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2010-10-01 08:35:29

Exam 2
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  1. Glottis
    space between the vocal folds
  2. subglottal region
    area below the vocal folds
  3. cricoid cartilage
    • rests atop the trachea-(most inferior of laryngeal structures)
    • articulates at the cricothyroid joint
  4. thyroid cartilage
    • largest of laryngeal structures.
    • Articulates at the cricothyroid joint with the cricoid cartilage by means of paired processes that let it rock backward and forward at that joint.
    • Articulates with hyoid bone by means of a pair of superior processes.
  5. arytenoid cartilages
    • paired
    • ride on the high-backed upper surface of the cricoid cartilage
    • forms posterior point of attachment for the vocal folds
  6. corniculate cartilages
    • ride on superior surface of each arytenoid
    • prominent landmarks in the aryepiglottic folds
  7. epiglottis
    • medial to hyoid and thyroid cartilage.
    • a protective structure that will drop to cover the orifice of the larynx during swallowing.
  8. Cavities of Laryngeal Region
    • From superior to inferior:
    • – Valleculae – upper front margin of larynx
    • – Pyriform sinus – upper back margin of larynx
    • – Aditus – entry to larynx
    • – Vestibule – upper cavity
    • – Ventricle – lateral cavities above vocal folds
    • – Glottis – space between vocal folds
    • – Subglottal atrium – lower cavity
  9. Extrinsic Ligaments
    • Provide attachment between the hyoid or trachea and cartilage of the larynx.
    • Thyrohyoid membrane
    • Lateral thyrohyoid ligament
    • Median Thyrohyoid ligament
    • Hyoepiglottic ligament
    • thyroepiglottic ligament
    • Lateral/median glossoepiglottic ligaments
    • cricotracheal ligament
  10. thyrohyoid ligament
    stretches across the space between the greater cornu of the hyoid and the lateral thyroid
  11. lateral thyrohyoid ligament
    posterior to thyrohyoid mem. runs from the superior cornu of the thyroid to the posterior tip of the greater cornu hyoid
  12. median thyrohyoid ligamentq
    running from the corpus hyoid to the upper border of the anterior thyroid
  13. hyoepiglottic ligament and thyroepiglottic ligament
    attach the epiglottis to the corpus hyoid and the inner thyroid cartilage, just below the notch
  14. lateral and median glossoepiglottic ligaments
    epiglottic attachment to the tongue
  15. cricotracheal ligament
    attaches trachea to the larynx
  16. valleculae
    • – Located at the base of the tongue, between the tongue and the epiglottis
    • – One located on each side of the epiglottis
  17. pyriform sinus
    • – Located at the back of the larynx/pharynx
    • – Entrance to the esophagus
    • – One on each side of the esophagus
  18. Cavities of the laryngeal region
    • Aditus
    • Vestibule
    • Ventricle
    • Glottis
    • sub-glottal atrium
  19. Aditus
    • – Superior margin of the larynx proper
    • – Bordered by the aryepiglottic fold (which connects the epiglottis to the arytenoid cartilages within the larynx)
  20. Vestibule
    – Upper cavity of the larynx between the aditus and the “false” vocal folds
  21. Ventricle
    – Space between the false vocal folds and the vocal folds
  22. Glottis
    – Space between the false vocal folds and the vocal folds
  23. sub-glottal atrium
    – Entry to the trachea
  24. Intrinsic Ligaments
    • connect the cartilages of the larynx and form the support structure for the cavity of the larynx, as well as that of the vocal folds.
    • Aryepiglottic folds,
    • middle cricothyroid ligament,
    • conus elasticus,
    • quadrangular membrane,
    • vocal folds,
    • ventricular folds/false vocal folds
  25. aryepiglottic muscles
    • course from the side of the epiglottis to the arytenoid apex
    • forms the upper margin of the quadrangular membranes and laterally, the epiglottic folds
  26. Five Layers of the vocal fold
    • 1)squamous epithelium(keeps the delicate tissues of the vocal folds moist by assisting in fluid retention
    • 2)superficial lamina propia (SLP) (cushion the vocal folds
    • 3)intermediate lamina propia (ILP) (combo of SLP and ILP provides elasticity/strength)
    • 4)Deep lamina propia (DLP) (primarily supportive, ILP and DLP combine to make up the vocal ligament)
    • 5)thyroarytenoid muscle (thyrovocalis/thyromuscularis) (the active element of the vocal folds)