social science section 1
Card Set Information
social science section 1
social science section
social science section 1
1. How do historians often describe the 1920s in America?
the era of prosperity (USSRG:7,1,1)
2. How was wealth in the United States in the 1920s distributed?
very unevenly (USSRG:7,1,1)
3. What percentage of Americans owned flushable indoor toilets in 1920?
4. Which group first attained modern standards of living during the 1920s?
the middle class (USSRG:7,1,2)
5. What effect did increased consumer demand in the 1920s United States have on raw materials?
increased their production (USSRG:7,2,0)
6. What percentage of American households had central heating in 1930?
7. Which communication device was first made available to American consumers in the 1920s?
8. What percentage of American families owned a radio by the end of the 1920s?
9. How many automobiles were in use in the United States in 1929?
10. How many people were there for every car in the United States in 1929?
11. What TWO aspects of American life were affected by the consumerism of the 1920s?
culture and values (8,1,1)
12. Who invented the assembly line?
Henry Ford (USSRG:7,2,0)
13. What effect did the assembly line have on the automobile industry?
decreased the cost of production (USSRG:7,2,0)
14. For which automobile company did Alfred P. Sloan work?
General Motors (USSRG:7,2,0)
15. What THREE strategies did Alfred P. Sloan use to make automobiles more attractive to consumers?
new designs, colors, and innovations (such as windshield wipers and self starters) (USSRG:7,2,0)
16. What option did consumer credit provide to customers when making purchases?
“buy now, pay later” (USSRG:7,2,0)
17. Which TWO new types of businesses arose from increasing consumer demand in the 1920s?
gas stations and motels (USSRG:8,1,0)
18. Who was the primary consumer of the middle class family in the 1920s?
the wife (USSRG:8,1,1)
19. Which racial group developed a new sense of community in the United States during the 1920s?
African Americans (USSRG:8,1,1)
20. three primarily African American urban neighborhoods in the 1920s
Harlem, Southside Chicago, and Central Avenue in Los Angeles (USSRG:8,1,1)
21. lovers’ lanes
areas where young couples interacted in the privacy of their cars (USSRG:8,1,1)
22. Which American groups saw the 1920s as a corruption of traditional values?
farmers and rural citizens (USSRG:8,1,1)
23. What good did speakeasies sell illegally?
24. What economic phenomenon did the end of World War I cause in the United States?
25. Which TWO years of the 1920s saw mass unemployment in the United States?
1921 and 1922 (USSRG:8,1,2)
26. What legal measures helped lift American employment figures in the 1920s?
the Immigration Acts of 1921 and 1924 (USSRG:8,1,2)
27. What was the estimated average unemployment rate between 1923 and 1929 in the United States?
28. By what percentage did non‐agricultural real wages in the United States increase by between 1919 and 1929?
29. Which group of American workers benefited most from the wage increases of the 1920s?
urban workers (USSRG:8,2,0)
30. When did American women first become part of the industrial work force?
the early 19th Century (USSRG:8,2,1)
31. Which historical event increased women’s participation in the labor force?
World War I (USSRG:8,2,1)
32. What types of jobs did most American women have in World War I?
white collar jobs (USSRG:8,2,1)
33. What did unions advocate during the 1920s in order to make women superfluous in the workplace?
a “family wage” for men (USSRG:8,2,1)
34. How did union membership change in the United States during the 1920s?
It fell drastically. (USSRG:8,2,2)
35. What proportion of the American civilian labor force were union members at the beginning of the 1920s?
over 12% (USSRG:8,2,2)
36. What proportion of the American civilian labor force were union members at the end of the 1920s?
under 8% (USSRG:8,2,2)
37. yellow dog contract
a promise made by an employee not to join a union (USSRG:8,2,2)
38. Against which TWO collective bargaining practices did courts often grant injunctions in the 1920s?
boycotts and pickets (USSRG:8,2,2)
39. Where was Eastman Kodak located?
Rochester, NY (USSRG:8,2,2)
40. How did Eastman Kodak dissuade its employees from joining unions?
offered welfare programs (USSRG:8,2,2)
41. the most powerful American union during the 1920s
the American Federation of Labor (USSRG:8,2,2)
42. How did American workers of the 1920s hope to improve their situations instead of through unions?
43. How did high school graduation rates change in the United States during the 1920s?
They rose. (USSRG:8,2,3)
44. What practice characterized United States diplomacy during the 1920s?
45. Which group was most affected by debt and foreclosures in the 1920s?
46. What do historians call the 25 years leading up to the 1920s?
the golden age of agriculture (USSRG:9,1,1)
47. What did increasing food prices during WWI encourage farmers to do?
borrow money and invest it in their farms (USSRG:9,1,1)
48. Following the Russian Revolution, from which THREE countries did Russia have to begin importing wheat?
Australia, the United States, and Canada (USSRG:9,1,1)
49. Which Federal Reserve policy forced many farmers toward bankruptcy in the 1920s?
its tight credit policy (USSRG:9,1,1)
50. How many times higher was the rate of farm foreclosure in 1923 than it had been in 1918?
five times higher (USSRG:9,1,1)
51. What group of Americans saw their wages fall over the 1920s?
52. What group’s revived economic activity caused food prices to fall during the 1920s?
European farmers (USSRG:9,1,1)
53. Who coined the term “creative destruction”?
Joseph Schumpeter (USSRG:9,1,2)
54. primary driving force behind the United States’ economic expansion prior to World War I
55. creative destruction
a phenomenon in which one industry’s growth causes another to stagnate or shrink (USSRG:9,1,2)
56. total number of railroad passenger miles in America in 1922
57. total number of railroad passenger miles in America in 1927
58. How did the ocean shipping industry stay economically viable during the 1920s?
government subsidies (USSRG:9,1,2)
59. Which TWO expanding industries began to supplant the coal industry in the 1920s United States?
the oil and chemical industries (USSRG:9,1,3)
60. Why were smaller clothing companies edged out of the market in the 1920s United States?
They were not able to invest as heavily in machinery as larger companies did. (USSRG:9,2,0)
a foreign policy characterized by very little political interaction with foreign powers (USSRG:9,2,1)
62. How much did the United States owe to foreign creditors in 1914?
63. How much did foreign debtors owe the United States in 1920?
64. How did England and France recoup their financial losses in WWI?
by forcing Germany to pay reparations (USSRG:9,2,1)
65. What event happened in the German economy in 1923?
monetary collapse (USSRG:10,1,0)
66. What plan required Wall Street and the Federal Reserve to loan money to Germany so that it could afford its reparations payments?
the Dawes Plan (USSRG:10,1,0)
67. What Congressional legislation enacted in 1921 and 1922 made it difficult for Europeans to pay their debts in dollars?
68. How did European debtors pay their debts to United States investors after 1922, instead of with dollars?
69. How did the Federal Reserve prevent inflation when a large amount of gold entered the United States after it enacted tariffs in 1922?
sell bonds (USSRG:10,1,1)
70. In what company did Charles Ponzi convince many speculators to invest?
the Old Colony Foreign Exchange Company (USSRG:10,1,2)
71. Which newspaper published a 504‐page issue full of real estate advertisements in 1925?
the Miami Daily News (USSRG:10,1,2)
72. What event ended the 1926 Florida real estate investment boom?
a hurricane (USSRG:10,1,2)
73. Which new profession reinforced Americans’ sense of financial security in the build‐up to the stock market crash of 1929?
74. Which famous economist said that “stock prices have reached…a permanently high plateau” a few weeks before the crash of 1929?
Irving Fisher (USSRG:10,2,1)
75. How did the crash of 1929 differ from earlier stock market crashes?
Investment had expanded from a few wealthy investors to the entire American middle class. (USSRG:10,2,1)
76. Where did the average American put surplus income in 1919?
into a savings account (USSRG:11,1,0)
77. What financial instruments, offered between 1917 and 1919, introduced many Americans to the securities market?
Liberty and Victory bonds (USSRG:11,1,0)
78. What service did the increasing numbers of brokers and investment firms offer investors in the 1920s?
professional management of stock portfolios (USSRG:11,1,0)
79. What product did investment trusts sell?
paper stock shares in portfolios (USSRG:11,2,0)
80. How many share transactions were carried out on the New York Stock Exchange in 1929?
81. What action is an investor relying on a bank loan to purchase stocks taking?
buying on the margin (USSRG:11,2,1)
82. two corporations to whom American brokers owed large sums in 1929
Bethlehem Steel and Standard Oil (USSRG:11,2,1)
83. Why did stock prices increase after 1927?
84. schemes run by floor traders in order to artificially increase share prices
pools (whereby shares were sold back and forth to artificially increase trading volume) (USSRG:11,2,2)
85. Why was it difficult for investors in the 1920s to make informed decisions about their investments?
Wall Street had minimal disclosure requirements for publicly traded companies. (USSRG:11,2,2)
86. title of John Jacob Raskob’s Ladies Home Journal article
“Everybody Ought to be Rich” (USSRG:12,1,0)
87. discount rate
the rate at which banks borrow from the Federal Reserve (USSRG:12,1,1)
88. For which bank did Charles A. Mitchell work?
National City Bank (USSRG:12,1,1)
89. Why did the Index of Industrial Production fall during the summer of 1929?
home building rates fell for the third consecutive year (USSRG:12,1,1)
90. What strategy did the Federal Reserve unsuccessfully employ to try to curb speculation on Wall Street in the late 1920s?
moral suasion (USSRG:12,1,1)
91. Why did the Federal Reserve fear excessive spending on Wall Street in the 1920s?
They believed it distracted from more important investment. (USSRG:12,1,1)
92. How did some companies attempt to keep their share prices from falling in October 1929?
buy their own shares (USSRG:12,1,2)
93. Black Monday and Black Tuesday
two days in October 1929 over which the price of the average stock dropped by 25% (USSRG:12,1,3)
94. How did the market respond to record share trading volumes throughout November 1929?
even more sales the following day (USSRG:12,1,3)
95. Who was the President of the United States during the stock market crash of 1929?
Herbert Hoover (USSRG:12,2,0)
96. Which FOUR stock markets crashed in response to the New York stock market crash?
London, Paris, Berlin, and Tokyo stock markets (USSRG:12,2,0)
97. What news about the American economy exacerbated the crash of 1929?
production had declined in the third quarter (USSRG:12,2,0)
98. open market
the market on which the Federal Reserve buys and sells bonds (USSRG:12,1,1)
99. Which family owned Standard Oil?
the Rockefellers (USSRG:12,1,2)
100. How did American stock prices in mid‐November 1929 compare with those in August 1929?
They were half as valuable. (USSRG:12,1,3)
101. How would people have seen the 1929 stock market crash if it had occurred before the 1920s?
as a mechanical readjustment of prices (USSRG:12,2,1)
102. What method of purchasing goods did consumer pessimism curb following the crash in 1929?
buying on credit (USSRG:12,2,1)
103. Who had been most affected by stock market crashes in the United States prior to 1929?
people on the borders of economic security (USSRG:12,2,1)
104. consequence of the failure of many American banks in 1837
one of the country’s deepest financial disasters to date (USSRG:13,1,1)
105. Which TWO methods of payment might an account holder accept from a bank during a bank panic?
gold and/or banknotes (USSRG:13,1,1)
106. On what assumption about account holders’ behavior does banking rely?
that not every account holder will want to withdraw their savings at once (USSRG:13,1,1)
107. Why could small town American banks in the 1920s not diversify their investments?
They were forbidden from branch banking. (USSRG:13,2,1)
108. Which Nashville‐based group’s failure precipitated the failure of many of its related banks?
Caldwell and Company (USSRG:13,2,1)
109. Which bank became the largest bank ever to have failed in American history in December 1930?
the Bank of United States (USSRG:13,2,1)
110. Which large Austrian bank failed in May 1931?
111. What commodity was commonly believed to be the only safe form of wealth in the early 1930s?
112. How did Britain attempt to forestall the elimination of its gold reserves in 1931?
by abandoning the gold standard (USSRG:14,1,1)
113. What action did four thousand American banks take between December 1932 and March 1933?
suspend all their business (USSRG:14,1,1)
114. Who became President of the United States on March 4, 1933?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (USSRG:14,1,1)
115. What currency did many Britons exchange for their pounds sterling after Britain left the gold standard?
116. What action reined in the American bank panic of 1907?
declaration of bank holidays (USSRG:14,1,2)
117. bank holiday
a time during which banks are not allowed to make payments of any sort (USSRG:14,1,2)
118. Of which organization were all American banks required to be members after 1907?
the Federal Reserve (USSRG:14,1,2)
119. What purpose were the 12 district banks in the Federal Reserve System intended to serve?
to be lenders of last resort (USSRG:14,1,2)
120. What cause did the Federal Reserve ascribe to most bank failures in the early 1930s?
121. How did John Kenneth Galbraith characterize the Federal Reserve around the time of the crash of 1929?
as having exhibited “startling incompetence” (USSRG:14,1,3)
122. the primary concern of the Federal Reserve prior to the stock market crash of 1929
curbing inflation (USSRG:14,1,3)
123. call loan
a loan with no set date for maturity whose lender can force the borrower to pay in full at any time (USSRG:14,2,1)
124. Against which TWO practices did the Federal Reserve fail to warn prior to the stock market crash of 1929?
the purchase of call loans via margin buying and the inappropriately close relationships between commercial and investment banks (USSRG:14,2,1)
125. What other institutions were forced to declare bankruptcy as American banks failed?
large and small businesses (USSRG:14,2,2)
126. Who is the current chair of the Federal Reserve?
Ben Bernanke (USSRG:14,2,2)
127. total value of business investment in the United States in 1932
128. total value of business investment in the United States prior to the depression
129. Why did the economic stock of the United States deteriorate following the stock market crash?
New investment was not enough to compensate for depreciation of capital. (USSRG:14,2,2)
130. President Hoover’s request of businesses following the stock market crash
that they maintain wages a pre‐crash levels (USSRG:14,2,3)
131. How did most employed American use their earnings after the crash of 1929?
save it (USSRG:14,2,3)
132. Which group of Americans was hit hardest by the closure of banks following the stock market crash?
those that had invested cautiously (USSRG:15,1,1)
133. Which economic phenomenon affected Americans most during the Great Depression?
134. unemployment rate in the United States in 1923
135. What proportion of American workers were either jobless or endured economic hardship during the depression?
136. What source of income did many unemployed Americans expect they would always rely on during the early 1930s?
government assistance (USSRG:15,2,1)
137. Which TWO sectors of the American economy were particularly affected in the first years of the depression?
manufacturing and heavy industry (USSRG:16,1,0)
138. Which practice of the early Industrial Revolution resumed in the United States as wages dropped during the depression?
child labor (USSRG:16,1,1)
139. Which type of American city was most affected by unemployment during the depression?
heavily industrialized cities (USSRG:16,1,0)
140. At what percentage of its pre‐crash capacity did the American automobile industry operate in 1932?
141. At what percentage of its pre‐crash capacity did the American steel industry operate in 1932?
142. Which TWO groups of American white‐collar workers were among the first to see widespread unemployment in the Great Depression?
architects and engineers (USSRG:16,1,2)
143. What kind of economic adversity did American doctors most often face during the depression?
pay cuts (USSRG:16,1,2)
144. Which profession initially seemed to be recession‐proof in the United States in the 1930s?
145. Which demographic group bore the brunt of economic hardship among middle class professionals in the early 1930s United States?
the youth (USSRG:16,1,3)
146. Where were Ph.D.s most likely to find employment during the New Deal era?
the government (USSRG:16,1,3)
147. How much lower were salaries for the clergy in 1933 than they had been in the 1920s?
26% lower (USSRG:16,1,2)
148. Which group of Americans had been affected by deflation prior to the 1929 stock market crash?
a decrease in nominal prices (USSRG:16,2,0)
150. How were producers forced to respond to deflation in the 1930s?
cut their costs (USSRG:16,2,0)
151. Why did deflation occur during the Great Depression, according to monetarists?
a decrease in the money stock (USSRG:16,2,1)
152. Which TWO factors contributed to a decrease in the money stock during the Great Depression?
Individuals withdrew their savings from banks and banks increased their reserves to guard against mass withdrawals. (USSRG:16,2,1)
153. Why does a decrease in the money stock cause deflation, according to monetarists?
Fewer dollars chase the same number of goods, driving prices down. (USSRG:16,2,1)
154. How does the real value of a loan change during times of deflation?
155. Under what conditions do companies loan out money during a liquidity trap?
when the anticipated profit exceeds the interest rate and deflation rate combined (USSRG:17,1,1)
156. What proportion of New Yorkers lost money when the Bank of United States closed in 1930?
157. In which parts of the United States were legal tender most scarce during the Great Depression?
rural areas (USSRG:17,2,2)
158. What form did scrip often take during the Great Depression in the United States?
159. Which prominent economist endorsed the use of local currencies during the Great Depression?
Irving Fisher (USSRG:18,1,0)
160. Why could local currencies not provide a lasting solution to the decline in the money stock in the post‐crash United States?
They did not permit trade between different regions of the United States. (USSRG:18,1,0)
161. How many main schools of thought exist about the cause of the Great Depression?
162. Until which year did the downturn following the stock market crash of 1929 last in the United States?
163. On what event do short run theorists concentrate when examining the causes of the Great Depression?
the implosion of the stock market (USSRG:18,1,1)
164. the primary goal of many investment brokers in the 1920s United States
their personal interests in accruing transaction fees (USSRG:18,1,2)
165. What effect did investment trusts have on the market for capital?
They distracted from the funding of genuine businesses. (USSRG:18,1,2)
166. How many investment trusts existed in the United States in 1921?
167. How many investment trusts existed in the United States in 1929?
168. Which risky investment practice contributed to the spread of investment trusts in the 1920s United States?
low‐margin buying (USSRG:18,1,2)
169. Which new demographic of investors had entered the American stock market in the years leading up to the Great Depression?
small‐scale investors (USSRG:18,1,2)
170. What argument did John Kenneth Galbraith offer about the stock market crash of 1929?
under‐regulation and new financial mechanisms made the crash inevitable (USSRG:18,1,2)
171. What fact does John Kenneth Galbraith’s account of the stock market crash of 1929 fail to explain?
the duration of the downturn and stagnation that followed the crash (USSRG:18,1,3)
172. According to Milton Friedman, what was wrong with the Federal Reserve’s approach to discount rates during the Great Depression?
It did not lower them enough to improve the availability of credit during periods of deflation. (USSRG:18,2,0)
173. What event prompted the Federal Reserve to finally begin buying bonds on the open market following the stock market crash of 1929?
the second wave of bank closures (USSRG:18,2,0)
174. How do Federal Reserve purchases of bonds affect the economy?
release currency to the public (USSRG:18,2,0)
175. With which economist do proponents of the neo‐Austrian interpretation of the Great Depression identify?
Friedrich Von Hayek (USSRG:18,2,1)
176. In what way do neo‐Austrians believe the Federal Reserve responded wrongly to the stock market crash of 1929?
It did too much. (USSRG:18,2,1)
177. What result would have happened had the Federal Reserve done nothing after the stock market crash of 1929, according to neo‐Austrians?
A short but serious recession would have ensued and then been resolved by natural market forces. (USSRG:18,2,1)
178. neo‐Austrian view of the New Deal’s effectiveness
it hindered the market’s natural recovery and extended the depression unnecessarily (USSRG:18,2,1)
179. What fact does the neo‐Austrian position overlook about bank panics in post‐1929 United States?
that it affected healthy banks as well as insolvent ones (USSRG:18,2,1)
180. During which pre‐crash decade did United States Presidents model the government inaction espoused by neo‐Austrians?
the 1920s (USSRG:19,1,0)
181. What TWO problems would have resulted from government inaction following the stock market crash of 1929?
The recession would have been far deeper and the cost of readjustment would have been less equitably distributed. (USSRG:18,2,1)
182. Which American group’s wages grew during the 1920s but at a slower rate than corporate profits?
non‐agricultural workers (USSRG:19,1,1)
183. Which socio‐economic group is generally most likely to save and invest money?
the rich (USSRG:19,1,1)
184. What problem with the American economy, present since 1926, was exposed when the stock market crash ruined the credit market?
185. Who invented national income accounting?
Simon Kuznets (USSRG:19,1,2)
186. To which theory of the Great Depression’s causes did Simon Kuznets contribute?
the maldistribution thesis (USSRG:19,1,2)
187. Who was President of the United States from 1925 to 1929?
Calvin Coolidge (USSRG:19,1,2)
188. Why was wealth distribution increasingly uneven in the 1920s United States?
the Coolidge administration’s tax breaks for the rich (USSRG:19,1,2)
189. What cause did Joseph Schumpeter propose was responsible for the underconsumption that led to the Great Depression?
structural shifts in the 1920s American economy, whereby wages did not keep up with labor productivity (USSRG:19,1,3)
190. What cause did John Maynard Keynes primarily blame for the Great Depression?
insufficient levels of investment (USSRG:19,2,0)
191. What percentage of the United States’ Gross National Product was spent by businesses on investment for most of the 1920s?
192. In which year did investment peak during the 1920s in the United States?
193. What event precipitated a decrease in overall investment during the late 1920s?
a decline in residential construction levels (USSRG:19,2,0)
194. condition of net private investment levels in the United States between 1929 and 1933
They were negative. (USSRG:19,2,0)
195. What cause was primarily responsible for most of the decline in demand for goods from 1929 to 1933?
decline in companiesʹ demand for capital, and the ensuing decline in production (USSRG:19,2,0)
196. What condition do stagnation theorists believe the American economy was in by 1929?
it had lost the qualities that made it economically vivacious (USSRG:19,2,1)
197. THREE qualities stagnation theorists believe the United States had lost by 1929
an increasing population, expanding borders, and heavy exports (USSRG:19,2,1)
198. FIVE biggest industries in the United States before the start of World War I
machinery, lumber, printing, iron and steel, and malt liquor (USSRG:19,2,2)
199. FIVE biggest industries in the United States in 1960
machinery, motor vehicles, steel, aircraft, and elementary chemicals (USSRG:19,2,2)
200. Why did the reconstruction of the American economy after 1929 take so long, according to the Bernstein thesis?
the economy that emerged from the depression was fundamentally different from the one that had entered it (USSRG:19,2,2)
201. Which country do most economists believe led the world into the Great Depression?
the United States (USSRG:19,2,3)
202. Which country had the highest average unemployment rates during the Great Depression?
the United States (USSRG:19,2,3)
203. What effect did the United States’ jingoistic monetary policy in the wake of the stock market crash of 1929 have?
internal advantages were assured to the detriment of global stability (USSRG:19,2,3)
204. In which year of the 1920s did the United States’ trade surplus reach its height?
205. total value of the United States’ exports in 1928
206. total value of the United States’ imports in 1928
207. Why did European demand for American goods decrease in the late 1920s?
the difficulty of international payments (USSRG:20,1,0)
208. Who first lobbied the American government for tariffs in the 1920s?
209. effect of tariffs on imported goods
It makes them artificially expensive and thus less able to compete with domestic goods. (USSRG:20,1,1)
210. Which tariff did Congress pass during the Great Depression?
the Smoot‐Hawley Tariff (USSRG:20,1,1)
211. two largest participants in the international market in 1931
Great Britain and the United States (USSRG:20,2,1)
212. two countries most in need of international economic cooperation in 1931
France and Germany (USSRG:20,2,1)
213. When and where did Westernized countries attempt to coordinate economic policies during the Great Depression?
at a London conference in 1933 (USSRG:20,2,1)
214. year in which the Smoot‐Hawley Tariff was passed
215. How would the Smoot‐Hawley tariff decrease American exports, according to leading economists in 1930?
Foreign businessmen who relied on American markets would be unable to earn enough money to buy American goods. (USSRG:20,2,2)
216. What response from foreign governments did leading economists predict if the Smoot‐Hawley Tariff passed?
increased tariffs on American goods (USSRG:20,2,2)
217. percentage of the United States’ Gross National Product comprising exports in 1930
218. What effect did the United States’ Smoot‐Hawley Tariff have on other countries?
It signaled economic pessimism and added to their economic turmoil. (USSRG:20,2,2)
219. After which TWO United States Congressmen is the Smoot‐Hawley Tariff Named?
Willis C. Hawley and Reed Smoot (USSRG:20,1,2)
220. Which TWO trades were first affected by the Great Depression in Europe?
farm goods and coal (USSRG:20,2,3)
221. Why was it no longer practical to value the gold standard in terms of Pounds Sterling after the Great Depression?
The United States had supplanted Britain as the world’s foremost superpower. (USSRG:20,2,3)
222. British currency at the time of the Great Depression
Pounds sterling (USSRG:20,2,3)
223. How did the switch of American credit from European investments to Wall Street affect the European economy?
by weakening it (USSRG:20,2,3)
224. year in which the Dawes Plan was enacted
225. Which bank had financed many Eastern European farms prior to the Great Depression?
the Kreditanstalt (USSRG:21,1,1)
226. From which country did many Americans withdraw their investments at the start of the Great Depression?
227. When the Kreditanstalt failed, which currency did many investors sell off?
German Marks (USSRG:21,1,1)
228. What obligation did President Hoover suspend in 1931 in an effort to keep Americans from selling German Marks?
German reparations payments (USSRG:21,1,1)
229. How did President Hoover’s suspension of German reparations payments in 1931 affect German politics?
It encouraged ultra‐right‐wing parties to foment bitterness over the Treaty of Versailles. (USSRG:21,1,1)
230. treaty that ended World War I
the Treaty of Versailles (USSRG:21,1,1)
231. Which TWO geographical regions of Britain suffered most during the Great Depression?
the North and West (USSRG:21,2,1)
232. How badly affected was Britain by the Great Depression relative to the United States?
less affected than the United States (USSRG:21,2,1)
233. Which event permanently ended gold‐backed international banking?
Britain’s abandonment of the gold standard in 1931 (USSRG:21,2,1)
234. Why did Britain abandon the gold standard?
its gold reserves had been exhausted by speculators (USSRG:21,2,1)
235. Britain’s unemployment rate in 1932
236. Germany’s unemployment rate in 1932
237. number of unemployed German workers in 1932
238. In which THREE European countries did fascist governments come to power during the Great Depression?
German, Italy, and Spain (USSRG:21,2,2)
239. What paradox pervaded European economies during the Great Depression?
A large number of people were unemployed and starving despite record production capabilities. (USSRG:21,2,2)
240. country tied to most Latin American economies by the 1920s
the United States (USSRG:21,2,3)
241. five Latin American agricultural products whose cultivation increased because of American investment in the 1920s
coffee, fruits, beef, rubber, and cotton (USSRG:21,2,3)
242. What sort of cooperation did the American government encourage in Latin America in the 1920s?
cooperation between American businessmen and Latin American governments (USSRG:21,2,3)
243. two Latin American extractive industries that expanded through American investment in the 1920s
lumber and copper (USSRG:21,2,3)
244. two Latin American social classes that expanded as a result of American involvement in the 1920s
landless workers and a globally‐oriented middle class (USSRG:21,2,3)
245. Which group of workers was affected particularly badly by the Smoot‐Hawley Tariff?
farmers in the Western hemisphere (USSRG:21,2,4)
246. two groups of Latin American commodities producers disproportionately affected by the Great Depression
Cuban sugar producers and Argentine beef producers (USSRG:21,2,4)
247. Brazilian president installed by a coup during the Great Depression
Getulio D. Vargas (USSRG:22,1,0)
248. Which TWO Latin American institutions did the stock market crash of 1929 weaken?
banks and currencies (USSRG:21,2,4)
249. After whose government did Getulio D. Vargas model his own regime?
Benito Mussolini (USSRG:22,1,0)
250. Which country did Benito Mussolini control?
251. group of Asian and Latin American farmers least dependent on a currency‐driven economy
subsistence farmers (USSRG:22,1,1)
252. What sort of economy did many subsistence farmers in Asia and Latin American rely on during the Great Depression?
a barter economy (USSRG:22,1,1)
253. After what event did the United States and much of Europe shun the Soviet Union?
the Russian Revolution (USSRG:22,1,2)
254. In which year did the Russian Revolution occur?
255. What TWO negative effects did the United States’ refusal to recognize the Soviet Union have on the Soviet economy?
It created hardship for its citizens and made industrial expansion harder. (USSRG:22,1,2)
256. What advantage for the Soviet economy resulted from the United States’ spurning of the Soviet Union?
It made the Soviet Union immune to the troubles of the international market. (USSRG:22,1,2)
257. By what factor did Soviet industrial production increase during the 1930s?
258. the condition of Soviet unemployment during the 1930s
practically non‐existent. (USSRG:22,1,2)
259. On what political situation did Soviet economic successes in the 1930s partially rely?
the oppressive Stalinist regime (USSRG:22,2,0)
260. What sort of country suffered disproportionately during the Great Depression?
developing countries with export‐driven economies (USSRG:22,2,1)
261. On which export did the Japanese economy rely in the years leading up to the Great Depression?
262. What TWO kinds of goods did the Japanese economy purchase with the money from silk exports?
fuels and raw materials (USSRG:22,2,1)
263. Which TWO factors had threatened the Japanese silk trade prior to the Great Depression?
technological advances and artificial silk produced by American chemical companies (USSRG:22,2,1)
264. Which event made a peaceful expansion of Japan’s industrial capacity in the 1930s unlikely?
the Great Depression (USSRG:22,2,1)
265. Against which country did the Great Depression inflame Japan’s aggressions?
266. Whom did Japanese politicians blame for their country’s inferior status in the 1930s?
white Western imperialists (USSRG:22,2,1)
267. What benefit did Japanese politicians believe the acquisition of new agricultural lands would give their country?
national autarky (USSRG:22,2,1)
acquiring new lands and wiping out native populations to provide “living space” for Germans (USSRG:22,2,1)
269. What TWO ideologies did German national socialists combine to produce the idea of Lebensraum?
nationalistic economic ideology and anti‐Semitic hatred (USSRG:22,2,1)
270. Which region of China did Japan invade in 1931?
271. Which organization’s authority did Japan reject with its invasion of Manchuria?
the League of Nations (USSRG:22,2,1)
272. In which year did Japan invade all of China?
273. What event directly precipitated the first clashes of World War II in Asia?
the Great Depression (USSRG:22,2,1)
274. What fate befell many miners in Pennsylvania who lost their jobs during the Great Depression?
They were thrown out of the company towns where they lived. (USSRG:22,2,2)
275. Which American region was home to the cities that comprised the epicenter of the country’s industry?
the Northeast (USSRG:22,2,3)
276. How badly affected were urban minorities by the Great Depression relative to general population?
Urban minorities suffered even more than the general population. (USSRG:22,2,3)
277. How much higher was the jobless rate among urban African‐Americans than among urban whites in early 1931 in the United States?
50% higher (USSRG:23,1,0)
278. How much more likely were African‐American women to be unemployed than their white counterparts in early 1931 in the United States?
two and a half times more likely (USSRG:23,1,0)
279. Which TWO factors contributed to the higher unemployment rates among African‐Americans during the Great Depression?
deep racial prejudices among employers and their concentration in the badly‐hit service sector (USSRG:23,1,0)
280. By how much did residential construction decline between 1928 and 1933?
281. number of homes foreclosed in 1932
282. proportion of American home mortgages in default by the time of President Roosevelt’s inauguration
283. How many more times were American homes foreclosed upon in 1932 than in the average year of the 1920s?
four times more (USSRG:23,1,1)
284. How many foreclosures were occurring each day in the United States at the time of President Roosevelt’s inauguration?
285. To which urban areas did many homeless Americans immigrate during the Great Depression?
the edges of cities (USSRG:23,1,2)
neighborhoods of makeshift shelters built of packing crates and metal scraps during the Great Depression (USSRG:23,1,2)
287. How did the air quality of American cities in 1932 compare with that from before the Great Depression?
It was cleaner. (USSRG:23,2,0)
288. estimated number of American transients in 1933
289. number of American transients passing through El Paso within six months in 1933
290. number of American transients passing through Kansas City daily in 1933
291. How much money did New York provide for its unemployed families each week?
292. Which TWO levels of government provided welfare to Americans prior to the New Deal?
state and local governments (USSRG:23,2,1)
293. Which TWO groups were excluded from government assistance in Houston and Dallas during the Great Depression?
African Americans and Mexican Americans (USSRG:23,2,1)
294. Why was Detroit unable to tax Ford and Chrysler to fund unemployment benefits during the Great Depression?
The companies’ plants were outside city boundaries. (USSRG:23,2,1)
295. What expenditure did local American governments often postpone during the Great Depression, to the detriment of their economies?
construction plans (USSRG:23,2,1)
296. Which American organizations refused membership to Poles, Czechs, and Italians during the Great Depression?
297. Why were members of immigrant communities less likely to request public welfare than other Americans during the Great Depression?
They had previously had bad experiences with government services. (USSRG:23,2,2)
298. On whom did immigrants rely for support prior to the Great Depression?
other members of their immigrant community (USSRG:23,2,2)
299. What American institutions helped immigrants start small businesses prior to the Great Depression?
ethnic banks (USSRG:24,1,0)
300. What American institutions helped immigrants preserve the consumption habits of their home countries in the 1920s?
ethnic neighborhood stores (USSRG:24,1,0)
301. Why were churches and charities in American immigrant communities unable to help their members during the Great Depression?
Bank failures and decreasing contributions had diminished their resources. (USSRG:24,1,1)
302. What kind of assistance did American immigrants prefer to individual welfare during the Great Depression?
state assistance for their communities (USSRG:24,1,1)
303. Which federal program changed the structure of close‐knit immigrant communities in the United States forever?
the New Deal (USSRG:24,2,0)
304. Why were American middle class families unable to raise money by selling their real estate during the Great Depression?
lack of buyers (USSRG:24,2,1)
305. Which TWO resources did middle‐class families in financial trouble usually exhaust first prior to the Great Depression?
their savings and credit (USSRG:24,2,1)
306. To which THREE groups would middle‐class families in financial trouble turn after exhausting their savings and credit prior to the Great Depression?
their extended families, neighbors, and churches (USSRG:24,2,1)
307. Why would African American neighbors crowd tightly around a tenement in Chicago during the Great Depression?
to prevent the owners from evicting the financially‐troubled tenants (USSRG:24,2,2)
308. rent party
the practice of inviting musicians to play in one’s home and splitting the revenue with them in order to raise money for rent (USSRG:24,2,2)
309. Where did rent parties take place in the United States during the 1930s?
310. location of the Organized Unemployed Inc.
311. year in which the Organized Unemployed Inc. was founded
312. In what sort of building was the Organized Unemployed Inc. headquartered?
an old girls’ high school (USSRG:24,2,3)
313. What THREE things did members of the Organized Unemployed Inc. do?
make clothing, build shelters, and harvest, process, can, and sell food (USSRG:24,2,3)
314. two American companies which gave land to the unemployed to harvest during the Great Depression
U.S. Steel and the Pennsylvania Railroad (USSRG:24,2,3)
315. American city which gave land to the unemployed to harvest during the Great Depression
316. percentage by which farm prices fell in the United States between 1929 and 1932?
317. What effect did falling prices have on indebted American farmers during the Great Depression?
Increased their debt burden (USSRG:24,2,4)
318. state to which many American farmers migrated after their farms were foreclosed upon during the Great Depression
319. four southwestern states whose farmers had been migrating to California since the 1910s
Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, and Missouri (USSRG:24,2,5)
320. numerical decline of the southwestern United States’ agrarian population by 1930
321. Which TWO factors led farmers in the southwestern United States to migrate to California prior to the Great Depression?
California’s allure and the hardship of southwestern agriculture (USSRG:25,1,0)
322. Why did American southwestern farmers who migrated to California during the Great Depression usually do so?
economic failure (USSRG:25,1,0)
323. How many farmers left the American Southwest for California during the Great Depression?
300,000 to 400,000 (USSRG:25,1,0)
farmers who pay a portion of their crops as rent for their land (USSRG:25,2,0)
325. percentage of Oklahoma farms changing ownership due to bankruptcy between 1931 and 1933
326. What machine did large, commercialized farms in the depression‐era United States use instead of draft animals?
gasoline engine tractors (USSRG:25,2,0)
327. Which decade saw the worst drought in the history of the United States?
the 1930s (USSRG:26,1,0)
328. What natural catastrophe exacerbated agricultural woes in the depression‐era United States?
a drought (USSRG:25,2,1)
329. Why had farmers cultivated marginal land during World War I?
to benefit from higher wheat prices (USSRG:26,1,0)
330. In which month of 1933 did dust clouds reach New York and Washington, D.C.?
331. How did the cultivation of marginal land during World War I affect the ecology of the American plains?
It upset the ecological balance in the region. (USSRG:26,1,0)
332. In which state were farms covered by dunes of sand during the Great Depression?
333. region worst affected by soil erosion during the Great Depression
the Dust Bowl (USSRG:26,1,1)
334. five states that had regions inside the Dust Bowl
Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico (USSRG:26,1,1)
335. road often taken by farmers often to California during the Great Depression
Route 66 (USSRG:26,1,1)
336. percentage of travelers on Route 66 who were white collar workers, professionals, or business owners
337. Which agricultural positions were rumored to be available in California during the Great Depression?
fruit and vegetable pickers (USSRG:26,1,1)
338. Which sector of the economy was different in California than in any other state during the Great Depression?
339. By what percentage was California’s per capita income higher than the national average during the Great Depression?
40% higher (USSRG:26,1,2)
340. California’s per capita income from 1930 to 1934
341. Texas’s per capita income from 1930 to 1934
342. absentee owners
banks and corporations that controlled large farms (USSRG:26,1,3)
343. What innovation improved profits for absentee owners in California during the Great Depression?
factory methods of agricultural production (USSRG:26,1,3)
344. four specialty crops produced in California during the Great Depression
citrus, grapes, nuts, and lettuce (USSRG:26,1,3)
345. What technology helped growers produce specialty crops in depression‐era California?
large irrigation systems (USSRG:26,1,3)
346. On what kind of laborers did California growers rely before the Great Depression began?
migrant workers from foreign countries (USSRG:26,1,3)
347. four countries that provided labor for California growers prior to the Great Depression
Japan, India, the Philippines, and Mexico (USSRG:26,1,3)
348. Why did foreign migrant workers receive less work in California during the Great Depression?
racial animosity increased as the economy suffered (USSRG:26,1,3)
349. What government action contributed to the migration of many Mexican Americans back to Mexico during the Great Depression?
local, state, and federal deportation campaigns (USSRG:26,2,0)
350. What proportion of Mexican Americans returned to Mexico during the Great Depression?
depression‐era migrants to California from Missouri, Texas, Arkansas, and Oklahoma (USSRG:26,2,1)
352. California city sent that 125 of its police officers to the states’ borders during the Great Depression
Los Angeles (USSRG:27,1,0)
353. What TWO characteristics did Okies share with native Californians during the Great Depression?
Both groups were white and Protestant. (USSRG:26,2,1)
354. How were Okies received by native Californians during the Great Depression?
with hostility (USSRG:26,2,1)
355. Which book famously celebrates the story of the Okies?
The Grapes of Wrath (USSRG:26,2,1)
356. Who wrote The Grapes of Wrath?
John Steinbeck (USSRG:26,2,1)
agricultural town in California where Okies settled (USSRG:26,2,1)
agricultural town in California where Okies settled (USSRG:26,2,1)
359. Which region led the United States in bankruptcies during the Great Depression?
Southern California (USSRG:26,2,2)
360. In which city did almost half of California’s unemployed live during the Great Depression?
Los Angeles (USSRG:26,2,2)
361. Jim Crow South
the culture of white supremacy in the American South that persisted over sixty years after the Civil War (USSRG:27,1,1)
362. Birmingham Trade Council
southern organization that reported regional unemployment of 18% in February 1928 (USSRG:27,2,0)
363. Jefferson County
Alabama county whose relief rolls more than doubled from 1926 to 1928 (USSRG:27,2,0)
364. What percentage of African Americans lived in the southern United States in the 1930s?
365. On what agrarian institution did the economy of the southern United States still rely in the 1930s?
366. In which month did the American South first begin to feel the effects of the Great Depression?
February 1928 (USSRG:27,2,0)
367. Why did southern American cities reduce their relief programs despite rising unemployment during the Great Depression?
They were concerned that such programs might help African Americans free themselves of their white landlords. (USSRG:27,2,0)
368. In which THREE ways were African Americans oppressed in the South during the Great Depression?
racial segregation, racial violence, and local measures limiting their voting rights (USSRG:27,2,1)
369. What percentage of African American farmers were tenants, sharecroppers, or farmhands during the Great Depression?
370. Which crop did African American sharecroppers most often grow?
371. Which TWO diseases might an African American farmer have suffered as a result of a poor diet during the Great Depression?
pellagra and rickets (USSRG:28,1,0)
372. On whom did the financial futures of African American farmers in the depression‐era South often depend?
white landowners (USSRG:28,1,0)
373. How did landowners in the American South respond to the Great Depression?
reverted to a cashless system (USSRG:28,1,1)
374. By which year of the Great Depression was the American South’s tenancy system on the verge of?
375. Which organization often proved a partner for impoverished African Americans during the Great Depression?
the United States Communist Party (USSRG:28,1,1)
376. the big muddy
nickname for the Mississippi River (USSRG:28,1,2)
377. What natural occurrence started the Mississippi Flood of 1927?
heavy rainfall upstream in summer 1926 (USSRG:28,1,2)
378. Which natural disaster demonstrated the need for federal assistance to African Americans during the 1920s?
the Mississippi Flood of 1927 (USSRG:28,1,2)
379. How many people were killed by the Mississippi Flood of 1927?
over 240 (USSRG:28,1,2)
380. Which Mississippi town was turned into an inland sea by the bursting of a levee on April 21, 1927?
381. Of which race were the majority of Greenville residents left stranded in the Mississippi Flood of 1927?
382. Why did planters in Mississippi oppose efforts to rescue stranded Greenville citizens when the river flooded in 1927?
They feared refugees would abandon the South altogether after being rescued. (USSRG:28,1,2)
383. How did National Guardsmen called in to assist flood victims in Greensville in 1927 treat the refugees?
They were often accused of robbing, raping, assaulting and killing the African American refugees in the city. (USSRG:28,2,0)
384. Who was in charge of flood relief efforts in Greenville in 1927?
Herbert Hoover (USSRG:28,2,1)
385. What incentive did Herbert Hoover offer African American leaders for their silence on the atrocities of 1927 Greensville relief efforts?
land reforms and civil rights improvements (USSRG:28,2,1)
386. Of which political party was Herbert Hoover a member?
387. When did the Scottsboro Boys’ alleged crime occur?
March 1931 (USSRG:28,2,2)
388. How many of the Scottsboro Boys were sentenced to death?
389. Of what crime were the Scottsboro Boys convicted?
390. What organization goes by the acronym NAACP?
the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (USSRG:29,1,0)
391. Which civil rights organization was the most respected organization of its kind in America in 1931?
the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (USSRG:29,1,0)
392. How long did retrials in the case of the Scottsboro Boys go on after the original conviction?
six years (USSRG:29,1,0)
393. In which year was the last member of the Scottsboro Boys released from prison?
394. Which non‐racial society used the Scottsboro Boys as a rallying cause?
the United States Communist Party (USSRG:29,1,0)
395. How did marriage rates in the United States change during the Great Depression?
396. How did divorce rates in the United States change during the Great Depression?
397. By what percentage did American marriage rates drop between 1929 and 1932?
398. By what percentage did American birth rates drop between 1929 and 1932?
399. How many deaths did illegal abortions cause yearly during the Great Depression?
8,000 to 10,000 (USSRG:29,1,1)
400. What newly‐accessible innovations enabled the decline in birth rates during the Great Depression?
contraceptive devices (USSRG:29,1,1)
401. gender roles
social expectations that inform male and female conduct (USSRG:29,1,2)
402. Which gender was considered responsible for breadwinning in the depression‐era United States?
403. By how much did the fraction of American women in the paid work force increase during the 1930s?
404. What situation were women often in, in contrast to idle men, in the depression‐era United States?
state of overwork (USSRG:29,2,0)
405. two reasons an American man might have left his family during the Great Depression
to start a new life or to return with cash (USSRG:29,2,0)
406. How did the increase in American women’s responsibilities during the Great Depression affect their self‐perception?
possessed an increased sense of self worth (USSRG:29,2,0)
407. How did unemployment affect many American men’s psyches during the Great Depression?
increased their sense of helplessness (USSRG:29,2,0)
408. Which demographic of American women had been engaged in paid work since the beginning of the 20th century?
African American women (USSRG:29,2,1)
409. sectors of the economy in which African‐American women had primarily worked prior to the Great Depression
domestic service and agriculture (USSRG:30,1,0)
410. labor force participation rate of married nonwhite women at the beginning of the 1930s
411. labor force participation rate of married nonwhite American women at the end of the 1930s
412. Which demographic of American women increasingly joined the work force during the Great Depression?
white married women (USSRG:30,1,1)
413. percentage of white married women in the United States engaged in paid work in 1940
414. percentage of white married women in the United States engaged in paid work in 1930
415. four fields in which white, married American women were most often employed during the Great Depression
clerical, sales, service, and trade (USSRG:30,1,1)
416. gender makeup of American heavy industry payrolls during the Great Depression
almost exclusively men (USSRG:30,1,1)
417. In which field did married white American women begin to seek employment during the Great Depression?
domestic service (USSRG:30,1,1)
418. percentage of Americans who believed that a woman should not work if her husband had a job in 1936
419. Whom did many Americans think were denied jobs by the employment of married women?
420. pin money
extra income earned by women that many Americans believed families could go without (USSRG:30,1,2)
421. From what aspect of the pre‐depression era United States was the concept of adolescence derived?
urban consumerism (USSRG:30,1,3)
422. four historically poor areas of the United States badly affected by malnutrition, disease, and homelessness during the Great Depression
mining regions of Appalachia, Native American reservations, and the rural Far West and South (USSRG:30,2,1)
423. number of older children and adolescents in the United States during the Great Depression
424. three ways in which American youths obtained money during the Great Depression
shoe shining, scavenging, and street training (USSRG:30,2,1)
425. How many American youths became hobos in the 1930s?
426. sisters of the road
female vagabonds in the depression‐era United States (USSRG:30,2,2)
427. Why did many American youths opt to continue their educations during the Great Depression?
to delay their entry into the job market (USSRG:30,2,3)
428. percentage of America’s youths in high school in 1932
under 50% (USSRG:31,1,0)
429. percentage of America’s youths in high school in 1940
430. percentage of American 18‐ to 24‐year‐olds who attended college during the Great Depression
431. How did most American college students help pay for their schooling during the Great Depression?
by holding jobs in college (USSRG:31,1,0)
432. How did Americans’ involvement in fraternities and sororities change during the Great Depression?
Involvement declined. (USSRG:31,1,0)
433. In which field did American college students increasingly become involved during the Great Depression?
studio that produced films about the Hardy family (USSRG:31,1,1)
435. number of Hardy family films
436. years in which Hardy family films were produced
from 1936 to 1940 (USSRG:31,1,1)
437. Mickey Rooney
actor who played Andy Hardy (USSRG:31,1,1)
438. What job did Andy Hardy’s father’s hold in the Hardy family films?
small‐town judge (USSRG:31,1,1)
439. Why was the Hardy family appealing to many Americans?
They dealt with very little poverty and crime, unlike the real world. (USSRG:31,1,1)
440. From which THREE groups did young Americans learn to take sexual liberation seriously during the Great Depression?
musicians, artists, and intellectuals (USSRG:31,1,2)
441. What proportion of male American college students had had premarital sex in 1936?
442. What proportion of female American college students had had premarital sex in 1936?
443. How did American universities’ efforts to control students’ sexual activity change in the 1930s?
Such efforts were abandoned. (USSRG:31,1,2)
444. With what issue did the most memorable depression‐era American literature deal?
the financial difficulty of the times (USSRG:31,1,3)
445. the most powerful book dealing with the depression’s cruelty in American literature
John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath (USSRG:31,1,3)
John Steinbeck’s hometown (USSRG:31,1,3)
447. With which social class did John Steinbeck become a pariah after publishing The Grapes of Wrath?
California’s agricultural elite (USSRG:31,1,3)
448. How did Salinas citizens express their negative view of The Grapes of Wrath?
with book‐burnings (USSRG:31,1,3)
449. William Faulkner
a southern author writing about the psyche of the post‐Civil War American South (USSRG:31,2,0)
450. Horatio Alger
popular author who wrote novels advertising the rags‐to‐riches myth (USSRG:31,2,0)
451. During what time period did Horatio Alger write?
the late 19th century (USSRG:31,2,0)
452. percentage of American movie theaters that closed between 1929 and 1933
over 30% (USSRG:31,2,1)
453. What percentage of Americans went to the cinema weekly during the Great Depression?
454. Mae West
actress who used lewd innuendo as a way to distract Americans from personal troubles (USSRG:31,2,1)
455. In which time period was Mae West active?
the early 1930s (USSRG:31,2,1)
456. Why did Hollywood eliminate its racier films in the 1930s?
Protestant and Catholic campaigns (USSRG:31,2,1)
457. Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers
actors who replaced stars of racy films in the 1930s (USSRG:31,2,1)
458. In which sorts of movies did Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers star?
musical comedies (USSRG:31,2,1)
459. number of Hollywood movies produced during the 1930s
460. What social phenomena did 1930s American films often comment on?
corruption and immorality in the elite classes (USSRG:31,2,2)
461. Frank Capra
director who used his films to comment on corruption and immorality in the elite classes (USSRG:31,2,2)
462. Mr. Deeds Goes to Town and Mr. Smith goes to Washington
movies by Frank Capra that encapsulated America’s feelings toward the rich in the 1930s (USSRG:31,2,2)
463. What central plot features in both Mr. Deeds Goes to Town and Mr. Smith goes to Washington?
small‐town heroes stand up to America’s duplicitous elite classes (USSRG:31,2,2)
464. number of radios collectively owned by Americans in 1930
465. number of radios collectively owned by Americans in 1940
466. Who paid for radio entertainment in the United States in the 1920s?
corporate sponsors (USSRG:31,2,3)
467. What effect did radios have on United States culture in the 1920s?
They helped make it more national. (USSRG:31,2,3)
468. Why did many Americans fear that the Great Depression would cause an increase in crime rates?
They believed poverty and idleness would prompt youths to commit crimes. (USSRG:32,1,0)
469. How did the Great Depression affect Americans’ perception of crime?
became more concerned about crime (USSRG:32,1,0)
470. auto bandits
Americans who committed crimes and escaped quickly in cars during the Great Depression (USSRG:32,2,1)
471. John Dillinger
a bank‐robbing auto bandit (USSRG:32,2,1)
472. Clyde Barrow
a stick‐up artist auto bandit (USSRG:32,2,1)
473. What national infrastructure helped auto bandits escape in the depression‐era United States?
the highway system (USSRG:32,2,1)
474. From which parts of the United States did auto bandits normally come?
the Midwest and Southwest (USSRG:32,2,1)
475. Bonnie Parker
Clyde Barrow’s partner (USSRG:32,2,1)
476. How did the term “gangster” differ from “auto bandit”?
“Gangster” had urban and ethnic connotations. (USSRG:32,2,1)
477. To which historical figures were auto bandits often compared in the depression‐era United States?
old frontier outlaws (USSRG:32,2,1)
478. Why were auto bandits seen as tragic heroes in the depression‐era United States?
They represented extreme individual victories over society’s injustices. (USSRG:32,2,1)
479. When was the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution ratified?
480. When did the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution take effect?
481. the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution
amendment prohibiting the sale and distribution of alcohol (USSRG:32,2,2)
482. What black market economy did the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution create?
smuggling of alcohol (USSRG:32,2,2)
483. In which decade did organized crime take root?
the 1920s (USSRG:32,2,2)
484. What conclusion can be drawn from the success of organized crime in the 1920s about the American police force?
They were corrupt and inefficient. (USSRG:32,2,2)
485. Al Capone
boss of crime organization the Chicago Outfit (USSRG:32,2,2)
486. How did radio journalist Arthur Reeve view governments?
they were “the greatest racket of all” (USSRG:32,2,3)
487. How did public outrage at organized crime change as the economy worsened in the Depression‐era United States ?
It declined. (USSRG:32,2,3)
488. In which state did Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow commit their crimes?
489. When was Charles Lindbergh’s son kidnapped?
March 1932 (USSRG:32,2,4)
490. Charles Lindbergh
American national hero famous for the first nonstop transatlantic flight (USSRG:32,2,4)
491. In which year did Charles Lindbergh fly nonstop from New York to Paris?
492. What fate befell Charles Lindbergh’s son after his ransom was paid?
He was found dead. (USSRG:32,2,4)
493. In which year was the kidnapper of Charles Lindbergh’s son caught?
494. Who supplanted auto bandits as national icons in the 1930s?
FBI agents (USSRG:33,1,1)
government men, or FBI agents (USSRG:33,2,0)
496. In which year was a federal Bureau of Investigation created?
497. To which department did the Federal Bureau of Investigation belong?
the Department of Justice (USSRG:33,1,1)
498. James Cagney
a movie star who played the lead in Public Enemy and G‐Men (USSRG:33,2,0)
499. In which year was Public Enemy released?
500. How did James Cagney’s roles change from Public Enemy to G‐Men?
He switched from playing an outlaw to playing a law enforcement officer. (USSRG:33,2,0)
newspapers with which homeless Americans covered themselves when they slept (USSRG:33,2,1)
502. Hoover flags
empty pockets pulled out of one’s pants (USSRG:34,1,0)
503. Herbert Hoover
31st President of the United States (USSRG:34,1,0)
504. How much blame do scholars today give President Hoover for the Great Depression?
very little (USSRG:34,1,0)
505. How long before Black Monday was President Hoover inaugurated?
seven months (USSRG:34,1,0)
506. How qualified was President Hoover for the presidency, relative to other United States presidents?
one of the most qualified presidents ever (USSRG:34,1,0)
507. Why was President Hoover limited in his ability to lead during an economic crisis?
his political philosophy (USSRG:34,1,0)
508. What action did President Hoover take to improve the long‐term economic situation of the United States during his time in office?
introduce a number of ideas that helped the United States transition into the New Deal (USSRG:34,1,0)
509. state in which Herbert Hoover was born
510. year in which Herbert Hoover was born
511. age at which Herbert Hoover became an orphan
nine years old (USSRG:34,1,1)
512. college that Herbert Hoover attended
513. two countries in which Herbert Hoover earned his fortune
China and Australia (USSRG:34,1,1)
514. Herbert Hoover’s job in China and Australia
mining engineer (USSRG:34,1,1)
515. Woodrow Wilson’s political party
516. Why did Herbert Hoover not join the Democratic Party after World War I?
He thought the incumbent party’s odds of success were too low. (USSRG:34,1,2)
517. What position did Herbert Hoover hold in President Harding’s cabinet?
Secretary of Commerce (USSRG:34,1,2)
518. How long before Herbert Hoover took the position of Secretary of Commerce had the office been created?
eight years (USSRG:34,1,2)
519. How successful was Herbert Hoover in his first run for the American presidency?
lost in the primaries (USSRG:34,1,2)
520. Who was elected United States President in the year that Herbert Hoover first sought the office?
Warren G. Harding (USSRG:34,1,2)
521. What belief did President Hoover initially maintain about the economic downturn following the stock market crash of 1929?
that it was a temporary recession (USSRG:34,2,1)
522. year in which President Hoover first responded vigorously to the Great Depression
523. the only cure to the Great Depression, according to President Hoover
self‐reliance and voluntarism (USSRG:34,2,2)
524. From where was President Hoover’s belief in self‐help and voluntarism as the only cure to the Great Depression derived?
his personal background (USSRG:34,2,2)
525. How did President Hoover want his cabinet members to behave immediately after the stock market crash of 1929?
as if the crash hadn’t occurred (USSRG:35,1,0)
526. What reward did President Hoover offer in October 1929 to ensure pre‐crash investment levels were maintained?
lower corporate and income taxes (USSRG:35,1,0)
527. Why did businesses and local governments renege on their agreement to maintain investment levels after the crash of 1929?
worries about falling consumer confidence (USSRG:35,1,0)
528. Federal Farm Board
national program created by Congress under President Hoover’s guidance during the Great Depression (USSRG:35,1,1)
529. How did the Federal Farm Board try to prevent the decline of American agricultural prices during the Great Depression?
by purchasing surplus crops (USSRG:35,1,1)
530. measure the Federal Farm Board failed to take to control American agricultural prices during the Great Depression
regulation of production (USSRG:35,1,1)
531. original purpose of the National Credit Corporation
purchasing dubious assets from struggling banks (USSRG:35,1,1)
532. When was the National Credit Corporation created?
October 1931 (USSRG:35,1,1)
533. amount of money the National Credit Corporation was given to purchase assets
534. Why was the National Credit Corporation ineffective at reining in bank panic?
reluctance to purchase dubious assets (USSRG:35,1,1)
535. How many banks failed due to the inaction of the National Credit Corporation?
almost 2,300 (USSRG:35,1,1)
536. President’s Organization of Unemployment Relief
organization to aid existing charities in their work during the Great Depression (USSRG:35,1,1)
537. full name of the NCC
National Credit Corporation (USSRG:35,1,1)
538. Why did President Hoover not offer more comprehensive unemployment benefits during the Great Depression?
feared such aid would make Americans dependent on the government (USSRG:35,1,1)
539. full name of the RFC
Reconstruction Finance Corporation (USSRG:35,1,2)
540. What organization’s creation was Hoover’s first major deviation from his principle of voluntarism?
the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (USSRG:35,1,2)
541. year in which the Reconstruction Finance Corporation was introduced
542. After which organizations was the Reconstruction Finance Corporation modeled?
government organizations founded during World War I (USSRG:35,1,2)
543. How much money was the Reconstruction Finance Corporation given?
544. purpose of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation
make loans to banks (USSRG:35,1,2)
545. Norris La‐Guardia Act
depression‐era law that limited the government’s use of injunctions against striking workers (USSRG:35,1,2)
546. the main beneficiaries of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation
large institutions (USSRG:35,1,2)
547. Which law represented the largest peacetime tax increase in American history?
the 1932 Revenue Act (USSRG:35,2,0)
548. What belief did many Americans express in their letters to Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt?
that they were responsible for their own financial misfortune (USSRG:35,2,2)
549. the period of cooperative values prior to World War I
the Progressive Era (USSRG:35,2,1)
550. Which town did sociologists Robert and Helen Lynd study during the Great Depression?
Muncie, Indiana (USSRG:35,2,3)
551. What fact did Robert and Helen Lynd’s study of Muncie, Indiana, reveal?
that people in the Depression era were increasingly educating themselves about the events around them (USSRG:35,2,3)
552. To which 18th‐century thinker were many Americans attracted during the Great Depression?
Karl Marx (USSRG:35,2,3)
553. What opinion did Sidney Hook have of capitalism?
that it “degraded people and ideas alike by putting a cash value on them” (USSRG:35,2,4)
554. Sidney Hook’s occupation
555. Why did many communist Americans travel to the South during the Great Depression?
to organize black sharecroppers (USSRG:35,2,4)
556. What movement did the work of depression‐era communists in the South inspire?
the 1960s Civil Rights Movement (USSRG:35,2,4)
557. the first year in which more people left the United States than entered it
558. In which foreign country did Americans take particular interest during the Great Depression?
the Soviet Union (USSRG:36,1,1)
559. How many Americans applied for a job in the Soviet Union daily during the Great Depression, according to the Soviet Union?
560. William Randolph Hearst’s occupation
561. Why did American conservatives send spies to American universities during the Great Depression?
to find communist professors (USSRG:36,1,1)
562. decade in which the Red Scare took place
563. Whom did the Red Scare target?
former communist sympathizers in Hollywood and academia (USSRG:36,1,1)
564. What action did Congress take two weeks after the passage of the 1932 Revenue Act?
declined to pay World War I veterans their bonuses prior to the due date (USSRG:36,1,2)
565. adjusted compensation certificates
government bonuses awarded to World War I veterans (USSRG:36,2,0)
566. When were American World War I veterans’ bonuses due?
567. In which year were American World War I veterans given their bonuses?
568. form which American World War I veterans’ bonuses took
twenty‐year savings bonds (USSRG:36,2,0)
569. When were bonuses first given to American veterans?
after 1865 (USSRG:36,2,0)
570. the only form of United States government assistance prior to the New Deal
veterans’ bonuses (USSRG:36,2,0)
571. What anti‐government organization was formed by Confederate veterans after the Civil War?
the Ku Klux Klan (USSRG:36,2,0)
572. Why were veterans given assistance prior to the New Deal but not other Americans?
Veterans had served their country and risked their lives. (USSRG:36,2,0)
573. country in which veterans had carried out an armed revolt after World War I
574. How many World War I veterans traveled to Washington, D.C. to protest its bonus policy in 1932?
575. Why were American veterans angry about Congress’s 1932 bonus policy?
Congress was giving aid to farmers, but not to veterans. (USSRG:37,1,1)
576. Bonus Expeditionary Force
American veterans protesting in Washington, D. C. for their bonuses to be paid out early (USSRG:37,1,1)
577. Where did the Bonus Expeditionary Force gather to protest Congress’s bonus policy?
the Capitol plaza in Washington, D. C. (USSRG:37,1,1)
578. What fraction of American Senators was willing to pay veterans their bonuses early in 1932?
579. two groups President Hoover chose to meet with over the Bonus Expeditionary Force
sports stars and college fraternities (USSRG:37,1,1)
580. When did Congress adjourn in 1932?
581. Where did the Bonus Expeditionary Force stay while in Washington, D.C.?
vacant federal buildings and Anacostia Flats (USSRG:37,1,1)
582. the open space where some members of the Bonus Expeditionary Force stayed while in Washington, D.C.
Anacostia Flats (USSRG:37,1,1)
583. Patrick Hurley
President Hoover’s Secretary of War (USSRG:37,1,2)
584. What compensation did President Hoover offer members of the Bonus Expeditionary Force in order to appease them?
five to twenty dollars each to help them return home (USSRG:37,1,2)
585. What order did Patrick Hurley give that prompted the end of the Bonus Expeditionary Force sit‐in?
the clearance of the federal buildings in which the veterans were housed (USSRG:37,1,2)
586. How did members of the Bonus Expeditionary Force resist their eviction from federal buildings?
by throwing bricks at the policemen evicting them (USSRG:37,1,2)
587. Why did one of the officers evicting members of the Bonus Expeditionary Force fire his gun?
He tripped and accidentally fired his revolver. (USSRG:37,1,2)
588. How did police officers evicting the Bonus Expeditionary Force respond to the accidental discharge of an officer’s gun?
open fire on the veterans (USSRG:37,1,2)
589. How many veterans were killed in the eviction of the Bonus Expeditionary Force from federal buildings?
590. What order did President Hoover give after the accidental deaths of two members of the Bonus Expeditionary Force?
the complete removal of all members of the Bonus Expeditionary Force (USSRG:37,1,3)
591. commander of the Bonus Expeditionary Force eviction effort
Douglas MacArthur (USSRG:37,1,3)
592. two wars in which Douglas Macarthur would become a national hero
World War II and the Korean War (USSRG:37,1,3)
593. Douglas MacArthur’s military rank at the time of the Bonus Expeditionary Force eviction
594. Where did General Douglas MacArthur serve during World War II and the Korean War?
Southeast Asia (USSRG:37,1,3)
595. Along which river was the Bonus Expeditionary Force’s Anacostia Flats encampment situated?
the Potomac River (USSRG:37,1,3)
596. How many people died in the burning of Anacostia Flats?
1 child (USSRG:37,1,3)
597. Why did President Hoover defend General Douglas MacArthur’s actions at Anacostia Flats?
believed the Bonus Expeditionary Force had threatened the government’s existence (USSRG:37,2,0)
598. How did the War Department portray General Douglas MacArthur’s role in the removal of the Bonus Expeditionary Force?
as having exhibited “unparalleled humanity and kindness” (USSRG:37,2,0)
599. How did the War Department describe the Bonus Expeditionary Force after their removal from Washington, D.C.?
as “Communist agitators” (USSRG:37,2,0)
600. Which of President Hoover’s policies was most objectionable to American voters in 1932?
his reaction to the Bonus Expeditionary Force (USSRG:37,2,0)