Exam one review

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skyy22
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Exam one review
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2010-09-29 17:06:26
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Elementary Psychology
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Elementary Psychology 31:1
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  1. What is analytic instrospection?
    To describes one conscious experiences in terms of their elementary constituents, i.e. sensations, simple feelings
  2. Who is William James (1842-1910)?
    • Functionalism: what the mind does
    • behavior adaptive
  3. Who is John Watson (1878-1958)?
    Behaviorism: that which you can see, minalize consious and mind
  4. Define reductionism?
    reduce behavior to its most basic part for study
  5. What is Gestalt psychology?
    "the whole is different from the sum of its parts"
  6. What is the Phi Phenomenon?
    • apparent movement where there is none
    • mind is active, putting together according to rules
  7. What is cognitive psychology?
    • mental process underlying behavior
    • -mental strategies
    • -plans
    • -informational processing
  8. Who is Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)
    • the unconscious
    • most influential
  9. What is humanist psychology?
    • self actualization
    • free will
    • psychological growth
  10. Define psychodynamics
    • Hysteria = conversioin disorder
    • symtoms look like neurological disorders (motor, sensory problems)
  11. What is Freud approach to psychodynamics?
    symptoms are symbolic representations
  12. What problem did Freud faced as a hypnotist?
    • meets reistance from patients
    • bad hypnotist
  13. Defind resistance
    blocking memories
  14. Define free association
    • follow spontaneous thoughts, images
    • say what ever comes to mind no matter how trivial or embarrassing
  15. How did Freud view and used free association
    • the thoughts and images are symbolic!
    • -must be interpreted!
  16. How was Psychoanalysis born
    • Freud used of free association
    • -childhood sexual repression
  17. What is the important theory Freud introduced?
    • "fantasy" theory
    • -"childhood sexual fantasy"
  18. Which one of Freud's theory was not accepted?
    "seduction" theory
  19. Influences on Freud
    • Darwin: instincts
    • Helmholtz: consciousness in biological! Conservation of energy
    • Herbert: Levels of consciousness!
  20. Freud Iceberg model
  21. Define psychology
    the study of behavior and mental process
  22. What causes behavior
    • 1: from explanation to behavior bases on unseen causes to observation
    • 2: Localization of function within the nervous system
  23. Define animism
    the belief that behavior is directed by spirits
  24. How did the greek study psychology
    systemic study of body
  25. How did Aristotle viewed the brain
    brain was bloodless
  26. What was Hippocrates 4 humur
    • blood: sanguine
    • black bile: melancholic
    • yellow bile: choleric
    • phleg: phlegmatic
  27. What did Empedocles contribute to psychology?
    • personality define by physical property
    • Hippocratic oath (medical ethics)
  28. Who is Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
    • "cogito ergo sum"
    • pull control by body system, hydraulic
  29. How did Descartes compare automation and human
    • tubes = nerves
    • ballons and springs = muscles and tendon
  30. Descartes contribution to psychology
    • 1. Descartes model
    • 2. emphasized nerves: sensory - strings, motor - hydraulics
    • 3. recognized reflexes
    • 4. recognized insticts
    • 5. Studies behavior - genetic inheritance
    • 6. Splite between philosophy and physiology
    • - orgin of rationalism vs empiricism
  31. Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) contribution to psychology
    • electrical action of nerves; dismissed Descartes hydraulic theory
    • frog legs; bettery test
    • electricity - naturally physical
  32. Fritsch and Hitzig contribution to psychology
    • map brain
    • blue - motor cortex
    • white - somatosensory cortex
  33. Frans Joseph Gall contribution to psychology
    • Phrenology - study of the brain
    • -first to take brain appart by pieces
    • Phrenological skull
    • -bump, indentation
    • "scientific" hand reading
  34. Name 3 modern pseudoscience
    • Graphology - personality from handwriting
    • Blood typing - personality from blood type
    • ESP - extera sensory perception
  35. Wilhelm Wundt contribution to psychology
    • first psychology laboratory
    • School of thought
    • -what shouold psychology be about
    • -what should we study? thought, or mind
    • Structionalism
  36. What can understaning lead to?
    predictiona nd control
  37. antecedent events lead to?
    consequences
  38. Aphorisms
    • apply to hindsights
    • -works great after the facts
    • -"Laws of Nature"
    • i.e. orderly cause and effect of relationship
  39. Name the 5 steps in scientific approach
    • 1. Identify problem and formulate hypothesis
    • 2. Do a study - experiment!
    • 3. Eval the results and consult prior knowledge
    • 4. Tell the world - communicate!
    • 5. Replicate
    • -Reasons not good enought; empirist
  40. Steps to Identify problem
    • observeable and measurable
    • Operational: Defining behavior in terms of the precedures used to measure it
    • Face Validity: The extent to which the measure captures the intended meaning
    • Hypothesis: tentative statement about relaionship between two things
    • - testable prediction
    • -does not make prediction about supernatural
    • -can't prove hypothesis to be true
    • Empiricism uses inductive method = find example in the real world
  41. Steps to do a Study
    • Studies involve measuing some aspect of a population
    • Population: a group of individuals who share certain characteristics
    • -Sample: a subset of teh population
    • -restults from sample gereralize behavior of population
    • -radom sample = equal
    • representative sample - subgroup = bias!
  42. Define nervous energy
    discharge of tension from satisfy physical needs
  43. Freudian Defense Mechanism
    • Repression - ban from consciousness
    • Reactions Formation - express opposite desire
    • Denial - deny!
    • Introjection - incorporates demands of others as if it was your own
    • Displacement - transfer energy onto safe oobject
    • Projection - atribute "forbidden" impluses to another
  44. Problems with Freud theory
    • 1. Theory based on small smaple
    • 2. too much wiggle room
    • 3. not interested in scientific test of theory
    • 4. power of suggestion
    • 5. simpler explanation often possible
  45. Ego role in defense
    controls voluntary behavior and mobilizes defense
  46. Id role in defense
    instinctive, animalistic, agression and sexual impulses
  47. superego role in defense
    internalization of ethics codes of conduct
  48. Nervous energy role in defense
    physical stuff, conservation of energy
  49. Plesure principle
    discharge oif tension from satisfying physical needs
  50. Reality Principle
    ego lets us satisfy our wants in socially acceptable ways
  51. Inferential Satistics
    Produce results or distribution different from random chance
  52. Hypothalamus
    • production of sex harmones, typical behavior, different between male and female
    • altercation leads to different behavior
  53. Somatic - external world
    • sensory input: classical system
    • motor ouput: skeletal system (voluntary)
  54. Autonomic - internal world
    • sensory input: from the inside body
    • motor output: smooth muscle
  55. Sympathic
    "fight or flight" response
  56. Parasympathic
    repair and nurture
  57. What is enteric nervous system?
    • "brain in the gut"
    • 2 layers, 100 million neurons
  58. How much % of metabolism does the brain account for?
    • 20%!
    • brain is only 2% of body weight
  59. What are Gilial cells
    • nurse cells
    • outnumber neurons 10-1
    • form myelin sheath around axons
    • waste removal
  60. How does neuron fire?
    process both electrical and chemical
  61. How did Hodgkins and Huxley demostrate neurons?
    • squid "giant axon"
    • won Nobel Prize
  62. Do living cells have electrical "polarity"?
    • yes!
    • inside is negative relative to outside which is positive
  63. How can electrodes measure change inside vs outside?
    • difference is "potential"
    • difference is across membrane - "membrane potential"
  64. What cause action potential?
    • ions moving
    • -depolarization
    • -repolarization
  65. Ion movement is driven by what?
    • 1. Diffusion
    • 2. Electrostatic forces (like charges repel, opposite attract)
    • all or none law
  66. What is hemispheric laterlization?
    the left and right side have own capability or specialization
  67. What does the left hemisphere do?
    verbal processing, language speech, reading, writing
  68. What does the right hemisphere do?
    nonverbal processing such as that require spatial, musical, and visual recognition task
  69. How are the hemisphere control?
    • Control opposite side of body
    • -left hand controls and communication lies with right hemisphere
  70. Lateralization of vision
    • Right visual field - left hemisphere
    • left visual field - right hemisphere
  71. What enable the two hemisphere to communicate?
    Corpus Callosum
  72. Plasticity
    • Enviroment have noticable effect on the brain
    • -especially in early life
    • -learning can alter/change size and/or structure of the brain and alter neural pathways
  73. The ability of neurons to change in structure and functions
    • Neural plasticity
    • The brain can often compensate for damage that occure early in life
  74. Why do young children have more neruons than adults?
    Can't use neuron efficently yet
  75. How do the brain adjusts to damage or lost of neurons?
    • Surviving neuron modify themselves structually or chemically
    • -Structually sprouting add dendrites and extending
    • -Chemcially increase volume release of neuron transmitters
  76. Otto Lowwi experiment
    • Frog heart
    • -valgus nerves secretes something chemical
    • discover first neuron transmitter
  77. What is know as "vagus stuff"
    acetylocholine
  78. Neuron transmitter and receptor works liek what?
    • lock and key
    • -specific transmitors for specific receptors
  79. Endocrine system
    • both have messengers and receptors
    • identical
  80. Define primary vs secondary sexual characteristic
    • primary: born with
    • secondary: apaear at puberty
  81. How did A. Berthod experiment with endocrinology?
    • Used rooster
    • -testorones
  82. Pituitary gland
    • controls other gland
    • -connected to the base of hypothalamus
  83. Name the parts of the Hindbrain
    • a. pons - bridge
    • b. medulla - vegetative function
    • c. cerebellum - "little brain" - balance, ballastice movement
  84. Name parts of the Midbrain
    • bottom: rectum "roof", super colliculus, inferior colliculs
    • bottom: Tegmentum
    • Periaquaductal gray 0 pain endorphine
    • Substantia nigra - "black substance" high concentraion dopamine
  85. What do sensory input go through?
    thalamus
  86. Name parts of the Firebrain
    • Eye - thalamus - primary visual cortex
    • Ear - thalamus - primary auditory cortex
    • Great cortex - convulsion - more surface area within same space
  87. What's the difference between humans brain and animals brain?
    Human brain have more cortex and newer cortex
  88. How are the cortex divided?
    • into 4 lobes
    • Frontal lobe: planning, think and exacting control movement
    • Parietal lobe: percetpion
    • Temporal lobe: process auditory
    • Occipital lobe: porcess visual
  89. Binocular cues
    • 1. Single convergence - inside or outside or retina
    • 2. Retinal disparity - eyes separted by some distance
  90. Monocular cues
    • 1. interposition - one thing obsure another; must be far
    • 2. size on retina
    • 3. perspective
    • 4. elevation of "horizon" effect - overhead = closer
    • 5. motion parallax - quick = closer, slow = farther
  91. What is perceptual set?
    • Surrounding perceptions set the way you reat to stimulus
    • ex. background effect on how you perceive
    • expectation affect perception
  92. What are schemas?
    • Mental models of wolrd "knowledge impose order"
    • set you up to expect
    • sex differences in perceptual procesing
    • cultural differences in perciptual processing
  93. What is prosopagnosia
    Can't recognize perceptions meanifully
  94. What do sensory systems have in common?
    • Receptor cells
    • Reception, Transduction, Coding
    • Threshold
    • Adaptation
  95. Describe receptors cells?
    • Sense organs with reptors ells - e.g. eyes with rods and cones
    • Receptors detect forms of energy - Adequate stimulus - e.g. light
  96. Described reception, Transduction, and Coding?
    • Reception - Stimulus energy absorb
    • Transduction - conversion to grraded potential
    • Coding - Frequency and Pattern of action potentials
  97. Describe Threshold
    • Subtrheshold - too wealk to detect
    • Absolute threshold - level of stimulus you can detect half the time
    • Difference threshold - smallest detected in intensity
  98. Describe adaptation
    Less reactive over time if stimulus is unchanging
  99. 3 Classes of sensing systems
    • a. Exteroreceptors: external world
    • b. Proprioreceptors: Limb position and joint angle
    • c. Introreceptors: internal world; body temp, b/p
  100. Johannes Kepler
    eye is like a camera
  101. 3 layers of the eye
    • 1. ganglion cells
    • 2. bipolar cells
    • 3. rod and cones
  102. Fovia
    • spot of focus
    • Has cones almost exclusively
    • Rod concertrated around fovea

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