Israel; 10 tribes
- S: Judah; 2 tribes
What nation destroyed Israel?
What did the Neobabylonians request from the Judeans in return for their protection?
To where did the Babylonians move Jewish leaders?
When Cyrus the Great conquered Babylon, what did he do for the Jews?
He gave them freedom without asking for anything in return.
When granted their freedom, what did the Jews do in Judeah and by whom was Judah ruled?
They rebuilt the city, and Judah was ruled by the Persians, Greeks, and Romans.
The Roman emperor was considered a god, which royally miffed the Jews, so they held the Romans off for two months at Masada. When Masada was captured, what did the inhabitatants of Masada do, and what was done with the remaining Jews (what happened and what was it called)?
The Jews all killed eachother rather than being captured by the Romans. The Jews were spread around (much like the Carthagenians), this was called the Jewish Diaspora.
Where was Jesus born and raised?
- Born: Bethlehem
- Raised: Nazareth
What was the major principal that Jesus taught about people's relationship with God and others?
They should maintain a good relationship with God, and should love everyone equally.
Jesus had 12 followers called ___________.
Jesus was called both a Messiah and a heretic, and as a result he was sentenced to death. Who sentenced his execution, and what style of execution was performed?
Pontius Pilate ordered the crucifiction.
Jesus was buried on a ___________ and he rose on a _____________.
Who legalized Christianity and why did he/she legalize it?
Constantine had a vision the night before a large battle that caused him to put crosses (the motto of Christianity) on all of his sheilds. He won the battle, and subsequently was enamored with the Christian faith.
What type of churches were established for the Christian faith?
Why was the Council of Nicea established and what major work did it produce?
It was established to form a common Christian belief system that was embodied in the Nicene Creed.
What major Christian doings were performed by Paul?
He preached and interpreted Christianity, and convinced the head Apostle, Peter, that anyone from any religion could convert to Christianity, not just Jews.
On what governmental level were Christians executed? The local level or the national level?
They were executed on a local, as needed basis.
What major accomplishment did Theodosius do for Christianity?
He made it the official religion of the empire which helped increase its spread.
What was the structural level of the Christian faith? Use the terms Pope, Bishops, and Priests and explain their religious significance and the area upon which they held jurisdiction.
Added after the original structure was determined
- Pope - Entire Christian faith
- Bishops - Towns, 3-4 churches
- Priests - Churches
Name some characteristics of a Roman villa.
- A luxury for very few citizens
- Intricate entrance hall floors
- Well stocked kitchens
- Well maintained gardens
- Frescoes made on damp plaster
What natural disaster helped preserve events of Roman daily life with great fidelity?
The eruption of Vesuvius on Pompeii.
Describe the purpose for, and style of Greek art.
- Used for education/commemoration
- Very realistic
Name several architectural structures that were developed by the Romans that have left a lasting impression today.
Name some aspects of Rome's legal system that have made impressions on today's culture.
- Equality between socioeconomic classes in the law
- Innocence until proven guilty
- Burden of proof is on the accuser
Obviously the Greeks created the Olympic games. What was the name of the equivalent festival for women?
The Hera festival
How were athletes treated and regarded by society?
They were not paid, but they were considered heroes and were rewarded with lavish gifts.
Name three types of Greek plays and give a brief description of each one.
- Comedy - Funny, poked fun at government
- History - Historical records reenacted on a stage, usually stressed recurring patterns (Thucydides [one of the best, created recurring patterns] and Herodotus [one of the first]).
- Tragedy - A serious drama with a hero and his/her downfall
Give a brief description of the morals of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
- Socrates- Absolute standards, brought to trial for corruption, recognition of world around us
- Plato- Socrates' student, wrote Republic (utopian society)
- Aristotle - Plato's student, questioned thought, belief, knowledge, developed sci. method, taught Alexander the Great.
What four cultures combined to form Hellenistic culture?
Greek, Persian, Egyptian, Indian
What made the city of Alexandria such a lucrative trading spot?
It was on the west edge of the Nile and had more than 500,000 people.
Name some cultural attractions in Alexandria that made it such a hot destination.
- Tomb of Alexander
- Pharos Lighthouse
- Museum dedicated to Greek Muses containing:
- Art galleries
- Dining hall
Explain some of the values of Stoicism. (founded by Zeno)
- Virtuous lives in harmony with the god's rules
- Power and wealth are dangerous
Explain some of the values of Epicureanism. (founded by Epicurus)
- Gods had no interest in humans
- The only "real" things were those that could be detected by the 5 senses
- Virtuous conduct was important
- Moderation in all things was important
- Absence of pain was divine
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