histo cardio development

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histo cardio development
2010-10-01 18:25:08
sgu histo cardio development

development of cardiovascular system
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  1. blood islands
    • blood cells initially develop
    • aggregates of splanic mesodermal cells
  2. vascular endothelium
    formed from peripheral cells of blood islands joining together
  3. hemoblasts
    • central cells of blood islands
    • differentiate into blood cells
  4. blood islands form
    blood vessels from outgrowths that link up with neighboring islands
  5. mesenchyme around blood islands
    differentiates inot connective tissue and muscular layer of the blood vessels
  6. cardiogenic plates
    left and right develop from splanic mesoderm adjacent to pericardial cavity
  7. vesicles in cardiogenic plates
    unite to form a hollow tube = cardiac tuble
  8. cardiac tube is formed from
    vesicles in cardiac plates
  9. cardiac tubes fuse when
    • during head and lateral folding
    • left and right cardiac tubes fuse together to become ventral to the foregut
  10. septum transversum
    mesoderm caudal to cardiac tube
  11. what is the adult reminant of the septum transversum
  12. dorsal mesocardium
    developing heart tube bulges into the pericardial cavity and remain attached to the dorsal side of the pericardial cavity by a fold of mesodermal tissue (dorsal mesocardium)
  13. cardiac tube develops
    • bulbous
    • ventricle
    • atrium
  14. what develops cranially and caudally
    • truncus arteriosus
    • sinus horn
  15. cardiac tube differentiates into
    • endocardium
    • myocradium
    • epicardium
  16. cardiogenic area
    in splanic mesoderm
  17. primitive tubes
    • neural tube
    • fore gut
    • endocardial tube (pericardial cavity wraps around)
  18. heart is formed from
    • 1. transverse arteriosus
    • 2. bulbous cordis
    • 3. ventricles
    • 4. primitive atrium
    • 5. sinuse venosus
  19. cardiac tube further growth
    • spirals
    • bulbous and ventricle become U shaped
  20. bulboventriclar loop
    drops farther caudal and ventral
  21. artium adn sinus
    shift cranial direction until both lie dorsal and cranial to the rest
  22. atrium growth
    grow rapidly in lateral direction and forms a sacculation on each side which forshadow the future right and left atrium respectively
  23. sinus venosus
    becomes incorporated into right side of common atrium
  24. buloventricle loop
    • increases in size
    • makes sinlge chamber
    • ventricle develops median longitudinal groove that indicates partitioning of the ventricle
  25. dorsal and ventral atrioventricular cushions
    • 2 endocardial cushions
    • develop at common atrioventricular canal
  26. septum intermedium
    • endocardial cushions meet and fuse creates -
    • left and right atrioventricular orifices
  27. septum primum - septum of atrium
    • sickel shaped membrane grows down from the middorsal wall of the atrium
    • expands ventrally towards the growing septum intermedium
  28. foramen primum
    • diminishing gap between septum primum and the septum intermedium
    • will close when the 2 fuse together
  29. foramen secundum
    numerus tiny perforations develop into septum primum to form this orifice
  30. septum secundum
    • develops on right side of septum primum
    • thicker and more rigid
    • does not grow completely = foramen ovale
  31. foramen ovale
    permits blood to pass from the right atrium between 2 interatrial septum and into the left atrium via the foramen secundum
  32. right atrium develops from
    primitive atrium and sinus horns
  33. right horn of sinus venosus
    becomes completely incorporated and open into the right atrium where cranial and caudal vena cava opens
  34. sinus venarum
    in mature animal where cranial and caudal vena cava open
  35. left horn of sinus venosus
    forms coronary sinus
  36. original embyronic atrium is characterized by the development of
    pectinate mucsles of right auricle
  37. primitive atrium
    develops left atrium mainly
  38. single venous vessel (primitive pulmonary vein)
    • develops as an outgrowth of the left atrial wall
    • later connects with veins of the developing lung buds
  39. pulmonary vein and its branches becoming incorpated into the left atrium
    forming the large smooth walled part of the adult left atrium
  40. left atrium develops
    pectinate muscles and left auricle
  41. partitioning of truncus arteriosus and bulbus cordis
    • 2 prominent longitudinal thickenings develop in endocardial lining of the bulbus and truncus
    • these fuse to create a septum that dvide the truncus and bulbus into an aortic and pulmonary trunk
  42. aorticopulmonary or spiral septum
    • partition between truncus arteriosus and bulbus cordis
    • septum spirals so that base of pulmonary trunk opens off the right of the ventricle while the base of the aorta opens off the left ventricle
  43. conus arteriosus
    • distal part of bulbus in the right ventricle
    • area around the origin of the pulmonary artery in the right ventricle
  44. muscular interventricular septum
    • develops with enlargement fo the halve of the ventricles
    • median partition that grows as a crescent plate
    • creates interventricular foramen
  45. interventricular foramen
    incomplete partition and the communication between the 2 ventricles b/c of the muscular interventricular septum
  46. ventral endocardial cushion
    • from septum intermedium
    • this outgrowth closes interventricular foramen
    • grows toward muscular interventricular septum
  47. membraneous interventricular septum
    • from ventral endocardial cushion
    • fuses with muscular interventricular septum as well as the spiral septum to complete the partition
  48. development of the left and right atrioventricular valves
    • develop around the margin of the artioventricular orifices as localized mesenchymal thickening
    • become hollowed out to form endocardia cusps
  49. endocardial cusps
    • 3 on right
    • 2 on left
    • connect to papillary muscles by chorde tendinae
  50. semilunar valves
    • develop as small tubercles at the pulmonary and aortic channel
    • will hollow out at upper surface
  51. development of conducting system
    • develops by differentiation of the myocardial tissue
    • modified cardiac tissue
    • no nerves in heart
  52. truncus arteriosus forms
    • aorta
    • pulmonary artery
  53. bulbus cordis forms
    • aorta
    • pulmonary artery
    • conus arerious
    • and part of the right ventricle
  54. primitive ventricle
    left and right ventricle
  55. primitve atrium
    left and right atrium
  56. sinus venosus -
    right horn forms
    sinus venerum of right atrium
  57. sinus venosus -
    left horn forms
    coronary sinus
  58. aorta is from
    • truncus arteriosus
    • bulbus cordis
  59. pulmonary artery is from
    • truncus arteriosus
    • bulbus cordis
  60. conus areriosus from
    bulbus cordis
  61. left ventricle from
    primitive ventricle
  62. right ventricle from
    • primitive ventricle
    • bulbus cordis
  63. left atrium from
    primitive atrium
  64. right atrium from
    • primitve atrium
    • sinus venosus
  65. cononary sinus from
    left horn of sinus venosus
  66. sinus venerum fo right atrium from
    right horn sinus venosus
  67. ectopic cordis
    • heart not in normal position
    • common in cattle
  68. transposition of great vessels
    • spiral does not spiral
    • aorta on right venticle
    • pulmonary trunk on left venticle
  69. dextoraorta
    aorta opens from both ventricles
  70. tetrology of the fallot
    • 1. venticle septal defect
    • 2. pulmonary stenosis
    • 3. dextroaorta
    • 4. ventricular hypertrophy
  71. eisenmenger complex
    tetrology of fallot - pulmonary stenosis
  72. pulmonary stenosis
    • constrictions located at both valvualer and infundibular levels
    • poststenotic dilations of pulmonary trunk
    • right ventricle dilation and hypertropy
  73. aortic stenosis
    • due to formation of fibrous subaortic ring
    • poststenotic dilation of the ascentding aorta
    • left venticle dilatation and hypertropy
    • left atrial dilation
  74. interventriclular septal defect
    • primary hypertropy of left ventricles
    • right ventricle dialtion and hypertropy
  75. interatial septal defect
    • enlarged foramen secundum and foramen ovale
    • dilation and hypertropy of right ventricle, right atrium and left atrium
  76. tetrology of fallot
    • dextroaota
    • pulmonary stenosis
    • inverentricular septal defect
    • dilation and hypertrophy of right ventricle
  77. Eisenmenger complex
    • dextroaorta
    • interventricular septal defect
    • right ventricle dilation and hypertrophy
  78. transposition of great vessels
    • aorta from right, pulmonary trunk from left ventricle
    • need shunts to survive
    • interatrial septal defect
    • PDA
    • Interventricular septal defect
  79. persistent truncus arteriosus
    • both ventricles are the same size
    • oxygen and deoxygenated blood mix b/c aorta and pulmonary trunk = 1
  80. early embryonic circulation system
    • tubular heart continuous with aortic artches
    • vitelline arteries
    • umbilical arteries
    • umbilical and cardinal veins
  81. tubular heart
    continusous with aortic arch that empty into paired dorsal aortae
  82. vitelline arteries
    • pair
    • from forsal aortae to the yold sac
    • derived from the extra-embryonic mesoderm
  83. unbilical arteries
    • pair
    • from dorsal aortae to allantois
    • derived from the extraembryonic mesoderm
  84. 3 pairs of venous channel
    • drain into the sinus venosus
    • vitelline(omphalomesenteric)
    • umbilical and cardinal veins
  85. aortic arches
    • pharyngeal arches each receives its own cranial nerve and its own artery
    • arrive from aortic sac (most cranial part of the truncus arteriosus
    • arches join the right and left dorsal aortae
    • six pairs of aortic arches develop but not all present at any one time
  86. 1st, 2nd and 5th aortic arch
    no derivatives
  87. 3rd aortic arch
    common and internal carotid artery
  88. 4th aortic arch
    • right: right subclavian
    • left: continues as desending aorta
  89. 6th aortic arch
    • right and left pulmonary artery
    • stays connected to aorta as ductuc arteriosus
  90. abnormalities of aortic arch
    • PDA - common in dogs "washing machine"
    • persistant right aortic arch - vascular ring anomalies (ring around esophagus b/c of ductus (ligamentum) arteriosus)
  91. branches of the dorsal aorta
    • dorsal intersgmental arteries
    • lateral aortic branches
    • ventral aortic branches
  92. dorsal intersegmental arteries
    • branch of the dorsal aorta
    • arise bilaterally between the somites and form interocstal and lumbar arteries
  93. lateral aortic branches
    • branch of dorsal aorta
    • supply the derivatives of the intermediate mesoderm and form renal, testicular or ovarian arteries
  94. ventral aortic branches
    • branches of dorsal aorta
    • supply splanic mesodermal and endodermal tissues of the thoracic and abdominal cavities
    • develop into broncho-esophageal and celiac and caudal mesenteric arteries
  95. Vitelline Artery
    • left: regresses
    • right: persists and form cranial mesenteric artery
  96. umbilical artery
    • proximal part contributes to the external and internal iliac arteries
    • distal part forms the round ligament of the urinary bladder
  97. Vitelline vein
    • proximal: left regresses
    • right - hepatic segment of caudal vena cava
    • middle: hepatic sinusoids and hepatic segment of caudal vena cavae
    • distal segment: portal venosus system (blood intestine-liver-heart)
  98. umbilical vein
    round ligament of liver
  99. cardial vein
    caudal and cranial join the common caridnal vein which enters the sinus venosus
  100. cranial cardial vein
    • connect by a connecting channel which develops into brachiocephalic trunk
    • caudal part - regresses
    • cranial part and common cardinal develop into cranial vena cava
  101. Caudal cardinal vein
    • regresses
    • replaced by subcardinal and supracardinal veins
  102. subcardinal vein
    join to form subcardinal sinus which develops inot the mainsegment of caudal vena cava
  103. subcardinal sinus
    develops into main segement of caudal vena cava
  104. caudal vena cava
    joins right vitelline vein which develops into the hepatic segment of caudal vena cava and opens into sinus venosus
  105. supracardinal vein
    • develops on both sides into left and right azygous vein
    • horse and dog only right persists and in pig only left persist
    • ruminants have both
  106. changes after birth
    • foramen ovale - fossa ovalis
    • ductus venosus - ligamentum venosus
    • ductus arteriosus - ligamentum arteriosus
    • umbilical vein - round ligament of liver
    • umblical artery:
    • proximal part - external in internal iliac arteries
    • distal part - round ligament of bladder
  107. fetal circulation
    • O2 enters though umbilical vein
    • most bypasses live by ductus venosus into the the caudal vena cava
    • after pass liver O2 blood mixes with deoxygenated blood returning from the hind part of body
    • enters right atrium
    • most passes into left artium through foramen ovale some stays in right atrium
    • blood enters left venticle and aorta and supplies O2 blood to cranial part of body
    • deO2 retuning from cranial vena cava flows through right venticle into the pulomnary trunk (most passes through ductus arteriosus and mixes with O2 blood of aorta and supplies to the abdominal and lowers part of body
    • after aorta blood flows toward the placent by the way of 2 umbilical arteries
  108. mesenchymal cells differenitate into
    • fibroblasts
    • chondroblasts
    • osteoblast
    • myoblast
    • adipocytes
    • endothelial cells (vessels)
    • mast cells
  109. derivatives of mesoderm
    • paraxial mesoderm
    • intermediate mesoderm
    • lateral mesoderm (somatic and splanchnic)
  110. somites divided into
    • sclerotomes (vertebrae)
    • mytomes (muscle)
    • dermatomes (corium and subcutis of the skin)
  111. skeletal system
    • histogenesis od bone (intramembraneous and intrachondrial)
    • appendicular skeleton
    • vertbral column, ribs, sternum
    • skull - desmocranium and viserocranium
  112. formation of bone ossification
    • bone develops form several sites
    • -sclerotome: vertebrae and ribs
    • -somatic mesoderm: appendicular skeleton
    • -pharyngeal arch mesoderm: several bones of the face
    • - neural crest cells: contribute to several bones of face
  113. intramembraneous ossification
    • bone is first laid down in aggregagtes of mesenchymal cells from which bone is directly formed
    • osteocyte - mature cells
    • osteoid - secretion of matrix
    • osteoclast - break down
    • osteoblast - formed from mesenchymal
    • mineralization
  114. endochondral ossification
    • bones are first formed as hyaline cartilage models later replaced by bone tissue
    • 1st cartilage model (hyaline) - bone
    • primary center of ossification (diaphyseal) starts in center of bone and moves outward and up to the epiphysis
    • compact bone formed on periphery
    • erosion of cartilage - primary site of ossification
    • increased blood vessels and brings in more mesenchymal cells for differentiation into osteoblasts
  115. diaphyseal
    primary center of ossification
  116. seconday centers of ossification
    • long bones
    • epipyseal (secondary) centers of ossification appear in both epiphyses
    • process of ossifcation is the same as in primary centers
  117. epiphyseal plate
    cartilage plate located between the diaphyseal and epipyseal centers of ossification
  118. ossification of epiphyseal plate
    when growth in length ceases in puberty, epiphyseal plate becomes ossified
  119. developmental abnormalities
    • chondrodystrophy: abnormal inerstitial growth of cartilage
    • premature cessation of growth plates leads to shortening of bones, especially limbs, base of skull and vertebral column
    • joint and bone problems
  120. vertebral column: migration of sclerotome
    • from paraxial mesoderm
    • vertebrae develop from medial portion of somite
    • sclerotome- proliferate and migrate medially to surround the neural tube and the notochord to form a condensed mesenchyme model of the vertebra
  121. relationship of sclerotomes with other structures and intersemental arrangement
    • somites and spinal nerves have a segmental arrangement
    • arteries lie in an intermediate location (intersegmental)
    • each sclerotome split into cranial and caudal portions
    • caudal portion of one sclerotome unites with the cranial portion of the next
  122. centers of ossifiation
    • primary centers of ossification:one in the body and one in each neural arch
    • seconday centers of ossification: develop postnatally
  123. ossifcation starts
    28 days
  124. determine preganacy by radiograph
    42 days so that fetus is not damaged by the x-rays
  125. sternum and ribs
    arise from segmental sclerotome derived from condesation of mesenchymal cells lateral to the thoracic vertebrae, located between the developing myotomes
  126. sternum
    • develops independently from somatic mesoderm.
    • 2 lateral sternal bands formed on either side of the midline
    • later fuse to form cartilaginous model of sternabrae
    • sternebrae ossify to form a common unpaired body of the sternum which joins the distal end of the ribs
  127. intervertebral disc
    • annulum fibrosus develops from the mesenchyme of the sclerotome
    • nuclesus pulposus develops from the notochord
  128. annulus fibrosus
    from mesenchyme of the sclerotome
  129. nucleus pulposus
    from the notochord
  130. muscular system: develops from mesoderm
    • skeletal muscle - paraxial meosderm
    • cardiac and smooth - splanic mesoderm
    • *exception* muscles of iris - originate from optic cup ectoderm
  131. skeletal muscle
    from paraxial mesoderm
  132. Cardiac and Smooth muscle
    • from splanic mesoderm(gut and respiratory tract)
    • from local mesoderm (blood vessels, arrector pili muscles)
  133. muscles of iris
    sphincter and dilator pupillae originate from optic cup ectoderm
  134. skeletal muscle
    • derived from paraxial mesoderm (myotomes of somites and somitomeres)
    • Somites: muscles of anial skeletaon, body wall and limbs
    • somitomeres: muscles of the head
    • mesodermal cels of the myotomes
    • differentiate into single nucleated myoblasts that fuse to form multinucleated muscle cells
  135. somites
    muscle of the axial skeletaon, body wall and limbs
  136. somitomeres
    muscles of the head
  137. muscles of the body
    myogenic cells are separated into a smaller dorsal protion (epimere) and a larger ventral portion (hyopmere)
  138. epimeres (1)
    • smaller dorsal portion of myogenic cells
    • innervated by dorsal rami of spinal nerves
    • give rise to muscles dorsal of the transverse processes of the vertebrae (extensors of vertebral column)
    • epaxial muscles
  139. Hypomeres (2)
    • innervated by ventral rami of spinal nerves
    • lateral and ventral flexors of thoracic and abdominal musculature
    • hypaxial muscles
  140. limb morphogensis
    • limb field: an area of somatopleure (somatic mesoderm and ectoderm) committed to forming a limb
    • limb bud: localization of mesoderm covered by ectoder
  141. limb field
    area of somatopleure committed to forming a limb bud
  142. limb bud
    • localized proliferation of mesoderm
    • covered by ectoderm
  143. limb formation
    • limbs grom outside from body wall somatopleure as limb buds
    • bond cartilage and related connective tissue arise from somatic mesoderm of the limb bud
    • dermis and skeletal muscles come from dermatome and myotome migrates into the lining
  144. dermatome and myotome
    when they migrate they take their nerves also and as they travel to make the limb they also make the brachial plexus
  145. development of basic limb structure
    • limb bud elongates, it becomes flattened in the dorsoventral plane of the embryo
    • distal part is paddle shaped
    • later - constriction divides the cylindrical proximal region into 2 segments
    • forelimb - 2 segements represent the primordia of the arm and forearm, and in the hind limb the thigh and leg
  146. limb morhogenesis
    • regions of the limb develop in proximo-distal order
    • distal end of the limb (footplate) is flattened like a paddle
    • along its outer margin ectoderm thickens to form an apical ridge (AER)
  147. apical ridge (AER)
    • outer margin of distal end
    • ectoderm thickens
  148. malformations of limbs
    • Amelia
    • meromelia
    • micromelia
    • bimelia
    • polydactyly
  149. Amelia
    complete absecence of a limb
  150. meromelia
    abscense of one or more parts of a limb
  151. micromelia
    • reduced size of limb
    • all parts of the limb are present but it is significantly smaller in size
  152. bimelia
    partial or complete duplication of one limb
  153. polydactyly
    • one or more extra digits
    • genetic defect of cattle, sheep, pigs, horses, cats
  154. development of the skull
    • neurocranium: (enclose brain) chondrocranium and desmocranium
    • viscerocranium: face and jaw bones
  155. neurocranium: chondrocranium
    • base of cranium
    • develops by endochondral ossfication
    • derived from occipital somites(occipital bone) and neural crest cells (sphenoid, ethimoid, and temporal (petrous part)
    • O S E T
  156. occipital somites form which bone
    • occipital bone in chondrocranium of neurocranium
    • O
  157. neural crest cells in Chondrocranium form which bones
    • sphenoid, ethmoid, and temporal (petrous part)
    • S E T
  158. petrous part of temporal bone
    strongest bone of the body
  159. neurocranium: desmocranium
    • vault of cranium
    • develops by intramembraeous ossification
    • derived from neural crest cells surrounding the developing brain to form meninges
    • Bones: frontal, parietal, interparietal, temporal(sqaumous part)
    • F P I T
  160. neural crest cells surrounding the meninges in desomcranium form which bones
    • frontal, parietal, interparietal, temporal (squamous part)
    • F Parietal I T
  161. viscerocranium
    • face and jaw
    • derived from the mesenchyme of the pharyngeal arches and develop by intramembraneous ossification
    • Bones - lacrimal, nasal, incisive, maxilla, vomer, palatine, pterygoid, zygomatic, mandible and temporal(tympanic part)
  162. Viscerocranium face and jaw bones of skull
    • lacrimal, nasal, incisive, maxilla, vomer, palatine, pterygoid, zygomatic, mandible, and temporal (tympanic part)
    • L N I M Pterygoid Palatine Z M T
  163. joint of skull
    suture joints - immovable
  164. endochondral ossification
    • chondrocranium - bones of base of skull
    • Sphenoid, Ethmoid, Occipital, and Temporal
  165. intramembranous ossification
    • Desmocranium: Frontal, parietal, interparietal, temporal (squamous part)
    • Viscerocranium: Lacrimal, nasal, incisive, mailla, vomer, palatine, pterygoid, zygomaticc, mandible, temporal (tempanic part)