Exam one review
Card Set Information
Exam one review
Elementary Psychology 31:1
What is analytic instrospection?
To describes one conscious experiences in terms of their elementary constituents, i.e. sensations, simple feelings
Who is William James (1842-1910)?
: what the mind does
Who is John Watson (1878-1958)?
: that which you can see, minalize consious and mind
reduce behavior to its most basic part for study
"the whole is different from the sum of its parts"
What is the Phi Phenomenon?
apparent movement where there is none
mind is active, putting together according to rules
mental process underlying behavior
Who is Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
Hysteria = conversioin disorder
symtoms look like neurological disorders (motor, sensory problems)
What is Freud approach to psychodynamics?
symptoms are symbolic representations
What problem did Freud faced as a hypnotist?
meets reistance from patients
Define free association
follow spontaneous thoughts, images
say what ever comes to mind no matter how trivial or embarrassing
How did Freud view and used free association
the thoughts and images are
How was Psychoanalysis born
Freud used of free association
-childhood sexual repression
What is the important theory Freud introduced?
-"childhood sexual fantasy"
Which one of Freud's theory was not accepted?
Influences on Freud
: consciousness in biological! Conservation of energy
: Levels of consciousness!
Freud Iceberg model
the study of behavior and mental process
What causes behavior
: from explanation to behavior bases on unseen causes to observation
: Localization of function within the nervous system
the belief that behavior is directed by spirits
How did the greek study psychology
systemic study of body
How did Aristotle viewed the brain
brain was bloodless
What was Hippocrates 4 humur
What did Empedocles contribute to psychology?
personality define by physical property
Hippocratic oath (medical ethics)
Who is Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
"cogito ergo sum"
pull control by body system, hydraulic
How did Descartes compare automation and human
tubes = nerves
ballons and springs = muscles and tendon
Descartes contribution to psychology
1. Descartes model
2. emphasized nerves
: sensory - strings, motor - hydraulics
3. recognized reflexes
4. recognized insticts
5. Studies behavior - genetic inheritance
6. Splite between philosophy and physiology
- orgin of rationalism vs empiricism
Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) contribution to psychology
electrical action of nerves; dismissed Descartes hydraulic theory
frog legs; bettery test
electricity - naturally physical
Fritsch and Hitzig contribution to psychology
blue - motor cortex
white - somatosensory cortex
Frans Joseph Gall contribution to psychology
Phrenology - study of the brain
-first to take brain appart by pieces
"scientific" hand reading
Name 3 modern pseudoscience
Graphology - personality from handwriting
Blood typing - personality from blood type
ESP - extera sensory perception
Wilhelm Wundt contribution to psychology
first psychology laboratory
School of thought
-what shouold psychology be about
-what should we study? thought, or mind
What can understaning lead to?
predictiona nd control
antecedent events lead to?
apply to hindsights
-works great after the facts
-"Laws of Nature"
i.e. orderly cause and effect of relationship
Name the 5 steps in scientific approach
1. Identify problem and formulate hypothesis
2. Do a study - experiment!
3. Eval the results and consult prior knowledge
4. Tell the world - communicate!
-Reasons not good enought; empirist
Steps to Identify problem
observeable and measurable
: Defining behavior in terms of the precedures used to measure it
: The extent to which the measure captures the intended meaning
: tentative statement about relaionship between two things
- testable prediction
-does not make prediction about supernatural
-can't prove hypothesis to be true
method = find example in the real world
Steps to do a Study
Studies involve measuing some aspect of a population
: a group of individuals who share certain characteristics
: a subset of teh population
-restults from sample gereralize behavior of population
-radom sample = equal
representative sample - subgroup = bias!
Define nervous energy
discharge of tension from satisfy physical needs
Freudian Defense Mechanism
Repression - ban from consciousness
Reactions Formation - express opposite desire
Denial - deny!
Introjection - incorporates demands of others as if it was your own
Displacement - transfer energy onto safe oobject
Projection - atribute "forbidden" impluses to another
Problems with Freud theory
1. Theory based on small smaple
2. too much wiggle room
3. not interested in scientific test of theory
4. power of suggestion
5. simpler explanation often possible
Ego role in defense
controls voluntary behavior and mobilizes defense
Id role in defense
instinctive, animalistic, agression and sexual impulses
superego role in defense
internalization of ethics codes of conduct
Nervous energy role in defense
physical stuff, conservation of energy
discharge oif tension from satisfying physical needs
ego lets us satisfy our wants in socially acceptable ways
Produce results or distribution different from random chance
production of sex harmones, typical behavior, different between male and female
altercation leads to different behavior
Somatic - external world
: classical system
: skeletal system (voluntary)
Autonomic - internal world
: from the inside body
: smooth muscle
"fight or flight" response
repair and nurture
What is enteric nervous system?
"brain in the gut"
2 layers, 100 million neurons
How much % of metabolism does the brain account for?
brain is only 2% of body weight
What are Gilial cells
outnumber neurons 10-1
form myelin sheath around axons
How does neuron fire?
process both electrical and chemical
How did Hodgkins and Huxley demostrate neurons?
squid "giant axon"
won Nobel Prize
Do living cells have electrical "polarity"?
inside is negative relative to outside which is positive
How can electrodes measure change inside vs outside?
difference is "potential"
difference is across membrane - "membrane potential"
What cause action potential?
Ion movement is driven by what?
2. Electrostatic forces (like charges repel, opposite attract)
all or none law
What is hemispheric laterlization?
the left and right side have own capability or specialization
What does the left hemisphere do?
verbal processing, language speech, reading, writing
What does the right hemisphere do?
nonverbal processing such as that require spatial, musical, and visual recognition task
How are the hemisphere control?
Control opposite side of body
-left hand controls and communication lies with right hemisphere
Lateralization of vision
Right visual field - left hemisphere
left visual field - right hemisphere
What enable the two hemisphere to communicate?
Enviroment have noticable effect on the brain
-especially in early life
-learning can alter/change size and/or structure of the brain and alter neural pathways
The ability of neurons to change in structure and functions
The brain can often compensate for damage that occure early in life
Why do young children have more neruons than adults?
Can't use neuron efficently yet
How do the brain adjusts to damage or lost of neurons?
Surviving neuron modify themselves structually or chemically
-Structually sprouting add dendrites and extending
-Chemcially increase volume release of neuron transmitters
Otto Lowwi experiment
-valgus nerves secretes something chemical
discover first neuron transmitter
What is know as "vagus stuff"
Neuron transmitter and receptor works liek what?
lock and key
-specific transmitors for specific receptors
both have messengers and receptors
Define primary vs secondary sexual characteristic
: born with
: apaear at puberty
How did A. Berthod experiment with endocrinology?
controls other gland
-connected to the base of hypothalamus
Name the parts of the Hindbrain
a. pons - bridge
b. medulla - vegetative function
c. cerebellum - "little brain" - balance, ballastice movement
Name parts of the Midbrain
: rectum "roof", super colliculus, inferior colliculs
Periaquaductal gray 0 pain endorphine
Substantia nigra - "black substance" high concentraion dopamine
What do sensory input go through?
Name parts of the Firebrain
Eye - thalamus - primary visual cortex
Ear - thalamus - primary auditory cortex
Great cortex - convulsion - more surface area within same space
What's the difference between humans brain and animals brain?
Human brain have more cortex and newer cortex
How are the cortex divided?
into 4 lobes
: planning, think and exacting control movement
: process auditory
: porcess visual
1. Single convergence - inside or outside or retina
2. Retinal disparity - eyes separted by some distance
1. interposition - one thing obsure another; must be far
2. size on retina
4. elevation of "horizon" effect - overhead = closer
5. motion parallax - quick = closer, slow = farther
What is perceptual set?
Surrounding perceptions set the way you reat to stimulus
ex. background effect on how you perceive
expectation affect perception
What are schemas?
Mental models of wolrd "knowledge impose order"
set you up to expect
sex differences in perceptual procesing
cultural differences in perciptual processing
What is prosopagnosia
Can't recognize perceptions meanifully
What do sensory systems have in common?
Reception, Transduction, Coding
Describe receptors cells?
Sense organs with reptors ells - e.g. eyes with rods and cones
Receptors detect forms of energy - Adequate stimulus - e.g. light
Described reception, Transduction, and Coding?
Reception - Stimulus energy absorb
Transduction - conversion to grraded potential
Coding - Frequency and Pattern of action potentials
Subtrheshold - too wealk to detect
Absolute threshold - level of stimulus you can detect half the time
Difference threshold - smallest detected in intensity
Less reactive over time if stimulus is unchanging
3 Classes of sensing systems
: external world
: Limb position and joint angle
: internal world; body temp, b/p
eye is like a camera
3 layers of the eye
1. ganglion cells
2. bipolar cells
3. rod and cones
spot of focus
Has cones almost exclusively
Rod concertrated around fovea