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what is authority?
one who writes rules, role, how to act (author)
what is power?
one who influences and enforces rules
people living in groups recognize the need for government
what system of government existed before democracy? how did this change?
Authoritarian rulers, Monarchy
rise of democratic ideas, people who had something to lose wanted laws
where did democracy begin?
ancient greece/ rome
what did the greeks use to (investigate, study, question) things?
logic and reasoning
what were the 2 assumptions greeks made about the universe? how were they a big change?
1. the universe is put together in an orderly way, has absolute and unchanging laws
2. people can understand them using logic+reasoning
people used to use tradition and superstition, gods
- father of philosophy,
- made socratic method(question + answers)
- question beleifs
world would be perfect with philosopher kings
what were the greek natural laws and how'd they relate to government
predictable patterns which provided explanations of how world, universe and society work
describe direct democracy
qualified people rule, 1 qualified person = 1 vote, majority rules
what are the 3 branches of gov, what they do, and what they are in the u.s.
- 1. legislative - make laws - congress
- 2. executive - enforce laws - presidenrt
- 3. judicial - interpret laws - supreme court
what is a republic?
indirect democracy, "qualified people" elect people to vote for them
when do we use indirect/direct democracy?
direct: locally, effects people directly, locals know best
indirect: state and federal, Reps. learn about issues so we don't have to.
how did the romans get such a big empire?
tolerance of other cultures, laws apply to all people equally
what were ancient rome's laws based on?
reason and justice, unified culture
what was an important change regarding roman laws?
they were written down, no more "whim"
what are the 4 principles of roman laws?
- 1. equal treatment under law
- 2. innocent until proven guilty
- 3. burden of proof on accuser not accused
- 4. any unfair laws can be set aside
what does democracy mean? explain.
Demos(people) - Kratos(rule) = Qualified people rule
what is a democratic reform?
more people become "qualified"
what are 3 other institutions of thought that relate to gov. types?
1. monarchy- ruled by 1 person, king
2. aristocracy- ruled by the rich
3. oligarchy- ruled by a few powerful people