social science section 2

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social science section 2
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  1. 601. date of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s inauguration
    March 4, 1933 (USSRG:38,1,1)
  2. 602. essential message of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s politics
    hope for change (USSRG:38,1,1)
  3. 603. What commitment did Franklin D. Roosevelt offer Americans with his New Deal?
    an attempt at solving the economic crisis (USSRG:38,1,1)
  4. 604. President who stayed in office longer than any other in American history
    Franklin D. Roosevelt (USSRG:38,1,2)
  5. 605. How many terms did Franklin D. Roosevelt serve as United States President?
    four (USSRG:38,1,2)
  6. 606. the “Third American Revolution”
    the New Deal (USSRG:38,1,2)
  7. 607. How does historian William E. Leuchtenberg describe Franklin D. Roosevelt?
    as “the first modern President” (USSRG:38,2,0)
  8. 608. year in which Japan invaded Manchuria
    1931 (USSRG:39,1,0)
  9. 609. When did the Dow reach its all‐time lowest level?
    July 1932 (USSRG:39,1,0)
  10. 610. lowest‐ever level reached by the Dow
    41.22 (USSRG:39,1,0)
  11. 611. Which American car company had its worst year ever in 1931?
    Ford Motor Company (USSRG:39,1,0)
  12. 612. number of cars produced by the Ford Motor Company in 1929
    1,500,000 (USSRG:39,1,0)
  13. 613. number of cars produced by the Ford Motor Company in 1931
    232,000 (USSRG:39,1,0)
  14. 614. Ford Motor Company plant at which police opened fire on protestors in 1931
    Dearbom plant (USSRG:39,1,0)
  15. 615. How many people were killed when police opened fire on protestors outside the Ford Dearborn plant?
    four (USSRG:39,1,0)
  16. 616. In which city did 6,000 protestors fill the streets singing “The Internationale” in 1932?
    Detroit (USSRG:39,1,0)
  17. 617. The Internationale
    a Communist hymn (USSRG:39,1,0)
  18. 618. John Reed Clubs
    American organizations distributing Communist propaganda (USSRG:39,1,0)
  19. 619. American city in which the first John Reed Clubs were founded in 1932
    Chicago (USSRG:39,1,0)
  20. 620. How many consecutive Republican administrations preceded Franklin D. Roosevelt’s election?
    three (USSRG:39,1,1)
  21. 621. Which United States president said that “the business of government is business”?
    Calvin Coolidge (USSRG:39,1,1)
  22. 622. 1932 law setting aside $150 million to prevent home foreclosures
    Federal Home Loan Bank Act (USSRG:39,1,1)
  23. 623. 1932 law setting aside $750 million in gold reserves for business recovery
    Glass‐Steagall Act (USSRG:39,1,1)
  24. 624. two Hoover policies that counteracted his recovery measures
    tax hikes and a balanced federal budget (USSRG:39,1,1)
  25. 625. Chicago’s mayor in 1932
    Anton Cermak (USSRG:39,1,1)
  26. 626. Republican candidate for United States President in 1932
    Herbert Hoover (USSRG:39,1,1)
  27. 627. American city in which the Republican Party Convention was held in 1932
    Chicago (USSRG:39,1,1)
  28. 628. the only American presidential candidate to date who had won by a wider margin than Franklin Roosevelt did in 1932
    Abraham Lincoln in 1864 (USSRG:39,1,2)
  29. 629. percentage of the popular vote garnered by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932
    57% (USSRG:39,1,2)
  30. 630. number of electoral votes won by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932
    472 (USSRG:39,1,2)
  31. 631. What promise did Franklin D. Roosevelt make with regard to the federal budget during the United States’ 1932 presidential election?
    cut it by 25% (USSRG:39,1,2)
  32. 632. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s view of the gold standard during the United States’ 1932 presidential election
    that it was a sacred covenant (USSRG:39,1,2)
  33. 633. candidate in the United States’ 1932 presidential election advocating more equitable income distribution
    Franklin D. Roosevelt (USSRG:39,2,0)
  34. 634. building in which an assassin shot at Franklin Roosevelt in February 1933
    Miami Airport (USSRG:39,2,1)
  35. 635. Giuseppe Zangara
    man who attempted to assassinate Franklin Roosevelt in February 1933 (USSRG:39,2,1)
  36. 636. politician killed by Giuseppe Zangara in February 1933
    Anton Cermak (USSRG:39,2,1)
  37. 637. Why was Franklin Roosevelt in Florida in February 1933?
    for a fishing trip (USSRG:39,2,1)
  38. 638. number of shots Giuseppe Zangara fire at Franklin Roosevelt in his assassination attempt
    five (USSRG:39,2,1)
  39. 639. Giuseppe Zangara’s job
    construction worker (USSRG:39,2,1)
  40. 640. Why did Giuseppe Zangara attempt to kill Franklin Roosevelt?
    believed Roosevelt’s election would endanger the prospects of a revolution in the United States (USSRG:39,2,1)
  41. 641. How long before Franklin Roosevelt’s inauguration did Giuseppe Zangara attempt to kill him?
    2 weeks (USSRG:39,2,1)
  42. 642. How many years did Franklin D. Roosevelt spend as President of the United States?
    13 (USSRG:39,2,2)
  43. 643. two factors contributing to the longevity of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s legacy
    New Deal policies and the his personality (USSRG:39,2,2)
  44. 644. Which anti‐New Deal president intentionally based his personal style on Franklin D. Roosevelt’s?
    Ronald Reagan (USSRG:39,2,2)
  45. 645. state that Franklin D. Roosevelt’s family came from
    New York (USSRG:40,1,0)
  46. 646. year in which Franklin D. Roosevelt was born
    1882 (USSRG:40,1,1)
  47. 647. Where was the family estate in which Franklin D. Roosevelt grew up situated?
    Hyde Park (USSRG:40,1,1)
  48. 648. Roosevelt family investments that underpinned their wealth
    railroad and coal mining investments (USSRG:40,1,1)
  49. 649. Why were the Roosevelts unconventional among American financial aristocrats of their day?
    belief that their wealth compelled them to help their community (USSRG:40,2,0)
  50. 650. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s father
    James Roosevelt (USSRG:40,2,0)
  51. 651. year in which James Roosevelt married his second wife
    1880 (USSRG:40,2,0)
  52. 652. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s mother
    Sara Delano (USSRG:40,2,0)
  53. 653. two positions James Roosevelt held in public service
    town selectman and board member of the local state hospital (USSRG:40,2,0)
  54. 654. age at which James Roosevelt married Sara Delano
    52 (USSRG:40,2,0)
  55. 655. prep school from which Franklin D. Roosevelt graduated
    Groton prep school (USSRG:40,2,0)
  56. 656. university from which Franklin D. Roosevelt graduated
    Harvard University (USSRG:40,2,0)
  57. 657. law school that Franklin D. Roosevelt attended
    Columbia Law School (USSRG:40,2,0)
  58. 658. For how many years did Franklin D. Roosevelt attend Columbia Law School?
    one (USSRG:40,2,0)
  59. 659. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s first priority in university
    his social life (USSRG:40,2,0)
  60. 660. job that Franklin D. Roosevelt took after passing the bar
    corporate lawyer (USSRG:40,2,1)
  61. 661. cousin of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s and former President of the United States
    Theodore Roosevelt (USSRG:40,2,1)
  62. 662. twenty‐sixth President of the United States
    Theodore Roosevelt (USSRG:40,2,1)
  63. 663. Which family member of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s objected to his entry into politics?
    his mother, Sara (USSRG:40,2,1)
  64. 664. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s political party
    Democratic Party (USSRG:40,2,1)
  65. 665. office Franklin D. Roosevelt won in 1910
    New York State Senator (USSRG:40,2,1)
  66. 666. office to which Franklin D. Roosevelt was appointed in 1913
    Secretary of the Navy (USSRG:40,2,1)
  67. 667. Why was Franklin D. Roosevelt unable to join the military in 1918?
    influenza (USSRG:40,2,1)
  68. 668. field that Franklin D. Roosevelt considered entering after World War I ended
    business (USSRG:40,2,1)
  69. 669. office for which Franklin Roosevelt ran in 1920
    Vice President of the United States (USSRG:40,2,1)
  70. 670. Democratic Party’s nominee for President of the United States in 1920
    James Cox (USSRG:40,2,1)
  71. 671. What disease did Franklin Roosevelt contract in 1921?
    polio (USSRG:40,2,2)
  72. 672. Where was Franklin Roosevelt when he contracted polio?
    his family’s vacation home (USSRG:40,2,2)
  73. 673. polio
    infectious disease caused by a virus that afflicts the nervous system (USSRG:40,2,2)
  74. 674. official name for polio
    poliomyelitis (USSRG:40,2,2)
  75. 675. How does polio affect its victims?
    varying degrees of paralysis (USSRG:40,2,2)
  76. 676. Which group was most affected by polio during the late 19th and early 20th century?
    small children (USSRG:40,2,2)
  77. 677. When did major polio epidemics begin in the United States and Europe?
    the 1880s (USSRG:40,2,2)
  78. 678. When was a vaccine invented for polio?
    1952 (USSRG:40,2,2)
  79. 679. inventor of the polio vaccine
    Jonas Selk (USSRG:40,2,2)
  80. 680. device that helped Franklin Roosevelt stand again after he contracted polio
    steel leg braces (USSRG:40,2,2)
  81. 681. Frances Perkins
    Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Secretary of Labor (USSRG:41,1,1)
  82. 682. Eleanor Roosevelt
    Franklin D. Roosevelt’s wife (USSRG:41,1,2)
  83. 683. How were Franklin D. and Eleanor Roosevelt related prior to their marriage?
    The two were distant cousins. (USSRG:41,1,2)
  84. 684. year in which Franklin D. and Eleanor Roosevelt began dating
    1903 (USSRG:41,1,2)
  85. 685. year in which Franklin D. and Eleanor Roosevelt married
    1905 (USSRG:41,2,0)
  86. 686. How many children did Franklin D. and Eleanor Roosevelt have?
    five (USSRG:41,2,0)
  87. 687. Lucy Mercer
    Eleanor Roosevelt’s social secretary (USSRG:41,2,0)
  88. 688. In which year was Franklin D. Roosevelt’s affair with Lucy Mercer discovered?
    1919 (USSRG:41,2,0)
  89. 689. How did Franklin D. and Eleanor Roosevelt’s marriage change after the former’s affair was discovered?
    went from a romance and friendship to a political alliance (USSRG:41,2,0)
  90. 690. With which organization was Eleanor Roosevelt most prominently associated?
    League of Women Voters (USSRG:41,2,0)
  91. 691. When did Franklin D. Roosevelt die?
    April 1945 (USSRG:41,2,0)
  92. 692. Who was with Franklin D. Roosevelt when he died?
    Lucy Mercer (USSRG:41,2,0)
  93. 693. Harvard’s college newspaper for which Franklin D. Roosevelt worked
    the Harvard Crimson (USSRG:41,2,1)
  94. 694. nickname given to Franklin D. Roosevelt during his run for the New York State Senate
    Galahad of the insurgency (USSRG:41,2,1)
  95. 695. Franklin Roosevelt’s publicity manager and closest advisor
    Louis McHenry Howe (USSRG:41,2,1)
  96. 696. Louis McHenry Howe’s job in 1910
    journalist (USSRG:41,2,1)
  97. 697. city in which Louis McHenry Howe worked in 1910
    New York (USSRG:41,2,1)
  98. 698. Why was Franklin D. Roosevelt nicknamed “Galahad of the insurgency” during his bid for the New York State Senate?
    his liberal opposition to the Democratic Party machine (USSRG:41,2,1)
  99. 699. What sort of image did Franklin D. Roosevelt portray during his election campaigns?
    a positive image of progress that avoided excessive detail (USSRG:41,2,1)
  100. 700. When did Franklin D. Roosevelt first come to the attention of the national press?
    during his 1910 bid for the New York State Senate (USSRG:41,2,1)
  101. 701. In which year did Franklin D. Roosevelt first use the radio as a means of political messaging?
    1929 (USSRG:42,1,0)
  102. 702. four United States presidents that used the radio to address their constituents before Franklin D. Roosevelt
    Wilson, Harding, Hoover, and Coolidge (USSRG:42,1,0)
  103. 703. Which politicians dominated the New York state legislature while Franklin D. Roosevelt was the state’s governor?
    conservative Republicans (USSRG:42,1,0)
  104. 704. How did Franklin D. Roosevelt work around the conservative state legislature when he was governor of New York?
    by using radio addresses to win over citizens at large (USSRG:42,1,0)
  105. 705. fireside chats
    radio addresses Franklin D. Roosevelt delivered to the American people (USSRG:42,2,0)
  106. 706. How long were Franklin D. Roosevelt’s fireside chats?
    less than half an hour (USSRG:42,2,0)
  107. 707. Which political movement was at its zenith when Franklin D. Roosevelt entered politics?
    the progressive movement (USSRG:42,2,1)
  108. 708. county in which Franklin D. Roosevelt ran for New York state Senate
    Duchess (USSRG:42,2,1)
  109. 709. the predominant political party in New York’s Duchess County in 1910
    Republican Party (USSRG:42,2,1)
  110. 710. political philosophy of Theodore Roosevelt’s which Franklin D. Roosevelt admired
    progressive nationalism (USSRG:43,1,0)
  111. 711. Charles Evan Hughes’ political party
    Republican (USSRG:43,1,0)
  112. 712. governmental office to which Charles Evan Hughes was appointed in 1910
    Supreme Court Justice (USSRG:43,1,0)
  113. 713. Whose Presidential nomination was Franklin D. Roosevelt instrumental in securing in 1912?
    Woodrow Wilson (USSRG:43,1,0)
  114. 714. To which office was Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed by Woodrow Wilson?
    Assistant Secretary of the Navy (USSRG:43,1,0)
  115. 715. two skills Franklin D. Roosevelt learned as Assistant Secretary of the Navy
    negotiating large contracts and settling labor disputes (USSRG:43,1,0)
  116. 716. town in which Franklin D. Roosevelt restored a resort after the 1920 presidential election
    Warm Springs, Georgia (USSRG:43,1,1)
  117. 717. purpose of the resort Franklin D. Roosevelt restored in Warm Springs, Georgia
    rehabilitation for polio victims (USSRG:43,1,1)
  118. 718. job Franklin D. Roosevelt held after his loss in the 1920 presidential election
    selling bonds for an insurance company (USSRG:43,1,1)
  119. 719. Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1924
    Al Smith (USSRG:43,1,1)
  120. 720. What position did Al Smith encourage Franklin D. Roosevelt to run for 1928?
    New York governor (USSRG:43,1,1)
  121. 721. Why did Al Smith want Franklin D. Roosevelt to run for New York governor in 1928?
    to improve Roosevelt’s chances in the 1932 presidential election (USSRG:43,1,1)
  122. 722. the largest state in the United States in 1928
    New York (USSRG:43,1,1)
  123. 723. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s view of the role of government
    as an agent of positive change (USSRG:43,1,2)
  124. 724. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s position on monopolies
    strong opposition (USSRG:43,1,2)
  125. 725. What unprecedented legislation did Franklin D. Roosevelt pass as Governor of New York?
    the state’s most ambitious spending program ever (USSRG:43,1,3)
  126. 726. In which year was Franklin D. Roosevelt elected to his second term as New York governor?
    1930 (USSRG:43,2,0)
  127. 727. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s position on budget deficits
    strong opposition (USSRG:43,2,0)
  128. 728. number of unemployed New Yorkers during Franklin D. Roosevelt’s second term as governor
    1,000,000 (USSRG:43,2,0)
  129. 729. How did Franklin D. Roosevelt react to the worsening Depression while New York governor?
    He began to experiment with economic policies. (USSRG:43,2,0)
  130. 730. How did Franklin D. Roosevelt generate new ideas for government programs as Governor of New York?
    employed a group of experts as a brain trust (USSRG:43,2,0)
  131. 731. How did the role of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s brain trust change after he became President?
    became major policymakers in the New Deal (USSRG:43,2,0)
  132. 732. How much did the brain trust’s policies improve New York’s economy?
    very little (USSRG:43,2,0)
  133. 733. How did the brain trust’s policies affect public perception of Franklin D. Roosevelt?
    gave him a reputation as the most proactive politician of the day (USSRG:43,2,0)
  134. 734. When did Franklin D. Roosevelt begin preparing for his first presidential campaign?
    immediately after winning his second term as New York’s governor (USSRG:44,1,1)
  135. 735. Why did Franklin D. Roosevelt abandon previous positions on the League of Nations during the 1932 presidential election?
    to avoid putting off isolationist voters (USSRG:44,1,1)
  136. 736. Which columnist condemned Franklin D. Roosevelt’s change of position on the League of Nations?
    Walter Lipmann (USSRG:44,1,1)
  137. 737. Walter Lipmann’s job
    columnist (USSRG:44,1,1)
  138. 738. Civilian Conversation Corps
    New Deal reforestation program employing American youths (USSRG:44,1,2)
  139. 739. Securities and Exchange Commission
    New Deal organization responsible for regulating Wall Street (USSRG:44,1,2)
  140. 740. Tennessee Valley Authority
    New Deal organization regulating utilities and developing public energy (USSRG:44,1,2)
  141. 741. Rural Electrification Act
    law regulating utilities and encouraging the development of public energy (USSRG:44,1,2)
  142. 742. Which constitutional amendment did the 21st amendment repeal?
    the 18th amendment (USSRG:44,1,2)
  143. 743. Which constitutional amendment repealed Prohibition?
    the 21st amendment (USSRG:44,1,2)
  144. 744. Which of his principles was Franklin D. Roosevelt willing to sacrifice for the sake of public welfare?
    his insistence on balanced budgets (USSRG:44,2,0)
  145. 745. Which period of an American president’s term is often used as an early gauge of their effectiveness?
    the first 100 days (USSRG:44,2,1)
  146. 746. labor and women’s rights advocate in Franklin D. Roosevelt’s brain trust
    Frances Perkins (USSRG:44,2,2)
  147. 747. Harry L. Hopkins’ job
    social worker (USSRG:44,2,2)
  148. 748. Harold Ickes
    a veteran progressive on Franklin D. Roosevelt’s brain trust (USSRG:44,2,2)
  149. 749. school at which Raymond Moley taught
    Columbia (USSRG:44,2,2)
  150. 750. two economists on Franklin D. Roosevelt’s brain trust
    Rexford Tugwell and Adolph Berle (USSRG:44,2,2)
  151. 751. president Edward M. House had advised before joining Franklin D. Roosevelt’s brain trust
    Woodrow Wilson (USSRG:45,1,0)
  152. 752. Edward M. House’s military rank
    colonel (USSRG:45,1,0)
  153. 753. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s long‐time advisor who joined his brain trust
    Louis Howe (USSRG:45,1,0)
  154. 754. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Treasury Secretary
    Henry Mogenthau (USSRG:45,1,0)
  155. 755. Henry Morgenthau’s special assistant
    Jacob Viner (USSRG:45,1,0)
  156. 756. school at which Jacob Viner worked prior to joining Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration
    Princeton (USSRG:45,1,0)
  157. 757. five economists who served as informal advisors to Franklin D. Roosevelt during his time as President
    Laughlin Currie, Adolph Berle, John Kenneth Galbraith, Gardiner Meenz, and Alan Sweezy (USSRG:45,1,0)
  158. 758. Why was Laughlin Currie refused tenure at Harvard?
    his adherence to Keynesian economics (USSRG:45,1,0)
  159. 759. When did the council of economic advisors formally become part of the United States government?
    after World War II (USSRG:45,1,0)
  160. 760. small executive office staffed extensively with academic talent under Franklin D. Roosevelt
    National Resources Board (USSRG:45,1,1)
  161. 761. Alvin Hansen
    influential academic on the National Resources Board under Franklin D. Roosevelt (USSRG:45,1,1)
  162. 762. six lawyers who joined the National Resources Board under Franklin D. Roosevelt
    Thomas G. Corcoran, William O. Douglas, Louis Brandeis, Jeremy Frank, Sam Rayburn, and Lyndon B. Johnson (USSRG:45,1,1)
  163. 763. office William O. Douglas would hold after joining the National Resource Board
    Supreme Court Justice (USSRG:45,1,1)
  164. 764. office Louis Brandeis held when he joined the National Resources Board
    Supreme Court Justice (USSRG:45,1,1)
  165. 765. office Lyndon Baines Johnson would hold after his time on the National Resource Board
    President of the United States (USSRG:45,1,1)
  166. 766. Who was responsible for guiding Franklin D. Roosevelt’s economic policy through the legislative process?
    Raymond Moley (USSRG:45,1,2)
  167. 767. Raymond Moley’s job prior to joining Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration
    professor (USSRG:45,1,2)
  168. 768. What criterion was Franklin D. Roosevelt’s primary concern when evaluating policy proposals?
    political appeal (USSRG:45,1,2)
  169. 769. How did Franklin D. Roosevelt’s attitude toward his advisors affect New Deal policy?
    made policy inconsistent (USSRG:45,1,2)
  170. 770. historian who first distinguished between the “first” and “second” New Deals
    Arthur M. Schlesinger (USSRG:45,2,1)
  171. 771. the three Rs of New Deal policies
    relief, reform, and recovery (USSRG:45,2,1)
  172. 772. What meeting did Franklin D. Roosevelt call immediately after his inauguration?
    an emergency session of Congress (USSRG:45,2,1)
  173. 773. Which types of transactions were postponed between March 6 and 9, 1933?
    transactions in gold (USSRG:45,2,1)
  174. 774. What measure did Franklin D. Roosevelt take immediately after his inauguration?
    declared a national bank holiday until Congress convened (USSRG:45,2,1)
  175. 775. How did the Emergency Banking Act impact Franklin D. Roosevelt’s declaration of a national bank holiday?
    retroactively legalized the declaration (USSRG:45,2,1)
  176. 776. action penalized by the Emergency Banking Act
    hoarding cash (USSRG:45,2,1)
  177. 777. Whose advice did Franklin D. Roosevelt follow in crafting his economic policies immediately after his inauguration?
    Herbert Hoover’s (USSRG:45,2,1)
  178. 778. documents whose issuance was authorized by the Emergency Banking Act
    new Federal Reserve bank notes (USSRG:45,2,1)
  179. 779. Whom did the Emergency Banking Act primarily assist?
    bankers (USSRG:45,2,1)
  180. 780. length of bank holiday declared by Franklin D. Roosevelt in March 1933
    3 days (USSRG:45,2,2)
  181. 781. day on which Congress convened for the first time following Franklin D. Roosevelt’s inauguration
    March 9, 1933 (USSRG:45,2,2)
  182. 782. How long did Congressional debate on the Emergency Banking Act last?
    40 minutes (USSRG:45,2,2)
  183. 783. day on which the Emergency Banking Act was signed into law
    March 9, 1933 (USSRG:45,2,2)
  184. 784. How many Americans listened to Franklin D. Roosevelt’s fireside chat following the passage of the Emergency Banking Act?
    60,000,000 (USSRG:45,2,3)
  185. 785. message of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s fireside chat following the passage of the Emergency Banking Act
    that it was safe for Americans to put their money in banks again (USSRG:45,2,3)
  186. 786. Who said that “capitalism was saved in eight days” by the Emergency Banking Act?
    Raymond Moley (USSRG:45,2,3)
  187. 787. Why was Franklin D. Roosevelt able to pursue broader economic policy initiatives immediately after his inauguration?
    the success of the initial Emergency Banking Act (USSRG:45,2,3)
  188. 788. full name of the FERA
    Federal Emergency Relief Administration (USSRG:45,2,3)
  189. 789. purpose of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration
    aid people who were suffering economic hardship during the Great Depression (USSRG:45,2,3)
  190. 790. organization after which the Federal Emergency Relief Administration was modeled
    Temporary Emergency Relief Administration (USSRG:45,2,3)
  191. 791. state in which the Temporary Emergency Relief Administration was created
    New York (USSRG:45,2,3)
  192. 792. head of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration
    Henry Hopkins (USSRG:45,2,3)
  193. 793. the most powerful man in Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration during his second term
    Henry Hopkins (USSRG:45,2,3)
  194. 794. Henry Hopkins’s job prior to heading the Federal Emergency Relief Administration
    social worker (USSRG:45,2,3)
  195. 795. amount of money the Federal Emergency Relief Administration gave to state and local agencies
    $500,000,000 (USSRG:46,1,1)
  196. 796. Which government program bailed out bankrupt coal towns in Illinois during the Great Depression?
    the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (USSRG:46,1,1)
  197. 797. principal goal of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration
    to alleviate the worst economic hardships in the United States (USSRG:46,1,1)
  198. 798. number of bridges built or repaired with Federal Emergency Relief Administration money
    7,000 (USSRG:46,1,1)
  199. 799. number of buildings built or repaired with Federal Emergency Relief Administration money
    5,000 (USSRG:46,1,1)
  200. 800. number of adults taught to read and write with Federal Emergency Relief Administration money
    over 1,500,000 (USSRG:46,1,1)
  201. 801. full name of the CWA
    Civil Works Administration (USSRG:46,1,2)
  202. 802. full name of the CCC
    Civilian Conservation Corps (USSRG:46,1,2)
  203. 803. full name of the PWA
    Public Works Administration (USSRG:46,1,2)
  204. 804. goal of Civil Works Administration, Civilian Conservation Corps, and Public Works Administration
    provide government‐funded low‐wage employment (USSRG:46,1,2)
  205. 805. When did the Civil Works Administration reach its height?
    winter of 1933 to 1934 (USSRG:46,1,2)
  206. 806. How many people did the Civil Works Administration employ at its height?
    4,200,000 (USSRG:46,1,2)
  207. 807. How many miles of roads did the Civil Works Administration build or upgrade?
    500,000 (USSRG:46,1,2)
  208. 808. How many schools did the Civil Works Administration build or upgrade?
    40,000 (USSRG:46,1,2)
  209. 809. How many playgrounds and athletic fields did the Civil Works Administration build or upgrade?
    3,500 (USSRG:46,1,2)
  210. 810. How many airports did the Civil Works Administration build or upgrade?
    1,000 (USSRG:46,1,2)
  211. 811. city in which the Civil Works Administration hired all unemployed teachers there during the Great Depression
    Boston (USSRG:46,1,2)
  212. 812. job for which the Civil Works Administration hired 94 Kodiak Islands Native Americans
    restocking the islands with snow‐shoe rabbits (USSRG:46,1,2)
  213. 813. means test
    assessment of a person’s need for welfare (USSRG:46,1,2)
  214. 814. How long did the Civil Works Administration last?
    1 year (USSRG:46,1,2)
  215. 815. Why did most federal work programs pay less than the minimum wage?
    to ensure people would take private employment instead if they could (USSRG:46,2,0)
  216. 816. How did the public reaction to the Civilian Conservation Corps differ from that to Civil Works Administration?
    The Civilian Conservation Corps was much more popular. (USSRG:46,2,1)
  217. 817. When was the Civilian Conservation Corps created?
    March 1933 (USSRG:46,2,1)
  218. 818. number of young men employed by the Civilian Conservation Corps
    250,000 (USSRG:46,2,1)
  219. 819. five jobs Civilian Conservation Corps employees performed
    plant trees, drain swamps, construct dams, create reservoirs, and restore forests, parks, and beaches (USSRG:46,2,1)
  220. 820. To what demographic did most Civilian Conservation Corps employees belong?
    urban young men (USSRG:46,2,1)
  221. 821. Which department of the federal government oversaw Civilian Conservation Corps camps?
    the War Department (USSRG:46,2,1)
  222. 822. purpose of the Public Works Administration
    to stimulate demand by putting money into people’s pockets (USSRG:46,2,1)
  223. 823. law that created the Public Works Administration
    National Industrial Recovery Act (USSRG:46,2,1)
  224. 824. full name of the NIRA
    National Industrial Recovery Act (USSRG:46,2,1)
  225. 825. program with activities similar to those of the Public Works Administration
    Civil Works Administration (USSRG:46,2,1)
  226. 826. years in which the Public Works Administration operated
    1933 to 1939 (USSRG:46,2,1)
  227. 827. percentage of all new schools built by the Public Works Administration between 1933 and 1939 in the United States
    75% (USSRG:46,2,1)
  228. 828. percentage of all new hospitals built by the Public Works Administration between 1933 and 1939 in the United States
    35% (USSRG:46,2,1)
  229. 829. percentage of all new court houses, city halls, and sewage plants built by the Public Works Administration between 1933 and 1939 in the United States
    65% (USSRG:46,2,1)
  230. 830. two aspects prioritized over speed of completion in the Public Works Administration
    aesthetics and sound design (USSRG:46,2,1)
  231. 831. director of the Public Works Administration
    Harold Ickes (USSRG:46,2,1)
  232. 832. Harold Ickes’s nickname
    Honest Harold (USSRG:46,2,1)
  233. 833. government organization that cleared slums and built low‐cost urban housing during the Great Depression
    Public Works Administration (USSRG:46,2,1)
  234. 834. How did critics view jobs in the Public Works Administration, Civil Works Administration, and Civilian Conservation Corps?
    as “make‐work” employment (USSRG:46,2,2)
  235. 835. What assumption underlying the New Deal made it different from earlier economic policies?
    that the labor market had failed millions of willing and able workers (USSRG:46,2,2)
  236. 836. Which priority often took precedence over efficiency for New Deal work relief programs?
    employment (USSRG:46,2,2)
  237. 837. number of Americans unemployed during the Great Depression
    13,000,000 (USSRG:46,2,2)
  238. 838. three attitudes caused by involuntary idleness in many unemployed Americans during the Great Depression
    depression, destructive behavior and defeatism (USSRG:46,2,2)
  239. 839. Why did Harry L. Hopkins believe giving Americans money in return for nothing was harmful?
    would destroy their spirits (USSRG:46,2,2)
  240. 840. government policy on banking that Franklin D. Roosevelt had opposed prior to his election as president
    insuring bank deposits (USSRG:47,1,1)
  241. 841. date on which Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Glass‐Steagall Banking Act
    June 16, 1933 (USSRG:47,1,1)
  242. 842. Which two financial fields did the Glass‐Steagall Banking Act separate?
    commercial banking and investment (USSRG:47,1,1)
  243. 843. Why did the Glass‐Steagall Banking Act separate commercial and investment banking?
    so that savings accounts would be protected from risky investment strategies (USSRG:47,1,1)
  244. 844. organization created by the Glass‐Steagall Banking Act
    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (USSRG:47,1,2,)
  245. 845. full name of the FDIC
    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (USSRG:47,1,2,)
  246. 846. function of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
    to insure bank deposits (USSRG:47,1,2,)
  247. 847. maximum amount insurable by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation at its inception
    $2500 (USSRG:47,1,2,)
  248. 848. two congressmen who introduced the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation into legislation
    Arthur Vandenberg and Henry Steagall (USSRG:47,1,2,)
  249. 849. state which Arthur Vandenberg represented
    Michigan (USSRG:47,1,2,)
  250. 850. state which Henry Steagall represented
    Alabama (USSRG:47,1,2,)
  251. 851. purpose of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
    to protect small banks (USSRG:47,1,2,)
  252. 852. Why is the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation widely known today?
    Its logo is displayed at most American commercial banks. (USSRG:47,1,2,)
  253. 853. When was the next time after the Great Depression that bank panics occurred in the United States?
    the 1980s (USSRG:47,1,2,)
  254. 854. caveat emptor
    buyer beware (USSRG:47,2,1)
  255. 855. In which year did the Senate question J. P. Morgan about the stock market crash of 1929?
    1933 (USSRG:47,2,1)
  256. 856. the world’s most famous financier in 1933
    J. P. Morgan (USSRG:47,2,1)
  257. 857. 1933 law regulating financial markets
    Securities Act (USSRG:47,2,2)
  258. 858. Which body supervised the issuance of new securities under the 1933 Securities Act?
    the Federal Trade Commission (USSRG:47,2,2)
  259. 859. Who was made criminally liable for fraudulent stocks by the 1933 Securities Act?
    company directors (USSRG:47,2,2)
  260. 860. Who asked Congress to create the Securities and Exchange Commission?
    Franklin D. Roosevelt (USSRG:47,2,3)
  261. 861. act of Congress that created the Securities and Exchange Commission
    Securities Exchange Act (USSRG:47,2,3)
  262. 862. full name of the SEC
    Securities and Exchange Commission (USSRG:47,2,3)
  263. 863. purpose of the Securities and Exchange Commission
    to prevent the manipulation of financial markets and regulate trading practices (USSRG:47,2,3)
  264. 864. Why was the Securities and Exchange Commission unable to eliminate all fraud on Wall Street?
    couldn’t ensure that investors would make fully informed decisions (USSRG:47,2,3)
  265. 865. Henry A. Wallace
    Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Secretary of Agriculture (USSRG:47,2,4)
  266. 866. three agricultural interest groups that sought the help of Henry A. Wallace
    American Farm Bureau Federation, Grange movement, and Stable Money Society (USSRG:47,2,4)
  267. 867. depression‐era law to protect farmers
    Agricultural Adjustment Act (USSRG:48,1,0)
  268. 868. full name of the 1933 AAA
    Agricultural Adjustment Act (USSRG:48,1,0)
  269. 869. Why did farmers want the money supply to increase during the Great Depression?
    to prevent further decreases in agricultural prices (USSRG:48,1,0)
  270. 870. aim of the Agricultural Adjustment Act
    to increase the prices of agricultural products (USSRG:48,1,0)
  271. 871. mechanism through which the Agricultural Adjustment Act sought to increase prices of agricultural products
    a domestic production allotment plan (USSRG:48,1,0)
  272. 872. How would farms’ output be affected under the Agricultural Adjustment Act?
    by subsidizing farmers not to grow crops (USSRG:48,1,0)
  273. 873. How were the farm subsidies in the Agricultural Adjustment Act paid for?
    by taxing processing industries that had benefited from low agricultural prices (USSRG:48,1,0)
  274. 874. farmers’ view of the Agricultural Adjustment Act
    strong support (USSRG:48,1,1)
  275. 875. How did farmers’ incomes in 1936 compare to that of 1933?
    twice as high (USSRG:48,1,1)
  276. 876. Why did agricultural prices increase between 1933 and 1936?
    reduced acreage under cultivation (USSRG:48,1,1)
  277. 877. How many acres of cotton had to be destroyed because of the Agricultural Adjustment Act?
    10,000,000 (USSRG:48,1,1)
  278. 878. two types of farmers who most benefited from federal subsidies under the Agricultural Adjustment Act
    large western growers and southern landowners (USSRG:48,1,1)
  279. 879. What percentage of their federal farm subsidies did southern landowners retain during the Great Depression?
    90% (USSRG:48,1,1)
  280. 880. How many tenants worked on farms in the South during the Great Depression?
    8,500,000 (USSRG:48,1,1)
  281. 881. How many African American tenants worked on farms in the South during the Great Depression?
    3,000,000 (USSRG:48,1,1)
  282. 882. Why were many tenants in the South evicted after the passage of the Agricultural Adjustment Act?
    Landowners were not legally obligated to keep them on their land. (USSRG:48,1,1)
  283. 883. Which sector of the economy went neglected during the first two months of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency?
    industry (USSRG:48,2,1)
  284. 884. Senator who convinced Congress to limit the work week to 32 hours
    Hugo Black (USSRG:48,2,1)
  285. 885. state Hugo Black represented
    Alabama (USSRG:48,2,1)
  286. 886. government office to which Hugo Black was appointed after his time as a Senator
    United States Supreme Court (USSRG:48,2,1)
  287. 887. How did Franklin D. Roosevelt reach a decision on his brain trust’s two different industrial plans?
    locked them in a room for four days until they compromised (USSRG:48,2,1)
  288. 888. Which laws did the National Industrial Recovery Act suspend?
    anti‐trust laws (USSRG:48,2,2)
  289. 889. the law Franklin D. Roosevelt’s brain trust came up with to help American industry
    National Industrial Recovery Act (USSRG:48,2,2)
  290. 890. agreements seen as illegally collusion under anti‐trust laws
    price agreements between businesses (USSRG:48,2,2)
  291. 891. What THREE types of regulations did the National Industrial Recovery Act allow industries to set for themselves?
    production, price, and trade regulation (USSRG:48,2,2)
  292. 892. Which section of the National Industrial Recovery Act assured workers representation in the workplace?
    section 7(a) (USSRG:48,2,2)
  293. 893. collective bargaining
    the practice of workers organizing into unions to negotiate terms of employment (USSRG:48,2,2)
  294. 894. Why did the National Industrial Recovery Act assure workers representation in the workplace?
    so that fair wages would be paid in all industries (USSRG:48,2,2)
  295. 895. On which relationship did the National Industrial Recovery Act rely?
    that between government and businesses (USSRG:48,2,2)
  296. 896. How many major laws did Franklin D. Roosevelt pass during his first 100 days as president?
    15 (USSRG:48,2,4)
  297. 897. How often did Franklin D. Roosevelt meet with his cabinet during his first 100 days as president?
    biweekly (USSRG:48,2,4)
  298. 898. What event followed Franklin D. Roosevelt’s cabinet meetings during his first 100 days as president?
    press conferences (USSRG:48,2,4)
  299. 899. the United States’ most respected liberal commentator during the Great Depression
    Walter Lippman (USSRG:49,1,0)
  300. 900. economic theory that compensates for falling private demand by boosting government spending
    Keynesianism (USSRG:49,1,1)
  301. 901. primary goal of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s economic policy during the Great Depression
    relief (USSRG:49,2,0)
  302. 902. countercyclical fiscal policy during a recession
    intentional government spending increases or tax decreases (USSRG:49,2,0)
  303. 903. When did the United States first practice countercyclical fiscal policy?
    after World War II (USSRG:49,2,0)
  304. 904. the main economic problem Franklin D. Roosevelt saw when he first became president
    too much production (USSRG:49,2,1)
  305. 905. two acts of Congress that restricted production and competition during the Great Depression
    National Industrial Recovery Act and Agricultural Adjustment Act (USSRG:49,2,1)
  306. 906. mature capitalism
    concept that production has reached a maximum (USSRG:49,2,2)
  307. 907. theory supporting mature capitalism
    Bernstein theory of long‐term change in national economies (USSRG:49,2,2)
  308. 908. How strongly did the injection of federal money during the Great Depression affect the American economy?
    very weakly (USSRG:49,2,3)
  309. 909. Why was the injection of federal money during the Great Depression not very effective?
    Franklin D. Roosevelt was too debt‐averse. (USSRG:49,2,3)
  310. 910. In what way did states negate government spending during the Great Depression?
    shrank their own budgets (USSRG:50,1,0)
  311. 911. Why did states increasingly cut spending during the New Deal?
    preferred to let federal money from new programs carry the burden (USSRG:50,1,0)
  312. 912. In how many years did federal spending outweigh state budget contractions from 1933 to 1940?
    2 (USSRG:50,1,0)
  313. 913. Who proved that federal spending outweighed state budget contractions in only two years between 1933 and 1940?
    Cary Brown (USSRG:50,1,0)
  314. 914. Cary Brown’s occupation
    economist (USSRG:50,1,0)
  315. 915. Which action of President Hoover’s limited the New Deal’s ability to expand demand?
    the tax increases of 1932 (USSRG:50,1,1)
  316. 916. How did President Roosevelt’s advisor Alvin Hansen describe the New Deal?
    as a “salvaging program” (USSRG:50,1,1)
  317. 917. What observation did economist Cary Brown make about demand management during the 1930s?
    it was “unsuccessful…not because it did not work but because it was not tried” (USSRG:50,1,1)
  318. 918. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s most successful Great Depression recovery program
    the Tennessee Valley Authority (USSRG:50,2,0)
  319. 919. full name of the TVA
    the Tennessee Valley Authority (USSRG:50,2,0)
  320. 920. When did Congress create the Tennessee Valley Authority?
    May 1933 (USSRG:50,2,0)
  321. 921. Which kind of American politicians had lobbied hardest to build a hydropower and irrigation dam in the 1930s?
    those from rural areas (USSRG:50,2,0)
  322. 922. politician who lobbied most prominently in favor of building a hydropower and irrigation dam in the 1930s
    George Norris (USSRG:50,2,0)
  323. 923. state George Norris represented
    Nebraska (USSRG:50,2,0)
  324. 924. George Norris’s government position
    United States Senator (USSRG:50,2,0)
  325. 925. two entrepreneurs who had been in favor of building a hydropower and irrigation dam during the 1920s
    Henry Ford and Samuel Insull (USSRG:50,2,0)
  326. 926. Samuel Insull’s occupation
    public utility investor (USSRG:50,2,0)
  327. 927. How many people lost their life savings when William Insull’s company collapsed?
    600,000 (USSRG:50,2,0)
  328. 928. How did the collapse of Samuel Insull’s company affect the proposed hydropower and irrigation dam project?
    made the project far more likely to be carried out by the government (USSRG:50,2,0)
  329. 929. How many states did the Tennessee Valley span?
    7 (USSRG:50,2,1)
  330. 930. two services provided by the Tennessee Valley Authority
    electricity and flood control (USSRG:50,2,1)
  331. 931. power plant which the Tennessee Valley Authority operated
    Muscle Shoals power plant (USSRG:50,2,1)
  332. 932. How did the Tennessee Valley Authority directly benefit farmers in the region?
    helped them improve their yields (USSRG:50,2,1)
  333. 933. two ways in which the Tennessee Valley Authority improved the region’s environment
    reforested some areas and restored natural habitats for fish and wildlife (USSRG:50,2,1)
  334. 934. function of the Tennessee Valley Authority which had the greatest impact
    generating electricity through its dams (USSRG:50,2,1)
  335. 935. Why did free‐market activists object to the Tennessee Valley Authority?
    was a demonstration of a successful government‐run economy (USSRG:50,2,1)
  336. 936. member of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s brain trust who had criticized big business’s power in modern America
    Adolf Berle (USSRG:50,2,2)
  337. 937. Adolf Berle’s famous book on corporations
    The Modern Corporation and Private Property (USSRG:50,2,2)
  338. 938. Which government policy did Adolf Berle’s The Modern Corporation and Private Property shape?
    section 7(a) of the National Industrial Recovery Act (USSRG:50,2,2)
  339. 939. primary goal of the United States labor movement during the Great Depression
    increasing the United States’ consumptive capacity (USSRG:50,2,3)
  340. 940. What goal did unions set for all American workers during the Great Depression?
    an “American” standard of living (USSRG:50,2,3)
  341. 941. How did unions plan to attain a nationwide “American” standard of living during the Great Depression?
    through a government that acknowledged workers’ rights to organize (USSRG:50,2,3)
  342. 942. “radical boosters of the state” during the Great Depression
    communist and socialist organizations that mobilized American workers to seek government help (USSRG:51,1,1)
  343. 943. two kinds of rallies communists and socialists used to mobilize American workers to seek government help
    unemployment demonstrations and anti‐eviction protests (USSRG:51,1,1)
  344. 944. How did “radical boosters of the state” impact the American worker?
    made workers feel entitled to government aid (USSRG:51,1,1)
  345. 945. full name of the NRA
    National Recovery Agency (USSRG:51,1,2)
  346. 946. shortcoming of the National Recovery Agency that disappointed labor activists
    failure to enforce working conditions agreed upon by industries (USSRG:51,1,2)
  347. 947. Why did the National Recovery Agency undermine section 7(a) of the National Industrial Recovery Act?
    allowed businesses to create their own labor unions to represent workers (USSRG:51,1,2)
  348. 948. When was the last time before the New Deal that workers had been legally protected by the American government?
    World War I (USSRG:51,2,0)
  349. 949. Which union added 100,000 new members in a single month during the Great Depression?
    United Mine Workers (USSRG:51,2,0)
  350. 950. size of the United Textile Workers’ membership following exponential growth from several thousand
    almost 250,000 (USSRG:51,2,0)
  351. 951. scabs
    workers who ignored strikes (USSRG:51,2,0)
  352. 952. three strategies businesses employed to counteract growing union membership during the Great Depression
    firing union members, breaking up union meetings, and hiring scabs (USSRG:51,2,0)
  353. 953. National Labor Board
    Franklin D. Roosevelt’s attempt to reconcile labor and business during the Great Depression (USSRG:51,2,0)
  354. 954. Who served on the National Labor Board?
    business and labor leaders (USSRG:51,2,0)
  355. 955. Reading Formula
    policy arrived upon by the National Labor Board (USSRG:51,2,0)
  356. 956. two stipulations of the Reading Formula
    strikers must be rehired and union leaders must be selected by private voting (USSRG:51,2,0)
  357. 957. Why did the Reading Formula insist that union leaders must be selected by private voting?
    so that businesses could not coerce workers to vote for their preferred candidates (USSRG:51,2,0)
  358. 958. Why was the effectiveness of the Reading Formula limited?
    enforcement (USSRG:51,2,0)
  359. 959. number of workers who went on strike in the United States in 1934
    1,500,000 (USSRG:52,1,1)
  360. 960. number of strikes in the United States in 1934
    1,800 (USSRG:52,1,1)
  361. 961. result of the poor enforcement of the Reading Formula
    increased violence between businesses and workers (USSRG:52,1,1)
  362. 962. When did 5,000 Chicago teachers hold a march on city hall protesting having been paid in scrip for ten months?
    April 1934 (USSRG:52,1,1)
  363. 963. number of Chicago teachers who demonstrated against being paid in scrip in April 1934
    5,000 (USSRG:52,1,1)
  364. 964. reason 5,000 Chicago teachers demonstrated in April 1934
    had only been paid in scrip for the previous ten months (USSRG:52,1,1)
  365. 965. city in which teachers held a mass rally in July 1934
    Chicago (USSRG:52,1,1)
  366. 966. number of teachers participating in a Chicago mass rally in July 1934
    25,000 (USSRG:52,1,1)
  367. 967. Which TWO actions prompted Chicago teachers to hold a mass rally in July 1934?
    firings and budget cuts (USSRG:52,1,1)
  368. 968. sector of the economy in which worker‐business relationships were worst during the Great Depression
    industry (USSRG:52,1,1)
  369. 969. American city in which two men died in a labor dispute in May 1934
    Minneapolis, Minnesota (USSRG:52,1,1)
  370. 970. profession of the two men killed in Minneapolis in May 1934
    teamsters (truck drivers) (USSRG:52,1,1)
  371. 971. When did the San Francisco General Strike take place?
    July 1934 (USSRG:52,1,1)
  372. 972. organization that started the San Francisco General Strike
    San Francisco’s Longshoremen’s Association (USSRG:52,1,1)
  373. 973. effect of the San Francisco General Strike
    paralysis of almost the entire city (USSRG:52,1,1)
  374. 974. Harry Bridges
    leader of the San Francisco’s Longshoremen’s Association during the Great Depression (USSRG:52,1,1)
  375. 975. Why did the San Francisco General Strike paralyze almost the entire city?
    Many other unions joined in out of sympathy. (USSRG:52,1,1)
  376. 976. Which part of the United States first became unionized during the Great Depression?
    the South (USSRG:52,1,1)
  377. 977. How many North Carolina textile workers demonstrated for their right to organize in September 1934?
    65,000 (USSRG:52,1,1)
  378. 978. state in which textile workers demonstrated for their right to organize in September 1934
    North Carolina (USSRG:52,1,1)
  379. 979. full name of the AFL
    American Federation of Labor (USSRG:52,1,2)
  380. 980. When did the American Federation of Labor form?
    the late 19th century (USSRG:52,1,2)
  381. 981. Why was the American Federation of Labor so conservative?
    earlier, more liberal organizations had failed (USSRG:52,1,2)
  382. 982. two objectives of the American Federation of Labor
    higher wages and shorter working hours (USSRG:52,1,2)
  383. 983. decade in which the American Federation of Labor declined in power
    1920s (USSRG:52,1,2)
  384. 984. three reasons for the decline of the American Federation of Labor in the 1920s
    anti‐union sentiment, its racial bias, and its disdain for unskilled workers (USSRG:52,1,2)
  385. 985. the only two unskilled labor industries to which the American Federation of Labor paid attention during the 1920s
    coal mining and garments (USSRG:52,1,2)
  386. 986. the United States’ largest union federation in the 1920s
    the American Federation of Labor (USSRG:52,1,3)
  387. 987. What position did American Federation of Labor leaders originally take on the New Deal’s public works programs?
    opposition (USSRG:52,1,3)
  388. 988. Why were American Federation of Labor leaders originally opposed to the New Deal’s public works programs?
    feared their low wages would drive wages down elsewhere (USSRG:52,1,3)
  389. 989. William Green
    president of the American Federation of Labor at the time of the New Deal (USSRG:52,1,3)
  390. 990. How did William Green believe public works programs affected union loyalty?
    damaged it by increasing dependence on the government (USSRG:52,1,3)
  391. 991. Which two groups of workers went on strike in 1934 against the American Federation of Labor’s advice?
    miners and textile workers (USSRG:52,2,1)
  392. 992. How many American textile workers went on in early September 1934?
    about 375,000 (USSRG:52,2,2)
  393. 993. state in which two striking textile workers were killed by state troopers in early September 1934
    Rhode Island (USSRG:52,2,2)
  394. 994. state in which six striking textile workers were killed by deputies in early September 1934
    South Carolina (USSRG:52,2,2)
  395. 995. How many striking textile workers were killed in the South in the September 1934 strike?
    9 (USSRG:52,2,2)
  396. 996. How much support did the American Federation of Labor offer textile workers during their September 1934 strike?
    none (USSRG:52,2,2)
  397. 997. organization that supported the United Textile Workers of America during their September 1934 strike
    United Mine Workers (USSRG:52,2,2)
  398. 998. How did the textile workers’ September 1934 strike end?
    with a return to the status quo (USSRG:52,2,2)
  399. 999. What organization did industrial labor learn they needed after the textile workers’ September 1934 strike?
    a national industrial union (USSRG:52,2,2)
  400. 1000. How did Franklin D. Roosevelt’s monetary policies affect railroad and public utility companies?
    decreased their debt (USSRG:52,2,4)
  401. 1001. Joseph P. Kennedy
    first head of the Securities and Exchange Commission (USSRG:52,2,4)
  402. 1002. Joseph P. Kennedy’s primary occupation
    businessman (USSRG:52,2,4)
  403. 1003. What action did Franklin D. Roosevelt take regarding the veterans’ bonus?
    vetoed it (USSRG:52,2,4)
  404. 1004. When did Franklin D. Roosevelt run out of patience with businessmen whom he viewed as ungrateful?
    May 1935 (USSRG:52,2,4)
  405. 1005. goal of the American Liberty League
    to restore a strict interpretation of the powers of the federal government (USSRG:53,1,0)
  406. 1006. Who comprised the American Liberty League?
    American businessmen and politicians who saw the New Deal as state socialism (USSRG:53,1,0)
  407. 1007. prominent family that joined the American Liberty League
    DuPont family (USSRG:53,1,0)
  408. 1008. General Motors executive who joined the American Liberty League
    Alfred P. Sloan (USSRG:53,1,0)
  409. 1009. full name of the NAM
    National Association of Manufacturers (USSRG:53,1,1)
  410. 1010. four American organizations that were vehemently anti‐ New Deal
    American Liberty League, National Association of Manufacturers, Chamber of Commerce, and National Industrial Conference Board (USSRG:53,1,1)
  411. 1011. number of National Association of Manufacturers members prior to the New Deal
    1,469 (USSRG:53,1,1)
  412. 1012. number of National Association of Manufacturers members in 1937
    3,008 (USSRG:53,1,1)
  413. 1013. Which government program increased the National Association of Manufacturers’ membership substantially?
    the New Deal (USSRG:53,1,1)
  414. 1014. How many of the 37 major legislative proposals from 1933 to 1941 did the National Association of Manufacturers oppose?
    31 (USSRG:53,1,1)
  415. 1015. How many major pieces of legislation were proposed in the United States from 1933 to 1941?
    37 (USSRG:53,1,1)
  416. 1016. body that the National Association of Manufacturers used to influence New Deal policies
    Special Conference Committee (USSRG:53,1,1)
  417. 1017. government agency influenced by the National Association of Manufacturers during the Great Depression
    the National Recovery Administration’s Industrial Advisory Board (USSRG:53,1,1)
  418. 1018. Jack Warner
    a depression‐era movie tycoon who represented the entertainment industry (USSRG:53,1,2)
  419. 1019. two technology companies that supported the New Deal
    AT&T and IBM (USSRG:53,1,2)
  420. 1020. What kind of stores did Edward A. Filene own?
    department stores (USSRG:53,1,2)
  421. 1021. three industries whose firms often supported the New Deal
    entertainment, technology, and service (USSRG:53,1,2)
  422. 1022. associationalism
    voluntary cooperation of government and business (USSRG:53,1,3)
  423. 1023. Which kinds of businesses most often supported the New Deal?
    those that employed some non‐blue collar workers (USSRG:53,1,2)
  424. 1024. Which laws often weakened American businesses’ efforts to avoid competition prior to the New Deal?
    anti‐trust laws (USSRG:53,1,3)
  425. 1025. corporate liberalism
    limited competition in business (USSRG:53,1,3)
  426. 1026. Which agriculture sector problem went unaddressed by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration?
    inequalities within the agricultural sector (USSRG:53,2,1)
  427. 1027. Who dominated local committees under the Agricultural Adjustment Administration?
    large local landowners (USSRG:53,2,1)
  428. 1028. What investments did large southwest American landowners make with their federal subsidies?
    heavy machinery (USSRG:53,2,1)
  429. 1029. Who suffered most from large landowners’ investment in heavy machinery during the Great Depression?
    sharecroppers (USSRG:53,2,1)
  430. 1030. two depression‐era laws designed to protect smaller farmers
    the Farm Credit Act and the Farm Mortgage Refinancing Act (USSRG:53,2,2)
  431. 1031. When was the Farm Credit Act passed?
    June 1933 (USSRG:53,2,2)
  432. 1032. When was the Farm Mortgage Refinancing Act passed?
    January 1934 (USSRG:53,2,2)
  433. 1033. When did Congress suspend all foreclosures on farm mortgages?
    June 1934 (USSRG:53,2,2)
  434. 1034. For how long did Congress suspend all foreclosures on farm mortgages in June 1934?
    five years (USSRG:53,2,2)
  435. 1035. To which agricultural system did the New Deal ultimately give rise in the United States?
    large‐scale, government‐subsidized agro‐business (USSRG:53,2,2)
  436. 1036. Which TWO pillars of the New Deal harmed small producers and laborers’?
    the National Recovery Act and the Agricultural Adjustment Act (USSRG:53,2,3)
  437. 1037. shared goal of the National Recovery and Agricultural Adjustment Acts
    to limit production in order to stabilize prices (USSRG:53,2,3)
  438. 1038. What objective did the Roosevelt Administration adopt after attempting unpopularly to limit production?
    expansion of purchasing power (USSRG:53,2,3)
  439. 1039. Why were New Deal policy makers unable to use countercyclical fiscal policy?
    was politically infeasible at the time (USSRG:53,2,3)
  440. 1040. two types of organizations the Roosevelt Administration strengthened in order to improve Americans’ purchasing power
    unions and consumer organizations (USSRG:53,2,3)
  441. 1041. Who had most often blocked urban interests lobbying for lower prices prior to the New Deal?
    small farmers (USSRG:53,2,3)
  442. 1042. city in which the United Council of Working‐Class Women organized a strike in 1935
    New York City (USSRG:54,1,0)
  443. 1043. Against whom did the United Council of Working‐Class Women organize a strike in 1935?
    butchers (USSRG:54,1,0)
  444. 1044. full name of the UCWCW
    United Council of Working‐Class Women (USSRG:54,1,0)
  445. 1045. length of the United Council of Working‐Class Women’s 1935 strike against New York butchers last
    four weeks (USSRG:54,1,1)
  446. 1046. date on which the United Council of Working‐Class Women’s strike against New York butchers began
    May 22, 1935 (USSRG:54,1,1)
  447. 1047. areas of New York City in which the United Council of Working‐Class Women organized picket lines against butchers in 1935
    Jewish and black neighborhoods (USSRG:54,1,1)
  448. 1048. How many New York City butcher shops closed as a result of the United Council of Working‐Class Women’s strike in 1935?
    4,500 (USSRG:54,1,1)
  449. 1049. number of Los Angeles housewives participating in a 1935 strike against butcher shops
    10,000 (USSRG:54,1,1)
  450. 1050. How long after the June 1935 Los Angeles strike against butcher shops began did butchers cut prices?
    one day (USSRG:54,1,1)
  451. 1051. year in which Los Angeles housewives organized a strike against butcher shops
    (June) 1935 (USSRG:54,1,1)
  452. 1052. slogan used in nationwide housewives’ strikes against butcher shops during the Great Depression
    Stop Buying Meat until Prices Come Down (USSRG:54,1,1)
  453. 1053. city in which housewives rushed the City Council demanding a price ceiling on meat in 1935
    Detroit (USSRG:54,1,1)
  454. 1054. Whom did American housewives target in their 1935 strikes against butchers?
    “meatpacker millionaires” (USSRG:54,1,1)
  455. 1055. Which family’s newspapers called housewives’ strikes of butcher shops a communist conspiracy?
    the Hearst family (USSRG:54,1,1)
  456. 1056. political orientation of the Hearst family’s newspapers
    conservative (USSRG:54,1,1)
  457. 1057. Consumer’s Advisory Board
    agency that pro‐consumer politicians sought unsuccessfully to include in the National Recovery Administration (USSRG:54,1,1)
  458. 1058. Which new cabinet‐level department was suggested during the New Deal?
    Department of the Consumer (USSRG:54,1,1)
  459. 1059. Which larger trend did housewives’ strikes on butcher shops in the depression‐era United States reflect?
    the increasing importance of the American consumer (USSRG:54,1,2)
  460. 1060. economic theory that dominated Franklin D. Roosevelt’s first hundred days of reform
    overproduction (USSRG:54,1,2)
  461. 1061. How far was underconsumption addressed in Franklin D. Roosevelt’s first hundred days?
    in his rhetoric but not in his policies (USSRG:54,1,2)
  462. 1062. two objectives that George Soule believed should be the primary goals of economic policy
    “high wages” and “mass purchasing power” (USSRG:54,1,2)
  463. 1063. George Soule’s occupation
    columnist (USSRG:54,1,2)
  464. 1064. When did George Soule first write propose his two primary goals of economic policy?
    1932 (USSRG:54,1,2)
  465. 1065. book written by Stuart Chase
    The New Deal (USSRG:54,1,2)
  466. 1066. How qualified was Stuart Chase to comment on economics?
    He was an amateur economist. (USSRG:54,1,2)
  467. 1067. Which theory did Stuart Chase advocate in The New Deal?
    underconsumption (USSRG:54,1,2)
  468. 1068. the way to achieve wealth under the theory of underconsumption
    spending (USSRG:54,2,1)
  469. 1069. the most important economic agent under the theory of underconsumption
    workers (USSRG:54,2,1)
  470. 1070. Upton Sinclair’s occupation during the Progressive Era
    muckraking reporter (USSRG:54,2,3)
  471. 1071. purpose of Upton Sinclair’s books
    illustration of social evils (USSRG:54,2,3)
  472. 1072. form that Upton Sinclair’s books most often took
    novel (USSRG:54,2,3)
  473. 1073. Upton Sinclair’s most famous book
    The Jungle (USSRG:54,2,3)
  474. 1074. year in which The Jungle was published
    1906 (USSRG:54,2,3)
  475. 1075. Which industry did Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle explore?
    meatpacking (USSRG:54,2,3)
  476. 1076. city in which Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle took place
    Chicago (USSRG:54,2,3)
  477. 1077. Upton Sinclair’s political affiliation prior to 1933
    socialist (USSRG:54,2,3)
  478. 1078. political party with which Upton Sinclair registered in 1933
    Democratic Party (USSRG:54,2,3)
  479. 1079. For which office did Upton Sinclair announce his candidacy in September 1933?
    Governor of California (USSRG:54,2,3)
  480. 1080. title of the book Upton Sinclair used in his campaign for Governor of California
    I, Governor of California, and How I Ended Poverty: A True Story of the Future (USSRG:55,1,0)
  481. 1081. concept for which Upton Sinclair believed should replace market price
    use value (USSRG:55,1,0)
  482. 1082. On what criteria did Upton Sinclair’s theoretical economy focus?
    production and distribution of goods with inherent value (USSRG:55,1,0)
  483. 1083. title of Upton Sinclair’s economic program
    End Poverty in California (USSRG:55,1,1)
  484. 1084. full name of EPIC
    End Poverty in California (USSRG:55,1,1)
  485. 1085. To whom did Upton Sinclair propose to give expropriated California industrial plants?
    unemployed workers (USSRG:55,1,1)
  486. 1086. economic concept Upton Sinclair propounded in contrast to the prevailing situation in the United States in 1934
    production‐for‐use (USSRG:55,1,1)
  487. 1087. number of copies of Upton Sinclair’s I, Governor of California, and How I Ended Poverty: A True Story of the Future purchased
    100,000 (USSRG:55,1,2)
  488. 1088. the Democratic nominee for Governor of California in 1934
    Upton Sinclair (USSRG:55,1,2)
  489. 1089. How good were Upton Sinclair’s prospects for election as Governor of California upon his nomination in 1934?
    very good (USSRG:55,1,2)
  490. 1090. three groups whose opposition cost Upton Sinclair the seat of Governor of California in 1934
    Hollywood executives, the Hearst family’s newspapers, and California’s biggest companies (USSRG:55,1,2)
  491. 1091. governmental body to which a number of candidates supported by End Poverty in California were elected
    California state legislature (USSRG:55,1,2)
  492. 1092. What theme dominated the campaigns of Upton Sinclair’s opponents in the 1934 California gubernatorial election?
    anti‐socialist fear‐mongering (USSRG:55,1,2)
  493. 1093. office that Huey P. Long held during the late 1920s
    Governor of Louisiana (USSRG:55,1,3)
  494. 1094. office that Huey P. Long held during the Great Depression
    United States Senator (USSRG:55,1,3)
  495. 1095. What cause did Huey P. Long blame for the Great Depression?
    the inequitable distribution of wealth (USSRG:55,1,3)
  496. 1096. Why was Franklin D. Roosevelt unable to raise alarm about wealth inequality through his speeches?
    his sophisticated and clear speech which gave listeners a sense of security (USSRG:55,1,3)
  497. 1097. two policy changes Huey P. Long made as Governor of Louisiana
    created social services for the poor and taxed businesses (USSRG:55,1,3)
  498. 1098. Which policy of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s turned Huey P. Long against the New Deal?
    his appeasal of banks and large corporations (USSRG:55,1,4)
  499. 1099. With which late‐19th‐century American political group did Huey P. Long share much of his economic ideology?
    populists (USSRG:55,1,4)
  500. 1100. Share Our Wealth society
    Huey P. Long’s national program to ensure a basic income for all American families (USSRG:55,2,1)
  501. 1101. When did Huey P. Long first propose the Share Our Wealth society?
    February 1934 (USSRG:55,2,1)
  502. 1102. How much did the Share Our Wealth society promise each American family in homestead allowance?
    $5,000 (USSRG:55,2,1)
  503. 1103. How much did the Share Our Wealth society promise each American family in annual income?
    $2,500 (USSRG:55,2,1)
  504. 1104. proposed source of funding for the Share Our Wealth society
    very progressive income and inheritance taxes (USSRG:55,2,1)
  505. 1105. number of letters Huey P. Long received daily between 1933 and 1935
    60,000 (USSRG:55,2,1)
  506. 1106. Who received more letters daily between 1933 and 1935 than Franklin D. Roosevelt?
    Huey P. Long (USSRG:55,2,1)
  507. 1107. Huey P. Long’s nickname
    Kingfish (USSRG:55,2,2)
  508. 1108. Why was Huey P. Long nicknamed Kingfish?
    his iron‐fisted control of Louisiana as governor (USSRG:55,2,2)
  509. 1109. To which economic system did many Americans compare Huey P. Long’s proposals?
    socialism (USSRG:55,2,2)
  510. 1110. When was Huey P. Long assassinated?
    September 1935 (USSRG:55,2,2)
  511. 1111. How many people visited Huey P. Long’s casket prior to his burial?
    100,000 (USSRG:55,2,2)
  512. 1112. Which TWO American groups were particularly devastated by Huey P. Long’s death?
    poor white and black southerners (USSRG:55,2,2)
  513. 1113. Why did Charles Coughlin first begin using the radio?
    to raise money for his charity (USSRG:56,1,1)
  514. 1114. city in which Charles Coughlin first broadcast on radio
    Detroit (USSRG:56,1,1)
  515. 1115. How long before Black Monday had Charles Coughlin begun broadcasting on radio?
    3 years (USSRG:56,1,1)
  516. 1116. year in which Charles Coughlin began his nationally syndicated radio show
    1930 (USSRG:56,1,1)
  517. 1117. company which offered Charles Coughlin his nationally syndicated radio show
    CBS (USSRG:56,1,1)
  518. 1118. title of Charles Coughlin’s nationally syndicated radio show
    “The Golden Hour of the Little Flower” (USSRG:56,1,1)
  519. 1119. time slot occupied by “The Golden Hour of the Little Flower”
    Sunday evenings (USSRG:56,1,1)
  520. 1120. How many people tuned into “The Golden Hour of the Little Flower” weekly?
    30,000,000 to 40,000,000 (USSRG:56,1,1)
  521. 1121. Whom did Charles Coughlin blame for the Great Depression?
    international banking conspirators (USSRG:56,1,1)
  522. 1122. Which economic system did Charles Coughlin deride on his show?
    communism (USSRG:56,1,1)
  523. 1123. Charles Coughlin’s religion
    Catholic (USSRG:56,1,2)
  524. 1124. Charles Coughlin’s ethnicity
    Irish (USSRG:56,1,2)
  525. 1125. socioeconomic class into which Charles Coughlin was born
    working class (USSRG:56,1,2)
  526. 1126. How did Charles Coughlin propose to expand the American money supply?
    by using silver, as well as gold, as a measure of currency (USSRG:56,1,2)
  527. 1127. Which TWO groups of Americans were attracted to Charles Coughlin’s beliefs?
    heavily indebted farmers and small businessmen (USSRG:56,1,2)
  528. 1128. Whom did Charles Coughlin censure in order to gain the support of working‐class Irish Catholics?
    British bankers (USSRG:56,1,2)
  529. 1129. Against which ethnic group was Charles Coughlin biased?
    Jews (USSRG:56,2,1)
  530. 1130. Of which European political system was Charles Coughlin’s commentary reminiscent?
    fascism (USSRG:56,2,1)
  531. 1131. two organizations to which Charles Coughlin paradoxically ascribed the New Deal
    Wall Street and communists (USSRG:56,2,1)
  532. 1132. What government program would provide American elderly with financial security?
    elderly pensions (USSRG:56,2,2)
  533. 1133. first proponent of a pension for the elderly in the United States
    Francis Townsend (USSRG:56,2,2)
  534. 1134. Francis Townsend’s profession
    doctor (USSRG:56,2,2)
  535. 1135. town in which Francis Townsend lived
    Long Beach, California (USSRG:56,2,2)
  536. 1136. At what age would Francis Townsend’s proposed pension program begin?
    60 (USSRG:56,2,2)
  537. 1137. How much would persons over 60 receive monthly under Francis Townsend’s proposed pension program?
    $200 (USSRG:56,2,2)
  538. 1138. two conditions elderly had to meet to receive their pensions under Francis Townsend’s proposed pension program
    retire and spend all the money each month (USSRG:56,2,2)
  539. 1139. How did Francis Townsend propose to pay for his pension program?
    a value added tax on every level of production (USSRG:56,2,2)
  540. 1140. At what rate did Francis Townsend propose to set a value‐added tax in order to pay for his pension program?
    2% (USSRG:56,2,2)
  541. 1141. two ways in which Francis Townsend believed his pension program would benefit the economy
    opening jobs up to the youth and put money into the economy (USSRG:56,2,2)
  542. 1142. Townsend Clubs
    local organizations supporting Francis Townsend’s proposed pension program (USSRG:56,2,3)
  543. 1143. How many people had joined Townsend Clubs by 1935?
    500,000 (USSRG:56,2,3)
  544. 1144. How many Americans were of retirement age in 1935?
    nearly 8,000,000 (USSRG:56,2,3)
  545. 1145. What stipulation of Francis Townsend’s proposed pension program was unfeasible?
    the transfer of half of Americans’ wealth to the elderly in one year (USSRG:57,1,0)
  546. 1146. Frank Merriam
    depression‐era candidate for Governor of California (USSRG:57,1,0)
  547. 1147. Frank Merriam’s political party
    Republican (USSRG:57,1,0)
  548. 1148. Frank Merriam’s position on Francis Townsend’s proposed pension program
    support (USSRG:57,1,0)
  549. 1149. year in which elderly pension legislation was introduced in the House of Representatives
    1935 (USSRG:57,1,0)
  550. 1150. number of signatures gathered in support of Francis Townsend’s proposed pension program by 1935
    20,000,000 (USSRG:57,1,0)
  551. 1151. result of Congress’ vote on Francis Townsend’s proposed pension program
    did not pass (USSRG:57,1,0)
  552. 1152. prominent American politician who took notice of the support for Francis Townsend’s proposed pension program
    Franklin D. Roosevelt (USSRG:57,1,0)
  553. 1153. How did Franklin D. Roosevelt expect the American public to react to the New Deal?
    national consensus (USSRG:57,1,1)
  554. 1154. the press’s term for Franklin D. Roosevelt’s more socialist rhetoric
    soak‐the‐rich (USSRG:57,1,2)
  555. 1155. year in which Franklin D. Roosevelt made a tax proposal termed as “soak‐the‐rich”
    1935 (USSRG:57,1,2)
  556. 1156. tax Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed in addition to the existing estate tax in 1935
    inheritance tax (USSRG:57,1,2)
  557. 1157. maximum tax rate in the United States prior to 1935
    59% (USSRG:57,1,2)
  558. 1158. new maximum tax rate proposed by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1935
    79% (USSRG:57,1,2)
  559. 1159. new tax created by Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1935 tax proposal
    gradual corporate income tax (USSRG:57,1,2)
  560. 1160. constitutional amendment Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed in 1935
    to allow taxation of interest earned on state and local bonds (USSRG:57,1,2)
  561. 1161. Which Americans usually put their savings in state and local bonds during the Great Depression?
    the very rich (USSRG:57,1,2)
  562. 1162. How long did debate on the Revenue Act of 1935 last?
    10 weeks (USSRG:57,1,2)
  563. 1163. legislation containing Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1935 tax proposal
    the Revenue Act of 1935 (USSRG:57,1,2)
  564. 1164. How did the final Revenue Act of 1935 compare with Franklin D. Roosevelt’s original proposals?
    much less radical (USSRG:57,1,2)
  565. 1165. Which new tax proposed by Franklin D. Roosevelt was excluded from the Revenue Act of 1935?
    the inheritance tax (USSRG:57,1,2)
  566. 1166. the maximum tax rate after 1935
    75% (USSRG:57,1,2)
  567. 1167. What level of income was taxed at a rate of 75% starting in 1935?
    income over $50,000 a year (USSRG:57,1,2)
  568. 1168. percentage of Americans making more than $10,000 a year in 1935
    1% (USSRG:57,1,2)
  569. 1169. How long after the passage of the Revenue Act of 1935 did the federal government close tax loopholes?
    one year (USSRG:57,1,3)
  570. 1170. How did the share of national income belonging to the wealthiest 1% of Americans change over the 1930s?
    It stayed the same. (USSRG:57,1,3)
  571. 1171. result of the 1934 American midterm elections
    Democratic gains in both chambers of Congress (USSRG:57,2,1)
  572. 1172. usual result of American midterm elections
    president’s party loses seats (USSRG:57,2,1)
  573. 1173. number of Democratic senators before the 1934 midterm elections
    60 (USSRG:57,2,1)
  574. 1174. number of Democratic senators after the 1934 midterm elections
    69 (USSRG:57,2,1)
  575. 1175. In which NINE states did the Democrats gain Senate seats in 1934?
    Missouri, Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, Indiana, Connecticut, and Rhode Island (USSRG:57,2,1)
  576. 1176. number of Democrats in the House of Representatives after the 1934 midterm elections
    322 (USSRG:57,2,1)
  577. 1177. percentage of House of Representatives seats occupied by Democrats after the 1934 midterm elections
    74% (USSRG:57,2,1)
  578. 1178. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s four most prominent challengers on the left
    Huey P. Long, Charles Coughlin, Upton Sinclair, and Francis Townsend (USSRG:57,2,2)
  579. 1179. Which branch of the United States government most stood in the way of New Deal reforms?
    the judiciary (USSRG:57,2,2)
  580. 1180. How did conservative opponents of the New Deal seek to cast Franklin D. Roosevelt’s programs?
    as unconstitutional (USSRG:57,2,2)
  581. 1181. Why was Congress advantaged in its early confrontations with the judiciary over New Deal legislation?
    It had passed a large volume of laws in Franklin D. Roosevelt’s first 100 days as president. (USSRG:57,2,3)
  582. 1182. Which department of the United States Federal Government is responsible for assessing the constitutionality of laws?
    the Justice Department (USSRG:57,2,3)
  583. 1183. Why did American federal courts during the New Deal have a conservative bias?
    Judges had been appointed by three consecutive Republican administrations. (USSRG:57,2,3)
  584. 1184. By which year had federal courts ruled against the enforcement of almost every New Deal program?
    1935 (USSRG:58,1,1)
  585. 1185. Which body would resolve the ultimate conflict between New Dealers and their opponents?
    the Supreme Court (USSRG:58,1,1)
  586. 1186. four conservative Supreme Court justices in 1935 staunchly committed to property rights
    Sutherland, Van Devanter, Butler, and Reynolds (USSRG:58,1,1)
  587. 1187. nickname given to Justices Sutherland, Van Devanter, Butler, and Reynolds
    Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (USSRG:58,1,1)
  588. 1188. three economic regulations that Justices Sutherland, Van Devanter, Butler, and Reynolds opposed
    proscription of child labor, right to unionize, and imposition of minimum wages (USSRG:58,1,1)
  589. 1189. On which kinds of issues did Justices Sutherland, Van Devanter, Butler, and Reynolds decline to intervene?
    those pertaining to free speech (USSRG:58,1,1)
  590. 1190. Which THREE 1935 United States Supreme Court Justices treated economic laws with judicial restraint?
    Cardozo, Brandeis, and Harlan Stone (USSRG:58,1,1)
  591. 1191. How did Justices Cardozo, Brandeis, and Harlan Stone treat laws restricting civil liberties?
    without much leeway (USSRG:58,1,1)
  592. 1192. two swing votes on the United States Supreme Court in 1935
    Charles Evan Hughes and Owen Roberts (USSRG:58,1,1)
  593. 1193. Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court in 1935
    Charles Evan Hughes (USSRG:58,1,1)
  594. 1194. Which President appointed Charles Evan Hughes to the Supreme Court?
    Herbert Hoover (USSRG:58,1,1)
  595. 1195. Which President appointed Owen Roberts to the Supreme Court?
    Herbert Hoover (USSRG:58,1,1)
  596. 1196. law that was struck down in 1935, representing the first major blow to the New Dealers
    Railroad Retirement Act (USSRG:58,1,2)
  597. 1197. Why did the Supreme Court strike down the Railroad Retirement Act?
    Congress’ power to regulate interstate commerce did not empower it to create a pension. (USSRG:58,1,2)
  598. 1198. case in which the Railroad Retirement Act was struck down
    Railroad Retirement Board v. Alton Railroad Company (USSRG:58,1,2)
  599. 1199. year in which Railroad Retirement Board v. Alton Railroad Company was decided
    1935 (USSRG:58,1,2)
  600. 1200. Which Supreme Court swing vote voted with the majority in Railroad Retirement Board v. Alton Railroad Company?
    Owen Roberts (USSRG:58,2,0)
  601. 1201. Why did Justice Owen Roberts vote to strike down the Railroad Retirement Act?
    saw no correlation between pensions and railroad safety (USSRG:58,2,0)
  602. 1202. industry in which the National Recovery Administration’s legality was challenged
    poultry industry (USSRG:58,2,0)
  603. 1203. When did the Supreme Court rule that poultry was an interstate industry?
    1934 (USSRG:58,2,0)
  604. 1204. Supreme Court case challenging the National Recovery Administration
    A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States (USSRG:58,2,1)
  605. 1205. How did New Dealers feel about their chances of winning A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States?
    optimistic (USSRG:58,2,1)
  606. 1206. the Schechter Brothers’ business
    kosher poultry (USSRG:58,2,1)
  607. 1207. three regulations the Schechter Brothers were convicted of violating
    National Recovery Administration rules on wages, work hours, and trade (USSRG:58,2,1)
  608. 1208. Why did New Deal lawyers seek to try the Schechter Brothers on federal offenses?
    The brothers’ actions had impacted interstate commerce. (USSRG:58,2,1)
  609. 1209. date of the New Deal’s “Black Monday”
    May 27, 1935 (USSRG:58,2,2)
  610. 1210. Why was May 27, 1935 known as the New Deal’s “Black Monday”?
    the Supreme Court reached three conclusions undermining its effectiveness (USSRG:58,2,2)
  611. 1211. Supreme Court case decided on the New Deal’s “Black Monday”
    A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States (USSRG:58,2,2)
  612. 1212. Why was the Supreme Court decision in A.L.A. Schechter Poultry Corp. v. United States unusual?
    its unity (USSRG:58,2,2)
  613. 1213. To whom can Congress legitimately delegate legislative powers, according to the Supreme Court in 1935?
    the President (USSRG:58,2,2)
  614. 1214. What action can the President not take with his delegated legislative powers, according to the Supreme Court in 1935?
    further delegation of the authority to private parties (USSRG:58,2,2)
  615. 1215. Supreme Court Justice who called the President’s role in the New Deal “delegation running riot”
    Justice Cardozo (USSRG:58,2,2)
  616. 1216. Why was the Schechter Poultry Corp. outside of federal authority, according to the Supreme Court?
    impact on interstate commerce was insufficient to qualify for federal regulation (USSRG:58,2,2)
  617. 1217. What ruling did the Supreme Court make about the government’s constitutional powers on May 27, 1935?
    could not be expanded even under extraordinary economic conditions (USSRG:58,2,2)
  618. 1218. important agricultural law struck down by the Supreme Court in May 1935
    Emergency Farm Mortgage Act (USSRG:58,2,3)
  619. 1219. the purpose of the Emergency Farm Mortgage Act
    to slow the rate of farm foreclosures (USSRG:58,2,3)
  620. 1220. Supreme Court case in which the Emergency Farm Mortgage Act was found to be unconstitutional
    Louisville Joint Stock Land Bank v. Radford (USSRG:58,2,3)
  621. 1221. year in which Louisville Joint Stock Land Bank v. Radford was decided
    1935 (USSRG:58,2,3)
  622. 1222. How long did the Emergency Farm Mortgage Act allow debtors to keep their farms after declaring bankruptcy?
    5 years (USSRG:58,2,3)
  623. 1223. the debtor in Louisville Joint Stock Land Bank v. Radford
    Radford (USSRG:58,2,3)
  624. 1224. the creditor in Louisville Joint Stock Land Bank v. Radford
    Louisville Land Bank (USSRG:58,2,3)
  625. 1225. constitutional amendment violated by the Emergency Farm Mortgage Act
    5th amendment (USSRG:58,2,3)
  626. 1226. Which prohibition of the fifth amendment did the Emergency Farm Mortgage Act violate?
    prohibition against taking private property without just compensation (USSRG:58,2,3)
  627. 1227. law deemed unconstitutional in United States v. Butler
    Agricultural Adjustment Act (USSRG:59,1,1)
  628. 1228. When was United States v. Butler decided?
    January 1936 (USSRG:59,1,1)
  629. 1229. number of Supreme Court Justices voting to strike down the Agricultural Adjustment Act in United States v. Butler
    6 (USSRG:59,1,1)
  630. 1230. number of Supreme Court Justices voting to uphold the Agricultural Adjustment Act in United States v. Butler
    3 (USSRG:59,1,1)
  631. 1231. type of company that challenged the Agricultural Adjustment Act in United States v. Butler
    a milk company (USSRG:59,1,1)
  632. 1232. Which provision of the Agricultural Adjustment Act was challenged in United States v. Butler?
    the processing tax (USSRG:59,1,1)
  633. 1233. Who wrote the majority opinion in United States v. Butler?
    Owen Roberts (USSRG:59,1,1)
  634. 1234. Why was the tax in United States v. Butler not a “true tax,” according to the Supreme Court?
    revenue was given to local businesses, not the national public (USSRG:59,1,1)
  635. 1235. Who did the majority opinion in United States v. Butler believe was the appropriate regulator of agriculture?
    individual states (USSRG:59,1,1)
  636. 1236. three dissenting Justices in United States v. Butler
    Justices Stone, Cardozo, and Brandeis (USSRG:59,1,2)
  637. 1237. Which Justice in the majority of United States v. Butler was purported to have secretly sided with the dissenters?
    Charles E. Hughes (USSRG:59,1,2)
  638. 1238. Why did Charles E. Hughes side with the majority in United States v. Butler, according to rumors?
    to avoid a narrow, five‐to‐four decision (USSRG:59,1,2)
  639. 1239. the Supreme Court’s main problem with the New Deal, according to Charles E. Hughes
    its poorly‐worded laws (USSRG:59,1,2)
  640. 1240. law passed by Congress a few weeks after United States v. Butler was decided
    Soil Conservation Act (USSRG:59,2,0)
  641. 1241. law which the Soil Conservation Act resembled
    Agricultural Adjustment Act (USSRG:59,2,0)
  642. 1242. four factors that weakened the labor movement during the Great Depression
    employer opposition, a weak American Federation of Labor, company unions, and poor National Recovery Administration regulation (USSRG:59,2,3)
  643. 1243. During which two years of the Great Depression did the number of new union charters increase substantially?
    1933 and 1934 (USSRG:59,2,3)
  644. 1244. During which year of the Great Depression did the number of new union charters decrease?
    1935 (USSRG:59,2,3)
  645. 1245. How many unions were dissolved between August 1934 and August 1935?
    over 600 (USSRG:59,2,3)
  646. 1246. Why were industrial workers unsuccessful in their campaign for unionization in the early years of the Great Depression?
    little support from government programs (USSRG:59,2,3)
  647. 1247. legislative body to which Robert Wagner belonged
    United States Senate (USSRG:59,2,3)
  648. 1248. National Labor Board chairman in 1934
    Robert Wagner (USSRG:59,2,3)
  649. 1249. state which Robert Wagner represented
    New York (USSRG:59,2,3)
  650. 1250. When did profits, executives’ salaries, and industrial production first rise in the United States after the 1929 crash?
    late 1933 (USSRG:59,2,3)
  651. 1251. How did American workers’ wages change in late 1934?
    remained the same (USSRG:59,2,3)
  652. 1252. Senator who submitted a bill to close the loopholes in the National Recovery Administration in 1934
    Robert Wagner (USSRG:59,2,3)
  653. 1253. year in which Robert Wagner submitted a bill to close the loopholes in the National Recovery Administration
    1934 (USSRG:59,2,3)
  654. 1254. organization most opposed to Robert Wagner’s bill to fix the National Recovery Administration
    National Association of Manufacturers (USSRG:59,2,3)
  655. 1255. Why did Franklin D. Roosevelt distance himself from Robert Wagner’s bill to fix the National Recovery Administration?
    preferred solutions that cooperated with businesses (USSRG:59,2,3)
  656. 1256. full name of the NLRB
    National Labor Relations Board (USSRG:59,2,3)
  657. 1257. body Franklin D. Roosevelt authorized in order to help resolve labor disputes
    National Labor Relations Board (USSRG:59,2,3)
  658. 1258. When did Franklin D. Roosevelt finally tacitly support Robert Wagner’s bill to fix the National Recovery Administration?
    May 1935 (USSRG:60,1,1)
  659. 1259. two reasons for Franklin D. Roosevelt’s implicit support of Robert Wagner’s bill to fix the National Recovery Administration
    the Supreme Court was about to strike down the National Recovery Administration and the public supported laborers’ rights (USSRG:60,1,1)
  660. 1260. law that resulted from Robert Wagner’s bill to fix the National Recovery Administration
    Wagner Act (USSRG:60,1,1)
  661. 1261. goal of the Wagner Act
    to eliminate disparities in bargaining power between employers and employees (USSRG:60,1,1)
  662. 1262. organizations prohibited under the Wagner Act
    company unions (USSRG:60,1,1)
  663. 1263. How did the Wagner Act prohibit company unions?
    by making employer influence on labor organizations illegal (USSRG:60,1,1)
  664. 1264. body established by the Wagner Act
    National Labor Relations Board (USSRG:60,1,1)
  665. 1265. purpose of the National Labor Relations Board
    to oversee union elections (USSRG:60,1,1)
  666. 1266. Who was the National Labor Relations Board supposed to back in conflicts between employers and employees?
    employees (USSRG:60,1,1)
  667. 1267. United States federal law that gave official government support for the right to unionize
    Wagner Act (USSRG:60,1,1)
  668. 1268. Which organization was at the center of the 1935 labor “civil war”?
    the American Federation of Labor (USSRG:60,1,2)
  669. 1269. three policies of the American Federation of Labor at the heart of the 1935 labor “civil war”
    separating trades, shunning government, and discouraging public works (USSRG:60,1,2)
  670. 1270. Which workers was the American Federation of Labor uninterested in organizing?
    unskilled workers (USSRG:60,1,2)
  671. 1271. Why was the American Federation of Labor uninterested in organizing unskilled workers?
    believed unions could not depend on such easily replaceable laborers (USSRG:60,1,2)
  672. 1272. John L. Lewis’s union in 1935
    United Mine Workers (USSRG:60,1,3)
  673. 1273. What need did John L. Lewis identify in the depression‐era United States?
    national collectivization of industrial workers (USSRG:60,1,3)
  674. 1274. five industries in which John L. Lewis saw a need for unionization during the Great Depression
    automobiles, rubber, steel, textiles, and aluminum (USSRG:60,1,3)
  675. 1275. How did William Green react to John L. Lewis’s suggestions?
    He ignored them. (USSRG:60,1,3)
  676. 1276. Where was the 1935 conference in which John L. Lewis suggested national collectivization of industrial workers held?
    Atlantic City (USSRG:60,1,3)
  677. 1277. How did John L. Lewis react to William Green’s refusal to listen to his suggestions in Atlantic City?
    by walking out of the conference (USSRG:60,1,3)
  678. 1278. organization John L. Lewis founded a few weeks after walking out of the Atlantic City conference
    Committee for Industrial Organization (USSRG:60,1,3)
  679. 1279. full name of the CIO
    Committee for Industrial Organization (USSRG:60,1,3)
  680. 1280. In which kinds of industries did the Committee for Industrial Organization launch organizing campaigns?
    mass production industries (USSRG:60,1,3)
  681. 1281. Why was the Committee for Industrial Organization able to succeed?
    its principle of inclusiveness (USSRG:60,1,3)
  682. 1282. two groups excluded by the American Federation of Labor that were embraced by the Committee for Industrial Organization
    Mexican Americans and African Americans (USSRG:60,2,0)
  683. 1283. How many women joined new Committee for Industrial Organization unions upon their establishment?
    800,000 (USSRG:60,2,0)
  684. 1284. political party from which many Committee for Industrial Organization members came
    Communist Party (USSRG:60,2,1)
  685. 1285. Communist Party campaign that sought the cooperation of other groups concerned with labor and civil rights
    Popular Front (USSRG:60,2,1)
  686. 1286. percentage of American non‐agricultural laborers unionized in 1940
    23% (USSRG:60,2,1)
  687. 1287. number of unionized American laborers in 1940
    9,000,000 (USSRG:60,2,1)
  688. 1288. How many times more American laborers were unionized in 1940 than in 1930?
    3 times more (USSRG:60,2,1)
  689. 1289. How did the Committee for Industrial Organization help workers?
    improved wages and working conditions (USSRG:60,2,1)
  690. 1290. form of workers’ protests in the United States until 1935
    a strike, during which workers picketed outside their workplace (USSRG:60,2,2)
  691. 1291. Why were strikes largely ineffective in the United States before 1935?
    employers simply brought in scabs (USSRG:60,2,2)
  692. 1292. When did workers at Goodyear go on strike during the Great Depression?
    February 1936 (USSRG:60,2,2)
  693. 1293. Why was the 1936 Goodyear unique?
    Workers sat down rather than walking out. (USSRG:60,2,2)
  694. 1294. Goodyear workers’ union in 1936
    United Rubber Workers of America (USSRG:60,2,2)
  695. 1295. product of the Goodyear plant which went on strike in 1936
    rubber and tires (USSRG:60,2,2)
  696. 1296. Why were the owners of the Goodyear plant reluctant to send in security forces during the 1936 strike?
    afraid of damaging company property (USSRG:60,2,2)
  697. 1297. form of strike employed by Goodyear workers in February 1936
    sit‐down strike (USSRG:61,1,0)
  698. 1298. When did Chevrolet workers in Flint, Michigan go on strike during the Great Depression?
    December 1936 (USSRG:61,1,1)
  699. 1299. location of the Chevrolet body part plant that went on strike in December 1936
    Flint, Michigan (USSRG:61,1,1)
  700. 1300. form of strike employed by Chevrolet workers in Flint, Michigan in 1936
    sit‐down strike (USSRG:61,1,1)
  701. 1301. goal of striking Chevrolet workers in Flint, Michigan in 1936
    to get management to agree to collective bargaining (USSRG:61,1,1)
  702. 1302. law that required business owners to agree to collective bargaining
    Wagner Act (USSRG:61,1,1)
  703. 1303. length of the 1936 strike by Chevrolet workers in Flint, Michigan
    over 40 days (USSRG:61,1,1)
  704. 1304. parent company of Chevrolet
    General Motors (USSRG:61,1,1)
  705. 1305. union that General Motors recognized after the 1936 strike in Flint, Michigan
    United Automobile Workers (USSRG:61,1,1)
  706. 1306. full name of the UAW
    United Automobile Workers (USSRG:61,1,1)
  707. 1307. year in which US Steel Corp recognized United Steelworkers as its workers’ only union
    1937 (USSRG:61,1,1)
  708. 1308. union that US Steel Corp recognized for the first time on March 1, 1937
    United Steelworkers (USSRG:61,1,1)
  709. 1309. US Steel Corp’s policy toward unions prior to 1937
    suppression (USSRG:61,1,1)
  710. 1310. number of sit‐down strikes between 1936 and 1939 in the United States
    nearly 600 (USSRG:61,1,1)
  711. 1311. Why did sit‐down strikes cease in the United States in 1939?
    The Supreme Court declared them unconstitutional. (USSRG:61,1,1)
  712. 1312. Which constitutional rights did the Supreme Court find sit‐down strikes violated in 1939?
    property rights (USSRG:61,1,1)
  713. 1313. city in which United Automobile Workers leaders were assaulted by company police in 1937
    River Rouge, Michigan (USSRG:61,1,2)
  714. 1314. When were 1930s United Automobile Workers leaders assaulted by Ford company police in River Rouge, Michigan?
    May 1937 (USSRG:61,1,2)
  715. 1315. company whose police assaulted United Automobile Workers leaders in 1937
    Ford Motor Company (USSRG:61,1,2)
  716. 1316. Which future president of the United Automobile Workers was assaulted by Ford Motor Company police in 1937?
    Walter Reuther (USSRG:61,1,2)
  717. 1317. city in which the 1937 Memorial Day Massacre took place
    Chicago (USSRG:61,1,2)
  718. 1318. date on which the Chicago Memorial Day Massacre took place
    May 30, 1937 (USSRG:61,1,2)
  719. 1319. company for which the workers involved in the Memorial Day Massacre worked
    Republic Steel (USSRG:61,1,2)
  720. 1320. number of people killed in the 1937 Memorial Day Massacre
    10 (USSRG:61,1,2)
  721. 1321. number of people injured in the 1937 Memorial Day Massacre
    over 80 (USSRG:61,1,2)
  722. 1322. At what event did the 1937 Memorial Day Massacre take place?
    a Memorial Day picnic (USSRG:61,1,2)
  723. 1323. Roughly how many strikes took place in the United States in 1937?
    thousands (USSRG:61,1,3)
  724. 1324. party with which the Committee for Industrial Organization allied in the 1930s
    Democratic Party (USSRG:61,1,3)
  725. 1325. From which communities did many 1930s union leaders come?
    immigrant communities (USSRG:61,1,3)
  726. 1326. How did most American workers feel about unions throughout the Great Depression?
    hostile (USSRG:61,1,3)
  727. 1327. two ways in which the Committee for Industrial Organization aided the Democratic Party in the 1930s
    campaign donations and agitation for social justice beyond the workplace (USSRG:61,1,3)
  728. 1328. documents resulting from most union endeavors in the 1930s
    contracts between employees and employers (USSRG:61,1,4)
  729. 1329. How many national laws did unions succeed in passing during the Great Depression?
    1 (USSRG:61,1,4)
  730. 1330. Which national law did unions succeed in passing during the Great Depression?
    the Fair Labor Standards Act (USSRG:61,1,4)
  731. 1331. full name of the FLSA
    the Fair Labor Standards Act (USSRG:61,1,4)
  732. 1332. three standards established by the Fair Labor Standards Act
    minimum wage, maximum hours, and minimum age for employment (USSRG:61,1,4)
  733. 1333. minimum age for employment established by the Fair Labor Standards Act
    16 (USSRG:61,1,4)
  734. 1334. two years during which Congress debated the Fair Labor Standards Act
    1937 and 1938 (USSRG:61,2,0)
  735. 1335. Which TWO Congressional groups opposed the Fair Labor Standards Act?
    Republicans and southern Democrats (USSRG:61,2,0)
  736. 1336. Why did southern Democrats oppose the Fair Labor Standards Act?
    feared its minimum wage laws would deprive the South of its advantage as a source of cheap labor (USSRG:61,2,0)
  737. 1337. What type of workers did southern Democrats want to exempt from the Fair Labor Standards Act’s minimum wage laws?
    domestic servants (USSRG:61,2,0)
  738. 1338. Of what race were most domestic servants in the South during the Great Depression?
    African American (USSRG:61,2,0)
  739. 1339. To which TWO provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act did growers in the West object?
    minimum wages and maximum working hours (USSRG:61,2,0)
  740. 1340. initial minimum wage established by the Fair Labor Standards Act
    25 cents (USSRG:61,2,1)
  741. 1341. period of time over which the Fair Labor Standards Act’s minimum wage would increase
    7 years (USSRG:61,2,1)
  742. 1342. initial maximum working hours under the Fair Labor Standards Act
    44 hours a week (USSRG:61,2,1)
  743. 1343. eventual maximum working hours under the Fair Labor Standards Act
    40 hours a week (USSRG:61,2,1)
  744. 1344. number of Americans who received increased wages under the Fair Labor Standards Act
    nearly 500,000 (USSRG:61,2,1)
  745. 1345. number of Americans who worked shorter hours under the Fair Labor Standards Act
    over 1,000,000 (USSRG:61,2,1)
  746. 1346. Why were many American workers left unprotected by the Fair Labor Standards Act?
    contained many compromises and exceptions (USSRG:61,2,1)
  747. 1347. five types of workers not included in the Fair Labor Standards Act
    farm workers, domestic servants, retail clerks, fishermen, and streetcar operators (USSRG:61,2,1)
  748. 1348. When were workers excluded from the original Fair Labor Standards Act included in its provisions?
    after World War II (USSRG:61,2,1)
  749. 1349. Of which new program did Franklin D. Roosevelt seem uniquely confident in 1935?
    Works Progress Administration (USSRG:62,1,0)
  750. 1350. Why was Franklin D. Roosevelt’s confidence shaken after his first 100 days as president?
    political opposition from critics (USSRG:62,1,0)
  751. 1351. full name of the WPA
    Works Progress Administration (USSRG:62,1,0)
  752. 1352. year in which the Works Progress Administration was created
    1935 (USSRG:62,1,0)
  753. 1353. How did the Works Progress Administration differ from earlier public works programs?
    acknowledged that short‐term relief had not ended the Great Depression (USSRG:62,1,1)
  754. 1354. number of unemployed Americans in 1935
    about 10,000,000 (USSRG:62,1,1)
  755. 1355. purpose of the Works Progress Administration
    to unite all emergency public works programs (USSRG:62,1,1)
  756. 1356. To whom did the Works Progress Administration return responsibility for the unemployed?
    state and local governments (USSRG:62,1,1)
  757. 1357. For whom did Franklin D. Roosevelt promise to find jobs through the Works Progress Administration?
    “able bodied but destitute workers” (USSRG:62,1,1)
  758. 1358. act of Congress that created the Works Progress Administration
    Emergency Relief Appropriation Act (USSRG:62,1,2)
  759. 1359. When was the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act passed?
    April 1935 (USSRG:62,1,2)
  760. 1360. Whom would have run the Works Progress Administration if Franklin D. Roosevelt had wanted efficiency?
    Harold L. Ickes (USSRG:62,1,2)
  761. 1361. How would Harold L. Ickes have run the Works Progress Administration if he had been chosen to?
    ensure that the program’s money was spent well (USSRG:62,1,2)
  762. 1362. the man selected to run the Works Progress Administration
    Henry Hopkins (USSRG:62,1,2)
  763. 1363. Henry Hopkins’ first priority in running the Works Progress Administration
    employment (USSRG:62,1,2)
  764. 1364. How had Henry Hopkins ensured high employment levels while in the Civil Works Administration?
    by assigning workers to projects that required few tools and building materials (USSRG:62,1,2)
  765. 1365. What percentage of its budget did the Civil Works Administration spend on wages?
    80% (USSRG:62,1,2)
  766. 1366. Why did Franklin D. Roosevelt choose Henry Hopkins to run the Works Progress Administration?
    staggering unemployment numbers (USSRG:62,1,2)
  767. 1367. How did the Works Progress Administration limit its workers’ total earnings?
    by limiting number of hours worked (USSRG:62,1,2)
  768. 1368. two ways in which the Works Progress Administration avoided crowding out private companies
    setting lower‐than‐market wages and limiting the number of hours worked (USSRG:62,1,2)
  769. 1369. How did the Works Progress Administration ensure its employees were in genuine need of the relief work?
    the means test (USSRG:62,1,2)
  770. 1370. What sort of employer did the federal government become under the Works Progress Administration?
    an employer of last resort (USSRG:62,1,2)
  771. 1371. When were employees of the Works Progress Administration supposed to leave the program?
    as soon as work became available in the private market (USSRG:62,1,2)
  772. 1372. How many people did the Works Progress Administration employ at its height?
    3,500,000 (USSRG:62,2,1)
  773. 1373. What fraction of the American unemployed worked for the Works Progress Administration at its height?
    one‐third (USSRG:62,2,1)
  774. 1374. cost of the Works Progress Administration
    $5,000,000,000 (USSRG:62,2,1)
  775. 1375. organization that predicted the Works Progress Administration would be the end of the American system of government
    the Liberty League (USSRG:62,2,1)
  776. 1376. How did Keynesians view the Works Progress Administration?
    too small to stimulate demand in the way the economy needed (USSRG:62,2,1)
  777. 1377. three public works programs that had preceded the Works Progress Administration
    Public Works Administration, Civil Works Administration, and Civilian Conservation Corps (USSRG:62,1,1)
  778. 1378. number of hospitals built by the Works Progress Administration
    2,500 (USSRG:62,2,2)
  779. 1379. number of schools built by the Works Progress Administration
    5,900 (USSRG:62,2,2)
  780. 1380. number of airports built by the Works Progress Administration
    350 (USSRG:62,2,2)
  781. 1381. number of miles of rural roads built by the Works Progress Administration
    570,000 (USSRG:62,2,2)
  782. 1382. number of parks built by the Works Progress Administration
    8,000 (USSRG:62,2,2)
  783. 1383. amount of money spent by the Works Progress Administration on work relief between 1935 and 1943
    $11,000,000,000 (USSRG:62,2,2)
  784. 1384. total number of Americans employed by the Works Progress Administration
    8,000,000 (USSRG:62,2,2)
  785. 1385. two ways in which the Works Progress Administration improved the United States’ public works
    conserved its natural resources and improved its transportation infrastructure (USSRG:62,2,2)
  786. 1386. the Works Progress Administration’s youth program
    National Youth Administration (USSRG:62,2,3)
  787. 1387. full name of the NYA
    National Youth Administration (USSRG:62,2,3)
  788. 1388. political aim of the National Youth Administration
    to prevent the radicalization of the American youth (USSRG:62,2,3)
  789. 1389. What kind of governments did many American youths support during the Great Depression?
    fascist European governments (USSRG:62,2,3)
  790. 1390. How many American college students did the National Youth Administration keep in school?
    500,000 (USSRG:62,2,3)
  791. 1391. number of American youths employed part‐time by the National Youth Administration
    4,000,000 (USSRG:62,2,3)
  792. 1392. For which kind of youths did the National Youth Administration have a specially reserved fund?
    black students (USSRG:62,2,3)
  793. 1393. How many times more likely were black students to be unemployed as whites?
    twice as likely (USSRG:62,2,3)
  794. 1394. director of the National Youth Administration’s fund for black students
    Mary McLeod (USSRG:62,2,3)
  795. 1395. Mary McLeod’s profession
    educator (USSRG:62,2,3)
  796. 1396. umbrella federal program that employed 40,000 artists during the Great Depression
    Federal Project One (USSRG:62,2,3)
  797. 1397. full name of the FWP
    Federal Writers’ Project (USSRG:62,2,3)
  798. 1398. full name of the FAP
    Federal Arts Project (USSRG:63,1,0)
  799. 1399. two writers whose careers were launched by the Federal Arts Project
    Richard Wright and Ralph Ellison (USSRG:63,1,0)
  800. 1400. Jackson Pollock
    artist whose career was launched by the Federal Arts Project (USSRG:63,1,0)
  801. 1401. number of murals created under the Federal Arts Project
    2,500 (USSRG:63,1,0)
  802. 1402. number of sculptures created under the Federal Arts Project
    18,000 (USSRG:63,1,0)
  803. 1403. New Deal program that many believed advocated for Franklin D. Roosevelt’s personal agenda
    Federal Theater Program (USSRG:63,1,0)
  804. 1404. state that Martin Dies represented in Congress
    Texas (USSRG:63,1,1)
  805. 1405. committee that Martin Dies chaired in Congress
    House Committee on Un‐American Activities (USSRG:63,1,1)
  806. 1406. year in which the Federal Theater Program ended
    1939 (USSRG:63,1,1)
  807. 1407. case that challenged the constitutionality of the Tennessee Valley Authority
    Ashwander v. Tennessee Valley Authority (USSRG:63,2,1)
  808. 1408. year in which Ashwander v. Tennessee Valley Authority was decided
    1936 (USSRG:63,2,1)
  809. 1409. two life experiences that helped Franklin D. Roosevelt appreciate the environment
    growing up in Hyde Park, New York, and recovering from polio in Warm Springs, Georgia (USSRG:63,2,1)
  810. 1410. two trails built by the Civilian Conservation Corps and Works Progress Administration
    the Pacific Crest Trail and the Blue Ridge Parkway (USSRG:63,2,1)
  811. 1411. Which TWO national parks did the Blue Ridge Parkway connect?
    Shenandoah National Park and Great Smoky Mountains National Park (USSRG:64,1,0)
  812. 1412. state in which the Shenandoah National Park is located
    Virginia (USSRG:64,1,0)
  813. 1413. state in which the Great Smoky Mountains National Park is located
    North Carolina (USSRG:64,1,0)
  814. 1414. Depression‐era American legislation protecting ecological balance
    Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act (USSRG:64,1,1)
  815. 1415. two practices eliminated by the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
    processing taxes and acreage quotas (USSRG:64,1,1)
  816. 1416. How did the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act get around powerful landlords?
    gave checks directly to sharecropping tenants (USSRG:64,1,1)
  817. 1417. full name of the SCS
    Soil Conservation Service (USSRG:64,1,1)
  818. 1418. shelterbelt
    bushes and trees used in the Midwest to protect fields from wind (USSRG:64,1,2)
  819. 1419. Depression‐era government office that helped solve the West’s water scarcity problem
    Bureau of Reclamation (USSRG:64,1,2)
  820. 1420. In which TWO valleys was the All‐American Canal located?
    Imperial Valley and Coachella Valley (USSRG:64,1,2)
  821. 1421. body of water from which the All‐American Canal came
    Colorado River (USSRG:64,1,2)
  822. 1422. Which state became the United States’ biggest agricultural producer after 1947?
    California (USSRG:64,1,2)
  823. 1423. percentage of American farms with electricity in 1934
    11% (USSRG:64,1,3)
  824. 1424. full name of the REA
    Rural Electrification Administration (USSRG:64,1,4)
  825. 1425. law that created the Rural Electrification Administration
    Emergency Relief Appropriation Act (USSRG:64,1,4)
  826. 1426. To whom did the Rural Electrification Administration make loans to construct electrical distribution networks?
    non‐profit consumer cooperatives (USSRG:64,2,0)
  827. 1427. percentage of American farms receiving electricity through the Rural Electrification Administration in 1939
    25% (USSRG:64,2,1)
  828. 1428. organization that funded the Rural Electrification Administration’s loans
    Reconstruction Finance Corporation (USSRG:64,2,0)
  829. 1429. How did the Soil Conservation Service affect cotton prices in 1937?
    lowered them (USSRG:64,2,0)
  830. 1430. bales of cotton produced in the United States in 1937
    19,000,000 (USSRG:64,2,0)
  831. 1431. full name of the RA
    Resettlement Administration (USSRG:64,2,3)
  832. 1432. aim of the Resettlement Administration
    prevent the displacement of poor farmers (USSRG:64,2,3)
  833. 1433. full name of the FSA
    Farm Security Administration (USSRG:65,1,0)
  834. 1434. Which organization evolved out of the Resettlement Administration?
    Farm Security Administration (USSRG:65,1,0)
  835. 1435. Rexford Tugwell
    the Farm Security Administration’s first director (USSRG:65,1,0)
  836. 1436. role of the Resettlement Administration
    help poor farmers relocate to better land (USSRG:65,1,0)
  837. 1437. Why did Congress not provide the Farm Security Administration with much funding in its first two years?
    doubted its efficiency (USSRG:65,1,0)
  838. 1438. Dorothea Lange
    photographer whose photograph of a migrant mother became the face of the Great Depression (USSRG:65,1,1)
  839. 1439. How long did most mortgages last during the Great Depression?
    less than ten years (USSRG:65,1,2)
  840. 1440. What financial innovation did not exist during the Great Depression, leading to many foreclosures?
    refinancing (USSRG:65,1,2)
  841. 1441. year in which the Federal Home Loan Bank Act was passed
    1932 (USSRG:65,1,3)
  842. 1442. act that created the Home Owners Loan Corporation
    Home Owners Refinancing Act (USSRG:65,1,3)
  843. 1443. full name of the HOLC
    Home Owners Loan Corporation (USSRG:65,1,3)
  844. 1444. purpose of the Home Owners Loan Corporation
    to help prevent foreclosures (USSRG:65,1,3)
  845. 1445. total amount of loans made by the Home Owners Loan Corporation
    $3,000,000,000 (USSRG:65,1,3)
  846. 1446. year in which the Home Loan Bank Act was passed
    1933 (USSRG:65,1,3)
  847. 1447. How did the Home Owners Loan Corporation help Franklin D. Roosevelt politically?
    by consolidating support among the middle class (USSRG:65,1,3)
  848. 1448. Whose economic theories did Marriner Eccles support?
    John Maynard Keynes (USSRG:65,2,1)
  849. 1449. Which government board did Marriner Eccles chair?
    the Federal Reserve (USSRG:65,2,1)
  850. 1450. bill sponsored by Marriner Eccles to revive the real estate market
    National Housing Act (USSRG:65,2,2)
  851. 1451. year in which the National Housing Act was passed
    1934 (USSRG:65,2,2)
  852. 1452. two organizations created by the National Housing Act
    Federal Housing Administration and Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (USSRG:65,2,2)
  853. 1453. full name of the FHA
    Federal Housing Administration (USSRG:65,2,2)
  854. 1454. full name of the FSLIC
    Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation (USSRG:65,2,2)
  855. 1455. function of the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation
    back home loans issued by banks (USSRG:65,2,2)
  856. 1456. How long did mortgages typically last after 1934?
    20 to 30 years (USSRG:65,2,2)
  857. 1457. How did the Federal Housing Administration affect the market for home ownership?
    expanded it (USSRG:65,2,3)
  858. 1458. fraction of Americans poorly housed, clothed, and fed in 1937
    one‐third (USSRG:66,1,1)
  859. 1459. Why was the Works Progress Administration’s housing project delayed?
    the battle over the federal government’s use of eminent domain (USSRG:66,1,1)
  860. 1460. year in which the Wagner Steagall Act was passed
    1937 (USSRG:66,1,1)
  861. 1461. law that created the United States Housing Authority
    Wagner Steagall Act (USSRG:66,1,1)
  862. 1462. function of the United States Housing Authority
    to make loans to local entities to create public housing projects (USSRG:66,1,1)
  863. 1463. full name of the USHA
    United States Housing Authority (USSRG:66,1,1)
  864. 1464. government assistance denied to ‘red‐lined’ neighborhoods
    Home Owners Loan Corporation loans (USSRG:66,1,1)
  865. 1465. Which demographic usually lived in ‘red‐lined’ neighborhoods?
    black citizens (USSRG:66,1,1)
  866. 1466. Which New Deal government agency did Kenneth Jackson say made segregation public policy?
    the Federal Housing Administration (USSRG:66,2,0)
  867. 1467. Which law most clearly shows the influence of the New Deal on today’s United States government?
    the Social Security Act (USSRG:66,2,2)
  868. 1468. year in which the Social Security Act was passed
    1935 (USSRG:66,2,2)
  869. 1469. three professions receiving public pensions in the United States prior to 1935
    teachers, police, and firemen (USSRG:66,2,2)
  870. 1470. date on which the Social Security Act was signed
    August 14, 1935 (USSRG:66,2,3)
  871. 1471. two populist critics who served as impetus for the Social Security Act
    Huey P. Long and Francis Townsend (USSRG:66,2,3)
  872. 1472. How were Social Security Act pensions to be financed?
    taxes on employers and employees (USSRG:66,2,3)
  873. 1473. Why did the Social Security Act give assistance to the blind, deaf, disabled, and dependent children?
    could not support themselves (USSRG:66,2,3)
  874. 1474. the only state with an unemployment insurance program in 1934
    Wisconsin (USSRG:66,2,3)
  875. 1475. clause of the Constitution that Franklin D. Roosevelt believed authorized Congress to create Social Security
    general welfare clause (USSRG:67,1,1)
  876. 1476. Which section of the United States Constitution contains the general welfare clause?
    Section 8, Article I (USSRG:67,1,1)
  877. 1477. Americans during the great Depression that believed minimum aid levels should be nationally standardized
    nationalists (USSRG:67,1,1)
  878. 1478. two Depression‐era Americans who believed minimum aid levels should be nationally standardized
    Henry Wallace and Rexford Tugwell (USSRG:67,1,1)
  879. 1479. two Depression‐era Democrats who believed benefits like Social Security were best left to states
    Felix Frankfurter and Henry Morgenthau, Jr. (USSRG:67,1,2)
  880. 1480. localists
    those who believed that benefits like Social Security were best left to states (USSRG:67,1,2)
  881. 1481. Why would future governments not be able to end Social Security, according to Franklin D. Roosevelt?
    Social Security recipients would feel entitled to their benefits (USSRG:67,2,0)
  882. 1482. percentage of Americans with health insurance during the Great Depression
    6% (USSRG:67,2,0)
  883. 1483. position of the American Medical Association on national health care during the Great Depression
    opposition (USSRG:67,2,1)
  884. 1484. What sort of tax was the employee Social Security tax?
    regressive (USSRG:67,2,2)
  885. 1485. How much of their Social Security payroll taxes could employers offset by contributing to state unemployment insurance?
    90% (USSRG:67,2,2)
  886. 1486. What problem did the local administration of Social Security cause in the United States during the Great Depression?
    regional inequalities in payment levels (USSRG:67,2,3)
  887. 1487. How many states waited until 1939 to join the temporary Social Security grant offered by the federal government?
    10 (USSRG:67,2,3)
  888. 1488. How did Southerners defend their lower‐than‐average payments for federal programs during the Great Depression?
    by pointing out that their region had always had below‐average wages (USSRG:68,1,0)
  889. 1489. Why did white Southerners oppose federal aid to blacks?
    would allow them to leave the sharecropping system (USSRG:68,1,0)
  890. 1490. Dixiecrats
    Southern depression‐era Democrats (USSRG:68,1,0)
  891. 1491. two groups of laborers excluded entirely from Social Security benefits during the Great Depression
    domestic workers and agricultural workers (USSRG:68,1,1)
  892. 1492. fraction of African Americans ineligible for Social Security benefits during the Great Depression
    one‐half (USSRG:68,1,1)
  893. 1493. Which TWO kinds of work made many women ineligible for Social Security benefits during the Great Depression?
    religious and non‐profit work (USSRG:68,1,2)
  894. 1494. Why did women who paid payroll taxes for Social Security often not receive benefits during the Great Depression?
    Their years of employment were interrupted by caring for their children. (USSRG:68,1,2)
  895. 1495. dual welfare state
    Great Depression phenomena of entitlement programs for white males and charities for all other citizens (USSRG:68,1,3)
  896. 1496. city where the 1936 Democratic National Convention was held
    Philadelphia (USSRG:68,2,1)
  897. 1497. Republican nominee for President in 1936
    Alfred Landon (USSRG:68,2,2)
  898. 1498. Alfred Landon’s state
    Kansas (USSRG:68,2,1)
  899. 1499. the Union Party’s leader in 1936
    William Lemke (USSRG:68,2,1)
  900. 1500. derogatory label applied to Alfred Landon’s 1936 presidential campaign
    me‐tooism (USSRG:68,2,2)
  901. 1501. state which William Lemke represented in Congress
    North Dakota (USSRG:68,2,2)
  902. 1502. William Lemke’s nickname
    Liberty Bell (USSRG:68,2,2)
  903. 1503. Whom did Literary Digest predict would win the 1936 presidential election?
    Alfred Landon (USSRG:69,1,1)
  904. 1504. only two states that voted for Alfred Landon in the 1936 presidential election
    Maine and Vermont (USSRG:69,1,1)
  905. 1505. Why were high‐income groups overrepresented in polling in 1936?
    Pollsters contacted respondents through automobile registration and phonebook listings. (USSRG:69,1,1)
  906. 1506. How many more Americans voted in the 1936 presidential election than in 1932?
    6,000,000 (USSRG:69,2,0)
  907. 1507. Which party dominated national elections between 1896 and 1932?
    Republican Party (USSRG:69,1,1)
  908. 1508. only two Democratic presidents between 1865 and 1932
    Woodrow Wilson and Grover Cleveland (USSRG:69,1,1)
  909. 1509. Between which years did the Republican Party return to power for the first time after 1932?
    1968 and 1980 (USSRG:70,1,0)
  910. 1510. percentage of African Americans voting Democratic in 1936
    90% (USSRG:70,1,1)
  911. 1511. year in which African American voters began switching to the Democratic Party
    1934 (USSRG:70,1,1)
  912. 1512. case in which the Supreme Court struck down specific mining industry regulations
    Carter v. Carter Coal Company (USSRG:70,1,2)
  913. 1513. clause of the Constitution whose narrow construction restricted federal regulation of working conditions
    interstate commerce clause (USSRG:70,1,2)
  914. 1514. How did the Supreme Court seek to undermine the Tennessee Valley Authority during the Great Depression?
    by allowing shareholders and public utilities to sue their executives for cooperating with the Tennessee Valley Authority (USSRG:70,1,2)
  915. 1515. year in which Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed the Judicial Procedures Reform Act
    1937 (USSRG:70,2,1)
  916. 1516. Judicial Procedures Reform Act
    bill proposed by Franklin D. Roosevelt that would expand the size of federal courts (USSRG:70,2,1)
  917. 1517. three arguments Franklin D. Roosevelt advanced for the Judicial Procedures Reform Act
    impaired judgment of older justices; heavy caseload; the American people should not be represented by just nine people (USSRG:71,1,0)
  918. 1518. When in the Great Depression did the Supreme Court uphold Washington state’s minimum wage law?
    March 1937 (USSRG:71,1,2)
  919. 1519. When did the Supreme Court vote to uphold the Wagner Act?
    December 1936 (USSRG:71,1,2)
  920. 1520. West Coast Parrish Hotel Co. v. Parrish
    legal challenge to the Depression‐era minimum wage law in the state of Washington (USSRG:71,2,0)
  921. 1521. Why did Justice Roberts vote to uphold the minimum wage law in West Coast Parrish Hotel Co. v. Parrish?
    counselors had specifically asked that precedent forbidding minimum wage laws be overturned (USSRG:71,2,0)
  922. 1522. the third‐largest steel producer in the United States in 1937
    Jones & Laughlin Steel Co. (USSRG:71,2,1)
  923. 1523. What argument did Jones & Laughlin Steel Co. make against the Wagner Act?
    that it regulated local, not interstate, commerce (USSRG:71,2,1)
  924. 1524. stream of commerce
    concept that national companies did not, by definition, merely engage in local production (USSRG:71,2,1)
  925. 1525. How far did the Judicial Procedures Reform Act influence the Supreme Court in West Coast Parrish Hotel Co. v. Parrish?
    did not affect the Supreme Court (USSRG:71,2,1)
  926. 1526. Why did the Judicial Procedures Reform Act have no effect on the Supreme Court in West Coast Parrish Hotel Co. v. Parrish?
    It was announced after the decision was made. (USSRG:71,2,1)
  927. 1527. Why did Justices Hughes and Roberts reverse their position on the interstate commerce clause?
    Franklin D. Roosevelt’s overwhelming victory in the 1936 election (USSRG:71,2,2)
  928. 1528. first year after 1937 in which the Supreme Court overturned a law because Congress was not able to regulate the relevant commerce
    1995 (USSRG:71,2,3)
  929. 1529. Which clause of the Constitution allowed Congress to enforce civil rights nationally during the 1960s?
    the interstate commerce clause (USSRG:72,1,0)
  930. 1530. law that suspended federal judges’ full retirement packages in1933
    Economy Act (USSRG:72,1,1)
  931. 1531. Supreme Court Justice who replaced Justice Van Devanter
    Hugo Black (USSRG:72,1,1)
  932. 1532. total number of Supreme Court Justices appointed by Franklin D. Roosevelt
    8 (USSRG:72,1,1)
  933. 1533. Hugo Black’s state
    Alabama (USSRG:72,1,1)
  934. 1534. How did Franklin D. Roosevelt amend the federal budget in 1937?
    trimmed it (USSRG:72,1,2)
  935. 1535. day on which the stock market crashed in 1937
    October 19 (USSRG:72,2,1)
  936. 1536. Roosevelt recession
    period of negative economic growth from 1937 to 1939 (USSRG:72,2,1)
  937. 1537. Why did Franklin D. Roosevelt make budget cuts in 1937?
    feared excessive deficits (USSRG:72,2,1)
  938. 1538. How much more money did Social Security remove from the economy than it injected between 1936 and 1937?
    $2,000,000,000 (USSRG:72,2,3)
  939. 1539. state‐level action that contributed to the Roosevelt recession
    levying of flat taxes (USSRG:72,2,3)
  940. 1540. three industries whose prices did not fall during the Roosevelt recession
    transportation, home appliances, and construction (USSRG:73,1,0)
  941. 1541. Whom did Franklin D. Roosevelt blame for the 1937 downturn?
    selfish monopolists (USSRG:73,1,0)
  942. 1542. To which historical campaign did Harold Ickes compare Franklin D. Roosevelt’s fight against monopolies?
    Andrew Jackson’s campaign against the United States Bank during the 1830s (USSRG:73,1,1)
  943. 1543. year in which the Roosevelt Administration campaigned against monopolies
    1938 (USSRG:73,1,1)
  944. 1544. Which economic policy did Keynesianism supplant in the Roosevelt administration?
    anti‐monopoly campaign (USSRG:73,2,2)
  945. 1545. event at which Eleanor Roosevelt famously sat in the colored section
    Southern Conference for Human Welfare (USSRG:73,2,2)
  946. 1546. city in which the Southern Conference for Human Welfare was held
    Birmingham, Alabama (USSRG:73,2,2)
  947. 1547. In what TWO ways did Eleanor Roosevelt react to the Daughters of the American Revolution’s rejection of Marian Anderson?
    by resigning from the Daughters of the American Revolution and organizing a concert for Marian Anderson (USSRG:74,1,0)
  948. 1548. How many people attended Marian Anderson’s 1939 Easter concert on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial?
    75,000 (USSRG:74,1,0)
  949. 1549. What kind of social inequality did the New Deal primarily target?
    class inequality (USSRG:74,1,1)
  950. 1550. How did the New Deal affect reform efforts on behalf of racial minorities and women?
    by opening the door for these groups (USSRG:74,1,1)
  951. 1551. Why did Franklin D. Roosevelt refuse to sign a federal anti‐lynching law?
    didn’t want to anger white southerners (USSRG:74,1,2)
  952. 1552. Why did white southerners believe a federal anti‐lynching law was unnecessary?
    felt that state laws sufficed (USSRG:74,1,2)
  953. 1553. Which federal work program housed white and black workers separately?
    Civilian Conservation Corps (USSRG:74,2,1)
  954. 1554. percentage of Works Progress Administration workers that were African American
    18% (USSRG:74,2,2)
  955. 1555. percentage of Americans that were African American during the Great Depression
    10% (USSRG:74,2,2)
  956. 1556. head of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s “black cabinet”
    Mary McLeod Bethune (USSRG:74,2,2)
  957. 1557. “black cabinet”
    African Americans Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed to second‐tier positions in his administration (USSRG:74,2,2)
  958. 1558. the closest ally of African Americans in the Roosevelt administration
    Eleanor Roosevelt (USSRG:75,1,0)
  959. 1559. How did the volume of naturalization requests change during the New Deal?
    increased (USSRG:75,1,1)
  960. 1560. Why did the New Deal increase naturalization requests in the United States?
    made American citizenship more appealing (USSRG:75,1,1)
  961. 1561. three benefits available to urban but not rural Mexican Americans during the Great Depression
    unionization, minimum wages, and Social Security (USSRG:75,1,1)
  962. 1562. city in which the first United States conference for Latin Americans’ civil rights took place
    Los Angeles (USSRG:75,1,2)
  963. 1563. year in which the first United States conference for Latin Americans’ civil rights took place
    1939 (USSRG:75,1,2)
  964. 1564. Which political party welcomed Mexican Americans during the Great Depression?
    the Democratic Party (USSRG:75,1,2)
  965. 1565. How did the unemployment rate of women compare to that of men during the Great Depression?
    womenʹs was lower (USSRG:75,1,3)
  966. 1566. When did New Deal women’s reformers gain their experience in campaigning?
    the 1910s and 1920s (USSRG:75,2,0)
  967. 1567. For what cause did New Deal women’s reformers gain experience in campaigning?
    protective legislation for women (USSRG:75,2,0)
  968. 1568. two things to which Superman was susceptible
    Kryptonite and Lois Lane (USSRG:75,2,1)
  969. 1569. Why were men less likely to listen to women’s arguments for equality during the Great Depression?
    Men had lost authority during the Great Depression and wanted the New Deal to restore it. (USSRG:75,2,1)
  970. 1570. What percentage of her husband’s Social Security benefits did a widow receive during the Great Depression?
    75% (USSRG:75,2,2)
  971. 1571. Why did a widow only receive 75% of her husband’s Social Security benefits during the Great Depression?
    A woman could do her own cooking and cleaning. (USSRG:75,2,2)
  972. 1572. How long did a couple have to be married before retiring to receive full Social Security benefits?
    five years (USSRG:75,2,2)
  973. 1573. How did the National Industrial Recovery Act enshrine gender roles in the law?
    by allowing for wage differences between genders (USSRG:75,2,3)
  974. 1574. minimum wage difference between genders during the Great Depression
    5 to 25 cents (USSRG:75,2,3)
  975. 1575. first woman to hold a cabinet position in the United States
    Frances Perkins (USSRG:75,2,3)
  976. 1576. the two most visible women in the New Deal
    Frances Perkins and Eleanor Roosevelt (USSRG:75,2,3)
  977. 1577. womenʹs press corps
    Eleanor Roosevelt’s organization of women‐only press conferences (USSRG:75,2,3)
  978. 1578. “the president’s conscience”
    Eleanor Roosevelt (USSRG:75,1,0)
  979. 1579. year in which the International Ladies Garment Workers Union went on strike
    1934 (USSRG:75,1,1)
  980. 1580. number of unionized women in 1924
    200,000 (USSRG:75,1,1)
  981. 1581. number of unionized women in 1938
    800,000 (USSRG:75,1,1)
  982. 1582. How much higher was the Native American unemployment rate than the national average during the Great Depression?
    3 times higher (USSRG:75,1,2)
  983. 1583. Which New Deal law most affected Native Americans?
    the Indian Reorganization Act (USSRG:75,1,2)
  984. 1584. year in which the Indian Reorganization Act was passed
    1934 (USSRG:75,1,2)
  985. 1585. Which policy did the Indian Reorganization Act reverse?
    Dawes Act (USSRG:75,1,2)
  986. 1586. Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Commissioner of Indian Affairs
    John Collier (USSRG:75,2,0)
  987. 1587. organization created by John Collier to help Native American artists sell their work
    Indian Arts and Crafts Board (USSRG:75,2,0)
  988. 1588. John Collier’s aim for Native Americans and their lands
    decolonization (USSRG:75,2,1)
  989. 1589. number of Native American nations that refused to join John Collier’s organization plan
    80 (USSRG:75,2,1)
  990. 1590. number of Native American nations that joined John Collier’s organization plan
    174 (USSRG:75,2,1)
  991. 1591. year in which the Dawes Act was passed
    1887 (USSRG:75,1,2)
  992. 1592. To which United States foreign policy did Franklin D. Roosevelt express opposition in his youth?
    imperialism in the South Pacific (USSRG:77,1,2)
  993. 1593. dominant approach to foreign policy in the United States in 1932
    isolationism (USSRG:77,2,1)
  994. 1594. Johnson Act of 1934
    law forbidding trade using the bonds of countries that had defaulted on their debts to the United States (USSRG:77,2,1)
  995. 1595. When was the London Economic Conference held?
    summer 1934 (USSRG:77,2,2)
  996. 1596. Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act
    law that required the United States to cut import tariffs on any country that cut its tariffs on Americans goods (USSRG:77,2,3)
  997. 1597. policy that Presidents Hoover and Roosevelt pursued with Latin America
    good neighbor policy (USSRG:78,1,1)
  998. 1598. Who did the American Navy help to take power in Cuba during the Great Depression?
    Carlos Mendieta (USSRG:78,2,0)
  999. 1599. Who did the American Navy stop from gaining power in Cuba during the Great Depression?
    Grau San Martin (USSRG:78,2,0)
  1000. 1600. president of Mexico during the Great Depression
    Lazaro Cardenas (USSRG:78,2,1)
  1001. 1601. Why did the United States government not intervene when Mexico nationalized oil plants in 1938?
    German and Japanese aggression (USSRG:78,2,1)
  1002. 1602. legal status of Filipinos in the United States after it annexed the Philippines and before 1934
    nationals (USSRG:78,2,2)
  1003. 1603. 1934 Tydingsale‐McDuffy Act
    act that made the Philippines a United States commonwealth (USSRG:78,2,3)
  1004. 1604. When did Albert Einstein flee Nazi Germany?
    January 1933 (USSRG:79,1,1)
  1005. 1605. destination of the S.S. St. Louis in May 1939
    Cuba (USSRG:79,1,2)
  1006. 1606. How many passengers on the S.S. St. Louis were denied entry into Cuba in 1939?
    930 (USSRG:79,1,2)
  1007. 1607. Adolf Hitler’s party
    National Socialist Party (USSRG:79,2,1)
  1008. 1608. When did the National Socialist Party come to power in Germany?
    January 1933 (USSRG:79,2,1)
  1009. 1609. board that investigated war profiteering during World War I
    Nye Committee (USSRG:80,1,0)
  1010. 1610. ban effected by the Neutrality Act of 1935
    shipment of weapons to any warring states (USSRG:80,1,1)
  1011. 1611. fascist who revolted against Spain’s republican government
    Francisco Franco (USSRG:80,1,2)
  1012. 1612. demilitarized region of West Germany that Adolf Hitler invaded in 1935
    the Rhineland (USSRG:80,1,2)
  1013. 1613. Which nation’s military was responsible for the Rape of Nanking?
    Japan (USSRG:80,1,3)
  1014. 1614. United States ship attacked by Japanese planes in 1937
    Panay (USSRG:80,2,0)
  1015. 1615. How did the United States react to the 1937 Japanese attack on the Panay?
    by withdrawing from China (USSRG:80,2,0)
  1016. 1616. quarantine doctrine
    belief that warring nations should be isolated from the rest of the world (USSRG:80,2,1)
  1017. 1617. How did the United States react to the Soviet Union’s 1939 invasion of Finland?
    by condemning the action (USSRG:80,2,2)
  1018. 1618. After which country’s invasion in 1939 did France and Great Britain declare war on Germany?
    Poland (USSRG:80,2,2)
  1019. 1619. event that precipitated American involvement in World War II
    the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (USSRG:80,2,2)

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