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What does the ANS regulate?
It Regulate the Body Temperature
What does the ANS coordinate?
It Coordinates the Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Digestive, Excretory, and Reproductive Functions.
Routine Physiological adjustments to systems are made by that what?
ANS operating at the Subconscious level.
What are the Major ANS divisions?
The Sympathetic and Parasympathetic.
ANS is generally what?
It is always active, can activate or inhibit an organ, releases neurotransmitter, and causes short term changes.
What brain regions effect the ANS's regulatory activities?
The Thalamus, Hypothalamus(Headquater of autonomic function), limbic system cerebral cortex.
What types of neurons do the Autonomic nervous system and somatic nervous system have in common? And what is different about them?
Afferent and efferent Neurons. In the ANS, the afferent pathways originate in visceral receptors, and the efferent pathways connect to visceral effector organs.
ANS differs from the SNS in that what?
The Arrangement of the neurons connecting the central nervous system to the effector organs.
What are Visceral motor neurons in the CNS are called?
What do preganglionic do what?
Send axons (Preganglionic fibers) to synapse on ganglionic neurons.
Where are the Ganlionic neurons' cell bodies are located?
Located in autonomic ganglia outside the CNS.
Visceral efferents from the thoracic and lumbar segments form the?
Thoracolumbar (sympathetic) division also known as the "fight or flight" system of the ANS.
What does the Sympathetic Division?
It stimulates tissue metabolism, increase alertness, and prepares the body to deal with emergencies.
Visceral efferent leaving the brain stem and sacral segments form the?
Craniosacral (Parasympathetic) division .
The Craniosacral Division generally does what?
It conserves energy and promote sedentary activities.
Both divisions affect target organs via?
Membrane receptors determine whether the response will be what?
Stimulatory or inhibitory
Neurotransmitter effects are as follows?
- 1. All Preganglionic terminals release ACH and are excitatory
- 2. All postganglionic parasympathetic terminals release ACh and effects may be excitatory or inhibitory
- 3. Most postganglionic sympathetic terminals release norepinephrine Ne and effects are usually excitatory.
What is Dual Innervation?
It is when organs (Expect sweat glands) receive instruction from both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers.
What does the Sympathetic Division consist of?
It Consist of preganglionic neurons between spinal cord segments T1 and L2; ganglionic neurons in ganglia near the vertebral column; and specialized neurons within the adrenal gland.
Sympathetic receptors include what two things?
Alpha and Beta Receptors.
Sympathetic chains consist of what?
They consist of about 3 cervical, 11-12 thoracic, 2-5 lumbar, and 4-5 sacral ganglia, and 1 coccygeal sympathetic ganglion in each sympathetic chain.
Every Spinal Nerve has what?*
Has a gray ramus carries sympathetic postganglionic fibers.
Summarize the Sympathetic Chains?
- 1. Only thoracic and superior lumbar ganglia receive preganglionic fibers by way of the white rami.
- 2. The Cervical, inferior lumbar and sacral chain ganglia receive preganglionic innervation from collateral fivers of sympathetic neurons
- 3. Every Spinal nerve receives a gray ramus from a ganglion of the sympathetic chain.
What is one sign of Sympathetic stimulation?
An increase in cardiovascular and respiratory activities
What doe Celiac Ganglion Innervate?
It innervates the stomach, live, pancreas, and spleeen
What does the Superior Mesentreric Ganglion Innervate?
It innervates the small intestine and initial segments of the large intestine.
What the does Inferior Mesenteric ganglion innervate?
It innervates the kidney, bladder, sex organs, and terminal portions of the large intestine.
Some preganglionic fibers do not synapse as they pass through both the sympathetic chain and collateral ganglia, So they do what?
They enter one of the adrenal glands and synapse on a modified neurons within the Adrenal Medulla.
Sympathetic Division has how man Adrenal Medullae?
In a crisis, the entire Sympathetic Division responds which is called?
What are the effects of Sympathetic Activation?
Increase alertness, a feeling of energy and euphoria, increase cardiovascular and respiratory activity, general elevation in muscle tone, and mobilization of energy reserves.
What are the two distinctive results of stimulation of the sympathetic division?
- 1. The release of norepinephrine (or in some cases acetylochloine) at neuroeffector junctions.
- 2. The Secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine into the general circulation.
What are Alpha receptors?
Respond to a stimulation by depolarizing the membrane
What are beta receptors?
Respond to stimulation by changing metabolic activity of cells.
Most postganglionic fibers release __________, but a few release ___________.
The Sympathetic Division has the following Characteristics:
- 1. Two segmentally arranged sympathetic chains lateral to the vertebral column, three collateral ganglia anterior to the vertabral column, and to adrenal medullae
- 2. preganglionic fibers are relatively short, except for those of the adrenal medullae, while postganglionic fiber are quite long
- 3. Extensive divergence typically occurs, with a single preganglionic fiber release ACh while most postganglionic fiber release NE.
- 4. Effectore response depends on the nature and activity of the receptor
What Parasympathetic division consists of:
- 1. preganglionic neurons in the brain stem and in sacral segments of the spinal cord.
- 2. Ganglionic neurons in peripheral ganglia located within or immediately next to target organs.
Cranial Nerves that carry parasympathetic components are?
III Oculomotor, VII Facial, IX Glossopharyngeal, X Vagus
Parasympathetic Division generally promotes what?
It Generally promotes sedentary activities "Rest and repose", conserve energy.
Parasympathetic fibers in the Oculomotor, facial and glossopharyneal nerves help __________ in the head and they synapse in that?
Control Visceral structure; ciliary, pterygopalatine, submadibular, and otic ganglia.
Fibers in the vagus nerve supply preganglionic parasympathetic innervation to intramural ganglia within structures in the?
Thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity.
Preganglionic fibers leaving the sacral segments form ________ innervate intramural ganglia in the kidney, bladder, latter parts of the large intestine, and sex organs.
The effects produced by the parasympathetic division include:
- 1. Constriction
- 2. Digestive gland secretion
- 3. Hormone secretion for nutrient absorption
- 4. Increased digestive tract activity
- 5. Defecation activities
- 6. Urination activities
- 7. Respiratory passageway constriction
- 8. Reduced heart rate
- 9. Pupillary constriction
- 10. Sexual arousal
Effects produced by the parasympathetic have general functions center on what?
Relation, food processing, and energy absorption.
What do all parasympathetic preganglinoic and postganglionic fibers release?
They release ACh at synapses and neuroeffectors junctions.
Why are effects are short-lived?
Because of the actions of enzymes at the postynaptic membrane and in the surrounding tissues.
How many different types of ACh receptors are found in postsynaptic membranes?
What are Nicotine Receptors?
They are located on ganglion cells of both division of the ANS and the neuromuscular junctions.
What happens to ACh when exposes to Nicotine Receptors?
It causes excitation by opening membrane channels
What are Muscarinic Receptor?
They are located at neuroeffector junctions in the parasympathetic division and those cholinergic neuroeffector junctions in the sympathetic division.
Stimulation of mascarinic receptors produces a _________ effect that does stimulation of nicotinic receptors.
The Pasasympathetic division has the following characteristics:
- 1. It includes visceral motor nuclei associated with cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X and sacral segments S2-S4.
- 2. Ganglionic neurons are located in terminal or intramural ganglia near or within target organ, respectively.
- 3. It innervates areas serviced by cranial nerves and organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
- 4. All parasympathetic neurons are cholinergic
- 5. Effects are usually brief and restricted to specific sites.
Organs with ________ receive instructions from both divisions.
In body cavities the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves intermingle to form a series of characteristic nerve plexuses which include:
The cardiac, pulmonary, esophageal, celiac, inferior mesenteric, and hypogastric plexuses.
Axons from the ganglionic neurons are called postganglionic fibers why?
Because they carry impulses away from the ganglion.