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Peace of Paris, 1763
- The French Sued for Peace.
- Ended the 7 Years War (French and Indian War) and was very beneficial for the English France gave up all land: In what is now Canada, East of the Mississippi and the Spanish were forced to give Florida to the British.
- Pontiac was the head of an Ottawa tribe and had created a confederation of tribes to attack the British Colonials who were wanting to take the land.
- More Colonials Died during this one year than had died in the entire 7 years war.
- Colonials were begging for more troops but Parliament didn't want to spend the money, so they passed the Proclamation Act of 1763
- First Direct tax placed on the Colonials.
- All official papers had to be stamped with a stamp purchased from an official Stamp Agent
- Affected all levels of society
- Many Stamp Agents were attacked because of this.
- Was very outspoken on his ideas for the Colonies need to Strike out against England
- Was a part of the first continental congress
- Had a Warrant put out for his arrest (along with John Hancock) for their Revolutionary Ideas.
- A term Parliament used to calm the outrage related to the Stamp Act.
- Colonials were accusing Parliament of withholding their rights as Englishmen.
- No taxation without representation
- Colonials lost all liberties to have elected officials.
- Parliament had decided that the only governing allowed, was to be done by those that had been selected by Parliament itself.
- Also gave all land west of the Appalachian Mountains to Quebec
- Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine
- Discussed issues with a Monarchal Government system
- Made many people see the flaws in the system
- Sold 100,000 copies in first few months.
- He then donated all proceeds to the Revolution.
Battle of Saratoga
- The importance of this battle was that it had convinced the French to formally enter into alliance with America during the Revolution.
- England was trying to divide the states, but both forces (Burgoyne and Howe) had some problems. Burgoyne was slow moving, and Howe had gotten off track to take over Philadelphia.
- Continental Army was prepared, and defeated the British.
Battle of Yorktown
- General Cornwallis had around 7,000 troops with him in Virginia, but in October 1781, he receives an order to go to Yorktown (Which is on a Peninsula)
- The plan was to remove Cornwallis and his troops by sea and take them up to New York.
- Washington takes troops to block them in on the land side while the French block off exit by sea.
- This causes Peace Negotiations to begin and was the last significant Battle that took place before the Treaty of Paris 1783.
Land Ordinance of 1785
- After the revolutionary war, the states that had claimed land
- west of the Appalachain Mountains, gave up their claims. They surveyed the land
- and then offered them for sale to the public. To deal with how land is going to
- be divided and offered for sale. Land ordinance was priced at about $1 per
- States are largest and divided into Townships
- and then those townships divided into Mile Squares that consisted of 640 acres.
- Money raised from the sale of this land went to
- the National Treasury (Was the only steady source of income for the national
- government for a short time.) It established that congress required that the 16th
- section of land in every township, would be set aside for Public Education.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
- Specifically affected the Northwest Territory.
- (Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin)
- Political Organization- 3 step process. In the
- very early days of a territory, it is sparsely populated, Congress appointed a
- territorial Governor and 3 territorial Judges. Their purpose was to establish a
- form of Administration. Second stage happened when the population reached 5,000
- adult Males, then the Eligible voters could elect a territorial Legislature.
- When the population of a Territory reaches
- 60,000, they can hold a convention in the Territory to create a state constitution.
- They meet, create the constitution, and then has to be approved by the voters.
- Then it has to be put before Congress, if congress approves it, then the
- territory becomes a state.
- Every new State will enter in with equal rights,
- they didn’t want to place limits on the new states.
- Farmers could not pay their taxes in the North.
- In Massachusetts Farmers began to protest peacefully but in a years time, the peace had ended and they began to pick up their rifles.
- In 1787, Daniel Shay gathered other farmers and marched onto Springfield Massachusetts to build up their arsenal.
- The rebellion was quickly defeated, but placed fear in all of the states.
- The Articles of Confederation were not working.
- The great Compromise was the combination of the Virginia plan and the New Jersey plan on how the People should be represented in the Government.
- Virginia wanted it based on Population while New Jersey wanted it all to be equal.
- So they came up with the Great Compromise.
- The Senate would consist of 2 representatives from each state and
- The House of Representatives would be based on population
- Antifederalists were people who opposed the Constitution
- These were smaller, country folk who were afraid that their individual liberties would be trampled upon.
- Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay
- wrote 85 essays to argue in favor of the constitution. They talked about how
- the Articles of Confederation were not a proper system. By late July 1788 New
- York and Virginia finally ratified the Constitution. By 1790 Rhode Island ratified the constitution.